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    About

Journal of Dairy Science

Elsevier

1917-

ISSN: 0022-0302 (1525-3198, 1529-9058, 1529-9066)
Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science - Food Science & Technology - Animal Science and Zoology - Food Science - Genetics
APC costs unknown

Recent articles

1 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32453355
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): A.J. Fleming, H. Lapierre, R.R. White, H. Tran, P.J. Kononoff, R. Martineau, W.P. Weiss, M.D. Hanigan
ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to update and evaluate predictions of essential AA (EAA) outflows from the rumen. The model was constructed based on previously derived equations for rumen-undegradable (RUP), microbial (MiCP), and endogenous (EndCP) protein outflows from the rumen, and revised estimates of ingredient composition and EAA composition of the protein fractions. Corrections were adopted to account for incomplete recovery of EAA during 24-h acid hydrolysis. The predicted ruminal protein and EAA outflows were evaluated against a data set of observed values from the literature. Initial evaluations indicated a minor mean bias for non-ammonia, non-microbial nitrogen flow ([RUP + EndCP]/6.25) of 16 g of N per day. Root mean squared errors (RMSE) of EAA predictions ranged from 26.8 to 40.6% of observed mean values. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) of EAA predictions ranged from 0.34 to 0.55. Except for Leu, all ruminal EAA outflows were overpredicted by 3.0 to 32 g/d. In addition, small but significant slope biases were present for Arg [2.2% mean squared error (MSE)] and Lys (3.2% MSE). The overpredictions may suggest that the mean recovery of AA from acid hydrolysis across laboratories was less than estimates encompassed in the recovery factors. To test this hypothesis, several regression approaches were undertaken to identify potential causes of the bias. These included regressions of (1) residual errors for predicted EAA flows on each of the 3 protein-driven EA flows, (2) observed EAA flows on each protein-driven EAA flow, including an intercept, (3) observed EAA flows on the protein-driven EAA flows, excluding an intercept term, and (4) observed EAA flows on RUP and MiCP. However, these equations were deemed unsatisfactory for bias adjustment, as they generated biologically unfeasible predictions for some entities. Future work should focus on identifying the cause of the observed prediction bias.
2 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556990
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): R. van Binsbergen, A.C. Bouwman, R.F. Veerkamp
ABSTRACT

Our aim was to estimate genetic parameters of atypical reproductive patterns and estimate their genetic correlation with milk production and classical fertility traits for commercial dairy cows. In contrast with classical fertility traits, atypical reproductive patterns based on in-line milk progesterone profiles might have higher heritability and lower genetic correlation with milk production. We had in-line milk progesterone profiles available for 12,046 cycles in 4,170 lactations of 2,589 primiparous and multiparous cows (mainly Holstein Friesian) from 14 herds. Based on progesterone profiles, 5 types of atypical reproductive patterns in a lactation were defined: delayed ovulation types I and II, persistent corpus luteum types I and II, and late embryo mortality. These atypical patterns were detected in 14% (persistent corpus luteum type II) to 21% (persistent corpus luteum type I) of lactations. In 47% of lactations, at least 1 atypical pattern was detected. Threshold model heritabilities for atypical reproduction patterns ranged between 0.03 and 0.14 and for most traits were slightly higher compared with classical fertility traits. The genetic correlation between milk yield and calving interval was 0.56, whereas genetic correlations between milk yield and atypical reproductive patterns ranged between −0.02 and 0.33. Although most of these correlations between milk yield and atypical reproductive patterns are still unfavorable, they are lower compared with the correlations between classical fertility traits and milk yield. Therefore selection against atypical reproductive patterns may relax some constraints in current dairy breeding programs, to enhance genetic progress in both fertility and milk yield at a steady pace. However, as long as the target trait for fertility is calving interval, atypical reproductive patterns will not add additional value to the breeding goal in the near future due to the low number of available records.
3 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556991
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s):
4 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556992
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s):
5 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556993
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s):
6 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556994
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Geoff Dahl
7 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556995
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Alan D. Ealy, Zachary K. Seekford
ABSTRACT

Several tools exist to diagnose pregnancy in dairy cattle. However, substantial pregnancy loss occurs within the first 60 d of gestation in cattle, and these losses have a profound adverse economic impact on the dairy and beef cattle industries. Detecting these impending pregnancy losses could offer producers an opportunity to reduce costs associated with this source of reproductive inefficiency. Several of the pregnancy diagnostic tools currently available and new technologies are being examined for their ability to predict pregnancies at risk for failing in early pregnancy. This review provides a synopsis of work undertaken recently to predict pregnancy losses in cattle. Currently, opportunities to predict pregnancy loss include (1) using transrectal ultrasonography to detect loss of the fetal heartbeat, floating debris within the placental fluids, and reductions in fetal size; (2) observing reductions in circulating progesterone concentrations; (3) detecting reductions in concentrations of circulating placental products; namely, pregnancy-associated glycoproteins and microRNAs; and (4) detecting reductions in the early pregnancy-dependent increase in interferon-stimulatory gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes. An achievable goal may be to identify markers of embryo mortality so that researchers and clinicians can focus their efforts on developing intervention strategies for cows identified to be at risk for pregnancy failure.
8 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556996
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Klibs N. Galvão, Rodrigo C. Bicalho, Soo Jin Jeon
ABSTRACT

Until 2010, our knowledge of the uterine microbiome in cows that developed uterine disease relied almost exclusively on culture-dependent studies and mostly included cows with clinical endometritis (i.e., with purulent uterine discharge). Those studies consistently found a strong positive correlation between Trueperella pyogenes and clinical endometritis, whereas other pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella melaninogenica, and Bacteroides spp. were also commonly cocultured. In contrast, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Bacillus spp. were usually isolated from healthy cows. Starting in 2010, culture-independent studies using PCR explored the microbiome of cows with metritis and clinical endometritis, and observed that E. coli was a pioneer pathogen that predisposed cows to infection with F. necrophorum, which was strongly associated with metritis, and to infection with T. pyogenes, which was strongly associated with clinical endometritis. Starting in 2011, culture-independent studies using metagenomic sequencing expanded our knowledge of the uterine microbiome. It has been shown that cows have bacteria in the uterus even before calving, they have an established uterine microbiome within 20 min of calving, and that the microbiome structure is identical between cows that develop metritis and healthy cows until 2 d postpartum, after which the bacterial structure of cows that developed metritis deviates in favor of greater relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria and lesser relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Tenericutes. The shift in the uterine microbiome in cows that develop metritis is characterized by a loss of heterogeneity and a decrease in bacterial richness. At the genus level, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Fusobacterium have the strongest association with metritis. At the species level, we observed that Bacteroides pyogenes, Porphyromonas levii, and Helcococcus ovis were potential emerging uterine pathogens. Finally, we have shown that the hematogenous route is a viable route of uterine infection with uterine pathogens. Herein, we propose that metritis is associated with a dysbiosis of the uterine microbiota characterized by decreased richness, and an increase in Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria, particularly Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Fusobacterium.
9 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556997
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): F. Hassanat, C. Benchaar
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of forage source (red clover silage: RCS vs. corn silage: CS) and diet supplementation with linseed oil (LO) on CH4 emissions of manure from dairy cows. For this purpose, 12 lactating cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets (forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter basis) without or with LO addition (4% dry matter). Feces and urine were collected from each cow and mixed with residual sludge obtained from a manure storage structure. Manure was incubated for 17 wk at 20°C under anaerobic conditions (O2-free N2) in 500-mL glass bottles. Methane emissions and changes in chemical composition of the manure were monitored during the entire incubation period. The total amount of feces and urine excreted by cows was not affected by dietary treatments and averaged 6.6 kg/d of volatile solids (VS). Compared with manure from cows fed RCS-based diets, maximum CH4 production potential of manure from cows fed CS-based diets was 54% higher (182 vs. 118 L/kg of VS) throughout the incubation period. Maximum CH4 production potential from manure also increased (by 17%) when cows were fed LO-supplemented diets compared with those fed nonsupplemented diets. Similar to maximum CH4 production potential, VS degraded during incubation (i.e., VS loss) was higher from manure from cows fed CS-based diets versus cows fed RCS-based diets (30.6 vs. 22.5%), and increased (+3 percentage units, on average) with the addition of LO to the diets. Ammonia concentration in manure was higher when cows were fed CS-based diets compared with RCS-based diets, and declined with LO supplementation to CS and RCS diets. It is concluded that both dietary forage source and fat supplementation affect maximum CH4 production potential from manure and this should be taken into account when such dietary options are recommended to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions from dairy cows.
10 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556998
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): T.M. Denninger, F. Dohme-Meier, L. Eggerschwiler, A. Vanlierde, F. Grandl, B. Gredler, M. Kreuzer, A. Schwarm, A. Münger
ABSTRACT

Currently, various attempts are being made to implement breeding schemes aimed at producing low methane (CH4) emitting cows. We investigated the persistence of differences in CH4 emission between groups of cows categorized as either low or high emitters over a 5-mo period. Two feeding regimens (pasture vs. indoors) were used. Early- to mid-lactation Holstein Friesian cows were categorized as low or high emitters (n = 10 each) retrospectively, using predictions from milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra, before the start of the experiment. Data from MIR estimates and from measurements with the GreenFeed (GF; C-Lock Technology Inc., Rapid City, SD) system over the 5-mo experiment were combined into 7-, 14-, and 28-d periods. Feed intake, eating and ruminating behavior, and ruminal fluid traits were determined in two 7-d measurement periods in the grazing season. The CH4 emission data were analyzed using a split-plot ANOVA, and the repeatability of each of the applied methods for determining CH4 emission was calculated. Traits other than CH4 emission were analyzed for differences between low and high emitters using a linear mixed model. The initial category-dependent differences in daily CH4 production persisted over the subsequent 5 mo and across 2 feeding regimens with both methods. The repeatability analysis indicated that the biweekly milk control scheme, and even a monthly scheme as practiced on farms, might be sufficient for confirming category differences. However, the relationship between CH4 data estimated by MIR and measured with GF for individual cows was weak (R2 = 0.26). The categorization based on CH4 production also generated differences in CH4 emission per kilogram of milk; differentiation between cow categories was not persistent based on milk MIR spectra and GF. Compared with the high emitters, low emitters tended to show a lower acetate-to-propionate ratio in ruminal volatile fatty acids, whereas feed intake and ruminating time did not differ. Interestingly, the low emitters spent less time eating than the high emitters. In conclusion, the CH4 estimation from analyzing the milk MIR spectra is an appropriate proxy to form and regularly control categories of cows with different CH4 production levels. The categorization was also sufficient to secure similar and persistent differences in emission intensity when estimated by MIR spectra of the milk. Further studies are needed to determine whether MIR data from individual cows are sufficiently accurate for breeding.
11 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32556999
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Morteza H. Ghaffari, Katrin Bernhöft, Stephane Etheve, Irmgard Immig, Michael Hölker, Helga Sauerwein, Florian J. Schweigert
ABSTRACT

Fast and easy tests for quantifying fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin E and vitamin A, as well as β-carotene, in whole blood without a need to preprocess blood samples could facilitate assessment of the vitamin status of dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to validate a field-portable fluorometer/spectrophotometer assay for the rapid quantification of these vitamins in whole blood and plasma of dairy cows and calves. We measured the concentrations of vitamin E and β-carotene in whole blood and plasma from 28 dairy cows and 11 calves using the iCheck test (BioAnalyt GmbH, Teltow, Germany) and compared the results with the current analytical standard (HPLC) in 2 independent laboratories, one at the University of Potsdam (Germany) and at one at DSM Nutritional Products Ltd. (Kaiseraugst, Switzerland). For vitamin A, the HPLC measurements were done only in the laboratory in Germany. The whole-blood concentrations of vitamin E as determined by iCheck (blood-hematocrit-corrected) ranged from 1.82 to 4.99 mg/L in dairy cows and 0.34 to 3.40 mg/L in calves. These findings were moderately correlated (R2 = 0.66) with the values assessed by HPLC in dairy cattle (cows + calves). When calves were excluded, the correlation was higher (R2 = 0.961). The β-carotene and vitamin A values obtained by the reference method HPLC were highly correlated with the iCheck methods in whole blood (R2 = 0.99 and 0.88, respectively). In plasma, we observed strong correlations between the concentrations assessed by iCheck and those of HPLC for vitamin E (R2 = 0.97), β-carotene (R2 = 0.98), and vitamin A (R2 = 0.92) in dairy cattle (cows + calves). For vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin A, we compared the relationship between the differences obtained by the iCheck assay and the HPLC measurements, as well as the magnitude of measurements, using Bland–Altman plots to test for systematic bias. For all 3 vitamins, the differences values were not outside the 95% acceptability limits; we found no systematic error between the 2 methods for all 3 analytes.
12 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557000
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): E.A. Horst, S.K. Kvidera, M. Abuajamieh, E.J. Mayorga, M. Al-Qaisi, L.H. Baumgard
ABSTRACT

Circulating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) appears to be associated with various energetic disorders and hypocalcemia during the transition period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ketosis, feed restriction (FR), and endotoxin challenge (models in which energetic and calcium metabolism are markedly altered) on circulating 5-HT in lactating Holstein cows. Blood samples were obtained from 3 separate experiments; circulating β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and glucose were measured in all 3 experiments, whereas ionized calcium (iCa2+) was measured only in the endotoxin challenge. In the ketosis study, blood samples from cows clinically diagnosed with ketosis (n = 9) or classified as healthy (n = 9) were obtained from a commercial dairy farm at d −7, 3, and 7 relative to calving. Ketosis was diagnosed using a urine-based test starting at 5 d in milk. There was no effect of health status on circulating 5-HT and no association between 5-HT and BHB, NEFA, or glucose; however, 5-HT concentrations progressively decreased following calving. In the FR experiment, mid-lactation cows were either fed ad libitum (n = 3) or restricted to 20% of their ad libitum intake (n = 5) for 5 d. There were no FR effects on circulating 5-HT, nor was FR correlated with energetic metabolites. In the immune activation model, mid-lactation cows were intravenously challenged with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.5 µg/kg of BW; n = 6) or sterile saline (control; n = 6). Administering LPS decreased (56%) blood iCa2+ but had no effect on circulating 5-HT, nor was there a correlation between circulating 5-HT and NEFA, BHB, or iCa2+. Circulating 5-HT tended to be positively correlated (r = 0.54) with glucose in Holstein cows administered LPS. In summary, in contrast to expectations, circulating 5-HT was unaffected in models of severely disturbed energetic and Ca2+ homeostasis.
13 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557001
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): C.K. Claypool, J.A. Spencer, S. Menegatti Zoca, B. Shafii, W.J. Price, A. Ahmadzadeh, N.R. Rimbey, J.C. Dalton
ABSTRACT

The objectives were to evaluate pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI), days to first AI, and proportion pregnant within 7 d of AI eligibility in dairy heifers subjected to presynchronization compared with dairy heifers not presynchronized. Thirty days before AI eligibility, Holstein heifers were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: 14-d controlled internal drug release (CIDR; containing progesterone) presynchronization, PGF2α presynchronization, or control (no presynchronization). Heifers in the 14-d CIDR presynchronization treatment (n = 119) received a CIDR on d −30, which was removed on d −16, followed by an injection of PGF2α upon entry to the breeding program (d 0). Heifers in the PGF2α presynchronization treatment (n = 118) received an injection of PGF2α on d −11 and d 0. Control heifers (n = 121) were not presynchronized and received an injection of PGF2α on d 0. All heifers received tail paint on d 0 to facilitate once-daily detection of estrus (based on paint removal). Heifers detected in estrus received AI with conventional semen on the same morning as detected estrus. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess mean treatment differences. Following PGF2α treatment on d 0, more heifers were detected in estrus in the first 7 d after eligibility in the 14-d CIDR group (95.8%) compared with the PGF2α (74.6%) and control (66.9%) groups. Days to first AI differed between treatments (14-d CIDR = 3.6 d vs. PGF2α = 5.0 d vs. control = 6.8 d). Pregnancy per AI for first AI within 7 d of eligibility was 71.9% (14-d CIDR), 58.0% (PGF2α), and 61.7% (control), and differed between 14-d CIDR and PGF2α heifers. Presynchronization with a 14-d CIDR increased the proportion of heifers pregnant in the first 7 d of eligibility (14-d CIDR = 68.9% vs. PGF2α = 43.2% vs. control = 41.3%). Projected days on feed (d 0 to projected calving date) were 295 (14-d CIDR), 302 (PGF2α), and 305 (control), and were different between the 14-d CIDR and control heifers. The potential economic benefit to the producer was $15.85 per heifer presynchronized with a 14-d CIDR protocol compared with the control group. Treatment of dairy heifers with a 14-d CIDR effectively presynchronized estrus, resulting in a greater proportion detected in estrus, reduced days to first AI, and an increased proportion of heifers pregnant within the first 7 d after breeding eligibility compared with heifers presynchronized with a single PGF2α injection and control heifers.
14 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557002
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Á. Kenéz, L. Ruda, S. Dänicke, K. Huber
ABSTRACT

Adipose tissue response to endocrine stimuli, such as insulin, is crucial for metabolic adaptation at the onset of lactation in dairy cows. However, the exact molecular mechanisms behind this response are not well understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the dynamics in protein expression and phosphorylation of key components in insulin signaling in subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues of Holstein dairy cows. Furthermore, by ex vivo examinations, response to insulin was assessed in SCAT and RPAT at different time points during the periparturient period. Biopsy samples were taken 42 d prepartum, and 1, 21, and 100 d postpartum. Insulin and glucose concentrations were measured in blood serum in consecutive serum samples from d −42 until d +100. After parturition, the majority of the key components were downregulated in both adipose tissues but recovered by d +100. The extent of hormone-sensitive lipase phosphorylation increased postpartum and remained high throughout the experimental period. Strong differences in molecular response were observed between the 2 depots. The RPAT expressed a remarkably greater extent of AMP-activated kinase phosphorylation compared with SCAT, indicating that AMP-activated kinase as an energy sensor is highly active particularly in RPAT in times of energy scarcity. Consequently, this depot expressed a greater extent of hormone-sensitive lipase phosphorylation over the whole experimental period. Insulin response after parturition appeared to be greater in RPAT too, due to the significantly greater expression of the insulin receptor at d +21 and +100. Although insulin concentrations in plasma were low postpartum, the depot-specific changes in molecular modulation of insulin signaling and insulin response suggested that both adipose tissue depots studied were contributing to the periparturient homeorhetic adaptation, although most likely to a different extent.
15 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557003
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): M.R. Carvalho, F. Peñagaricano, J.E.P. Santos, T.J. DeVries, B.W. McBride, E.S. Ribeiro
ABSTRACT

Two retrospective studies examining data of 7,500 lactating cows from a single herd were performed with the objective of evaluating the long-term effects of clinical disease during the early postpartum period on milk production, reproduction, and culling of dairy cows through 305 days in milk (DIM). In the first study, data regarding health, milk production, reproduction, and culling of 5,085 cows were summarized. Cows were classified according to incidence of clinical problem (metritis, mastitis, lameness, digestive problem, or respiratory problem) during the first 21 DIM (ClinD21). During 305 d of lactation, cows that had ClinD21 produced, on average, 410 kg less milk, 17 kg less fat, and 12 kg less protein compared with cows that did not have ClinD21 (NoClinD21). Although the interval to first breeding was not different between groups of interest, pregnancy rate through 305 DIM was lower in cows that had ClinD21 [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 0.81]. When individual breedings were analyzed, cows that had ClinD21 presented lower rates of pregnancy per breeding for breedings performed before 150 DIM, reduced numbers of calving per breeding for breedings performed before 200 DIM, and greater number of pregnancy losses for all breedings performed through 305 DIM. The rate of culling from calving through 305 DIM was higher in cows that had a single ClinD21 (AHR = 1.79) and in cows that had multiple ClinD21 (AHR = 3.06), which resulted in a greater proportion of cows leaving the herd by 305 DIM (NoClinD21 = 22.6%; single ClinD21 = 35.7%; multiple ClinD21 = 53.8%). In the second study, data regarding postpartum health and 305-d yields of milk, fat, and protein were collected from 2,415 primiparous cows that had genomic testing information. Genomic estimated breeding values (EBV) were used to predict 305-d yields of milk, fat, and protein. Genomic EBV and predicted yields of milk, fat, and protein did not differ between cows that had ClinD21 and those that did not have ClinD21. In contrast, the observed 305-d yields of milk, fat, and protein were reduced by 345, 10, and 10 kg, respectively, in cows that had ClinD21 compared with cows that did not have ClinD21. We conclude that clinical disease diagnosed and treated during the first 21 DIM has long-term effects on lactation performance, reproduction, and culling of dairy cows, which contribute to detrimental consequences of health problems on sustainability of dairy herds. Replication of our studies in multiple herds will be important to confirm our findings in a larger population.
16 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557004
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): E.A. Horst, E.J. Mayorga, M. Al-Qaisi, M.A. Abeyta, B.M. Goetz, H.A. Ramirez Ramirez, D.H. Kleinschmit, L.H. Baumgard
ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of replacing 40 mg/kg of Zn from Zn sulfate (control; CON) with Zn AA complex (AvZn) on metabolism and immunological responses following an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in lactating cows. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) pair-fed (PF) control (PF-CON; 5 mL of saline; n = 5), (2) PF AvZn (PF-AvZn; 5 mL of saline; n = 5), (3) LPS euglycemic clamp control (LPS-CON; 0.375 μg of LPS/kg of BW; n = 5), and (4) LPS euglycemic clamp AvZn (LPS-AvZn; 0.375 μg of LPS/kg of BW; n = 5). Cows were enrolled in 3 experimental periods (P). During period 1 (3 d), cows received their respective dietary treatments and baseline data were obtained. During period 2 (P2; 2 d), a 12-h LPS euglycemic clamp was conducted or cows were PF to their respective dietary counterparts. During period 3 (P3; 3 d), cows received their dietary treatment and consumed feed ad libitum. Mild hyperthermia (1°C) was observed in LPS cows at 3 h postbolus. Throughout P2, the rectal temperature of LPS-AvZn cows was decreased (0.3°C) relative to LPS-CON cows. Administrating LPS decreased dry matter intake (47%) during P2, and by experimental design the pattern was similar in PF cohorts. During P3, dry matter intake from LPS cows remained decreased (15%) relative to PF cows. Milk yield from LPS cows decreased (54%) during P2 relative to PF cows, but it was similar during P3. During P2, somatic cell count increased 3-fold in LPS cows relative to PF controls. Dietary AvZn tended to decrease somatic cell count (70%) during P3 relative to LPS-CON cows. Insulin increased 7-fold in LPS cows at 12 h postbolus and remained increased (4-fold) for the duration of P2. Circulating glucagon from LPS cows increased (65%) during P2, and supplementing AvZn blunted the increase (30% relative to LPS-CON). During P2, circulating cortisol increased 7-fold post-LPS infusion relative to PF cows, and supplementing AvZn decreased cortisol (58%) from 6 to 48 h postbolus relative to LPS-CON cows. Administrating LPS increased circulating LPS-binding protein and serum amyloid A (3- and 9-fold, respectively) relative to PF cows. Compared with LPS-CON, LPS-AvZn cows had increased circulating serum amyloid A (38%) 24 h postbolus. The 12-h total glucose deficit was 36 and 1,606 g for the PF and LPS treatments, respectively, but was not influenced by Zn source. In summary, replacing a portion of the Zn sulfate with Zn AA complex appeared to reduce the inflammatory response but had no effect on the glucose deficit.
17 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557005
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): G.E. Hop, A.I. de Prado-Taranilla, N. Isaka, M. Ocak, J. Bertet, K. Supré, A. Velthuis, Y.H. Schukken, A. Deflandre
ABSTRACT

The abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off may induce milk leakage, which may increase the risk of new intramammary infections (IMI). This study assessed the efficacy of 1 i.m. injection of 5.6 mg of cabergoline (Velactis, Ceva Santé Animale, Libourne, France) at drying-off on milk leakage after dry-off and new IMI across the dry period and postcalving compared with a placebo (negative control) and an intramammary antibiotic treatment (positive control) under field conditions. The study was a double-blind, randomized, 3-arm, multicenter, clinical trial performed under Good Clinical Practice conditions. Data from 900 dairy cows of various breeds from 63 farms in France, Germany, and Hungary were analyzed. Only quarters with no bacterial growth at drying-off and a cow somatic cell count ≤200,000 cells/mL were included. Quarters infected with major or minor pathogens or cows with high somatic cell count at time of inclusion were excluded. Cows that qualified for the study were visited 7 times in total before and after drying-off and after calving. Presence (yes/no) of milk leakage was recorded on the day after dry-off. A new infected quarter (new IMI) was defined as one with a major pathogen present in any one of the 2 postcalving samples. Two mixed logistic regression models were fitted to the data to evaluate the efficacy of cabergoline in the reduction of milk leakage and new IMI. One i.m. injection of cabergoline at drying-off significantly reduced the incidence of milk leakage the day after dry-off compared with both placebo and antibiotic treatment. Cabergoline-treated cows significantly reduced the risk of new IMI by major pathogens across the dry period and postcalving by 21% when compared with placebo cows (20.5 vs. 26.0%, respectively). However, when milk leakage was added to the model, the significance of cabergoline was reduced. We interpreted this to show that milk leakage is an intervening variable between treatment with cabergoline and lower risk of new IMI. The antibiotic treatment significantly decreased the odds of new IMI compared with both cabergoline and placebo. However, because several countries are currently disallowing the preventive use of antibiotics at dry-off in noninfected quarters, the dry-off facilitator cabergoline may therefore be of particular value to reduce the risk of new IMI across the dry period.
18 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557006
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): K. Bucher, E. Malama, M. Siuda, F. Janett, H. Bollwein
ABSTRACT

The study aimed at the analysis of the functional status of cryopreserved bovine sperm using multicolor flow cytometry. The value of sperm functional traits as predictors of bull fertility was further evaluated through a retrospective fertility study. For this purpose, 20 Holstein-Friesian bulls serving as mature sperm donors in an artificial insemination (AI) center were selected based on their annual 56-d non-return rate (%) after at least 1,000 AI, and were accordingly classified as high (HF; nHF = 10 bulls) or low fertility bulls (LF; nLF = 10 bulls). Four to 5 cryopreserved ejaculates per bull (91 ejaculates in total) were examined immediately after thawing (0 h) and after a 3-h incubation at 38°C (3 h). A panel of 5 fluorochromes including calcein violet, propidium iodide, pycoerythrin-conjugated lectin of Arachis hypogea, Fluo-4, and cyanine dye DiIC1(5) was configured by means of a 3-laser flow cytometer, to simultaneously assess sperm esterase activity, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal status, intracellular Ca2+ levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. The % relative size of 18 sperm sub-populations showing 2 or more of a combination of the following features was determined: high esterase activity (Cpos), intact plasma membrane (PIneg), unstained acrosome (PNAneg), low intracellular Ca2+ levels (Fneg), and high mitochondrial membrane potential (Mpos). In both fertility groups, Mpos cells comprised more than 90 and 84% of PInegPNAneg sperm at 0 and 3 h, respectively. The percentage of CposPInegPNAnegFnegMpos sperm did not differ between HF and LF ejaculates; however, the percentage of Fneg cells within the PInegPNAneg and PInegMpos sperm populations at 0 h was higher in the HF than in the LF bulls. Applying the random forest ensemble learning method, approximately two-thirds of ejaculates could be correctly assigned to their fertility group. The fraction of Fneg sperm within the PInegMpos population at 0 h was the most important fertility predictor among the 18 defined sperm populations. In conclusion, multicolor flow cytometry offered an insight into the functional heterogeneity of cryopreserved bovine sperm. Indeed, the ability of viable sperm to retain low Ca2+ levels differed between bulls of diverse fertility. A classifier based on selected sperm populations assessed through multicolor flow cytometry could contribute to the prognosis of bull fertility after AI.
19 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557007
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Kathryn E. Merriman, Natalia Martinez, Rachael M. Rodney Harris, Elliot Block, Jose E.P. Santos, Corwin D. Nelson
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate expression of a cluster of genes encoding β-defensin antimicrobial peptides in neutrophils of postpartum cows in relation to prepartum dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), vitamin D, and postpartum disease. Pregnant dry Holstein cows (28 nulliparous and 51 parous) at 255 d gestation were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 4 prepartum diets of positive (+130 mEq/kg) or negative (−130 mEq/kg) DCAD and either 3 mg vitamin D3 or 3 mg of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 per 11 kg of dry matter/d. Treatment diets were fed from 255 d of gestation until calving. Peripheral blood neutrophils of 35 parous cows were collected at 0 and 3 d after calving and stimulated with 0 or 100 ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, serum Ca and incidences of postpartum diseases were recorded for all cows. The mRNA transcripts of β-defensin genes were quantified by real-time PCR, and data were analyzed with a general linear mixed model to test for fixed effects and interactions of day, level of DCAD, source of vitamin D, and incidence of disease. Effects of DCAD and vitamin D on neutrophil oxidative burst and phagocytosis were previously reported but were analyzed for effects of disease in the present study. Transcripts for DEFB1, DEFB3, DEFB4, DEFB5, DEFB7, DEFB10, and lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP) in neutrophils were upregulated by LPS at 0 d but not at 3 d. Transcripts for DEFB4 and DEFB7 in LPS-stimulated neutrophils were greater in cows fed negative DCAD diets compared with positive DCAD. Source of vitamin D (vitamin D3 vs. 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) did not affect expression of β-defensins in neutrophils. Cows with postpartum subclinical hypocalcemia (serum Ca <2.0 mM) had decreased DEFB3, DEFB4, DEFB6, DEFB7, DEFB10, and LAP expression in LPS-stimulated neutrophils compared with cows that did not experience subclinical hypocalcemia. Likewise, DEFB4, DEFB6, DEFB7, DEFB10, and LAP in LPS-stimulated neutrophils at 3 d postpartum were positively associated with serum Ca at 0 d postpartum. Transcripts for DEFB7, DEFB10 and LAP also were less abundant in neutrophils from cows with metritis compared with healthy cows. In conclusion, feeding a prepartum negative DCAD to improve postpartum serum Ca resulted in greater neutrophil β-defensin expression, and greater neutrophil β-defensin expression was positively associated with postpartum health.
20 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557008
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): M. Gobikrushanth, D.C. Purfield, E.R. Canadas, M.M. Herlihy, J. Kenneally, M. Murray, F.J. Kearney, M.G. Colazo, D.J. Ambrose, S.T. Butler
ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the distribution and variability of plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration; (2) evaluate factors associated with phenotypic variation in plasma AMH; (3) examine the associations between categories of plasma AMH and reproductive outcomes [pregnancy to first artificial insemination (P/AI), and pregnancy rates within 21, 42, and 84 d after the mating start date (MSD)]; (4) estimate pedigree and genomic heritability for plasma AMH; and (5) identify and validate SNP associated with phenotypic variation in plasma AMH. Plasma AMH concentration (pg/mL) was determined from a blood sample collected (mean ± standard deviation) 10 ± 2 d after first insemination at detected estrus (IDE) in 2,628 first- and second-parity Irish dairy cows. Overall, plasma AMH had a positively skewed distribution with mean (± standard deviation), median, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 326 ± 231, 268, 15, and 2,863 pg/mL, respectively. Plasma AMH was greatest for Jersey, followed by Holstein × Jersey, Holstein × Norwegian Red, and Holstein cows (410, 332, 284, and 257 pg/mL, respectively). Second-parity cows had greater plasma AMH than first-parity cows (333 vs. 301 pg/mL, respectively). Samples collected at 7 and 8 d after first IDE had lesser plasma AMH than those collected on d 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 after first IDE (291 and 297 vs. 317, 319, 331, 337, and 320 pg/mL). Plasma AMH was not associated with either body condition score at first IDE or the interval from calving to MSD. Cows were categorized into low (≤150 pg/mL; n = 526; lowest 20%), intermediate (>150 to ≤461 pg/mL; n = 1,576; intermediate 60%), and high AMH (>461 pg/mL; n = 526; highest 20%) groups based on plasma AMH, and associations with reproductive outcomes were tested. Cows with high and intermediate plasma AMH had 1.42- and 1.51-times-greater odds of becoming pregnant within 84 d after the MSD than those with low plasma AMH (90.3 and 90.8 vs. 86.8%, respectively); however, P/AI and pregnancy rate within 21 and 42 d after the MSD did not differ among AMH categories. Plasma AMH was moderately heritable (pedigree heritability of 0.40 ± 0.06 and genomic heritability of 0.45 ± 0.05), and 68 SNP across Bos taurus autosomes 7 and 11 were associated with phenotypic variation in plasma AMH. Out of 68 SNP, 42 were located in a single quantitative trait locus on Bos taurus autosome 11 that harbored 6 previously identified candidate genes (NR5A1, HSPA5, CRB2, DENND1A, NDUFA8, and PTGS) linked to fertility-related phenotypes in dairy cows.
21 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557009
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): C.M. Ylioja, M.M. Rolf, L.K. Mamedova, B.J. Bradford
ABSTRACT

MicroRNA (miRNA) are abundant in milk, and likely have regulatory activity involving lactation and immunity. The objective of this study was to determine the miRNA profile in colostrum of overconditioned cows compared with cows of more moderate body condition score (BCS) at calving. Multiparous cows with either high (≥4.0 on a scale of 1 to 5; n = 7) or moderate BCS (2.75 to 3.50; n = 9) in the week before parturition were selected from a commercial dairy herd. Blood and colostrum were sampled within 24 h after calving. Blood serum was analyzed for free fatty acid (FFA) concentration. MicroRNA was isolated from colostrum samples after removing milk fat and cells. MicroRNA were sequenced, and reads were mapped to the bovine genome and to the existing database of miRNA at miRBase.org. Two programs, Oasis 2.0 and miRDeep2, were employed in parallel for read alignment, and analysis of miRNA count data was performed using DESeq2. Identification of differentially expressed miRNA from DESeq2 was not affected by the differences in miRNA detected by the 2 mapping programs. Most abundant miRNA included miR-30a, miR-148a, miR-181a, let-7f, miR-26a, miR-21, miR-22, and miR-92a. Large-scale shifts in miRNA profile were not observed; however, colostrum of cows with high BCS contained less miR-486, which has been linked with altered glucose metabolism. Colostrum from cows with elevated serum FFA contained less miR-885, which may be connected to hepatic function during the transition period. Potential functions of abundant miRNA suggest involvement in development and maintenance of cellular function in the mammary gland, with the additional possibility of influencing neonatal tissue and immune system development.
22 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557010
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): L.S. Caixeta, S.L. Giesy, C.S. Krumm, J.W. Perfield, A. Butterfield, Y.R. Boisclair
ABSTRACT

Dairy cows cope with severe energy insufficiency in early lactation by engaging in intense and sustained mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue. An unwanted side effect of this adaptation is excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, which in turn impairs hepatic functions. Mice experiencing increased hepatic fatty acid flux are protected from this condition through coordinated actions of the newly described hormone fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) on liver and adipose tissue. The possibility of an analogous role for FGF21 in dairy cows is suggested by its rapid increase in plasma levels around parturition followed by chronically elevated levels in the first few weeks of lactation. To test this hypothesis, dairy cows were randomly assigned on d 12.6 ± 2.2 (± standard error) of lactation to receive either an excipient (control; n = 6) or recombinant human FGF21 (n = 7), first as an FGF21 bolus of 3 mg/kg of body weight (BW) followed 2 d later by a constant i.v. infusion of FGF21 at a rate of 6.3 mg/kg of metabolic BW for 9 consecutive days. After bolus administration, human FGF21 circulated with a half-life of 194 min, and its constant infusion increased total plasma concentration 117-fold over levels in excipient-infused cows. The FGF21 treatment had no effect on voluntary feed intake, milk yield, milk energy output, or net energy balance measured over the 9-d infusion or on final BW. Plasma fatty acids circulated at lower concentrations in the FGF21 group than in the control group for the 8-h period following bolus administration, but this reduction was not significant during the period of constant i.v. infusion. Treatment with FGF21 caused a 50% reduction in triglyceride content in liver biopsies taken at the end of the constant i.v. infusion without altering the mRNA abundance of key genes involved in the transport, acyl coenzyme A activation, or oxidation of fatty acids. In contrast, FGF21 treatment ablated the recovery of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 seen in control cows during the 9-d i.v. infusion period despite a tendency for higher plasma growth hormone. This effect was associated with increased hepatic mRNA abundance of the intracellular inhibitor of growth hormone receptor trafficking, LEPROT. Overall, these data confirm the ability of FGF21 to reduce lipid accumulation in bovine liver and suggest the possibility that FGF21 does so by attenuating the hepatic influx of adipose tissue-derived fatty acids.
23 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557011
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): C.S. Krumm, S.L. Giesy, L.S. Caixeta, J.W. Perfield, H. Sauerwein, B.L. Moore, Y.R. Boisclair
ABSTRACT

Modern dairy cows rely on hormonally driven mechanisms to coordinate the metabolic adaptations needed to meet the energy and nutrient deficits of early lactation. In the case of glucose, dairy cows cope with its scarcity during early lactation via reduced plasma concentrations of insulin and the insulin sensitizing hormone adiponectin and increased insulin resistance. Reduced insulin action promotes diversion of available glucose to the mammary gland but increases susceptibility to diseases if excessive. In earlier work, we reported that the insulin sensitizing hormone fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is increased in periparturient dairy cows and identified liver and adipose tissue as possible targets. These observations raised the possibility that FGF21 acts directly on these tissues to limit the insulin resistance of early lactation. To test this hypothesis, dairy cows were randomly assigned on d 12.6 ± 2.2 (± standard error) of lactation to receive either excipient (n = 6) or recombinant human FGF21 (n = 7), first as an FGF21 bolus of 3 mg/kg of body weight, followed 2 d later by a constant i.v. infusion of FGF21 at the rate of 6.3 mg/kg of metabolic body weight for 9 consecutive days. Biopsies of liver and adipose tissue were collected during the bolus phase of the experiment and used to analyze FGF21 signaling by Western blotting and expression of its receptor components by quantitative PCR. Bolus FGF21 administration caused a 4-fold increase in p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2) activation in adipose tissue but had no effect on AKT and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling. The liver expressed negligible levels of the preferred FGF21 receptor FGFR1c and failed to mount any FGF21 signaling response. The FGF21 administered as a bolus had no effect on plasma glucose or insulin and did not stimulate an acute release of adiponectin from adipose tissue. Similarly, FGF21 infusion had no effect on plasma levels of glucose or insulin measured over the 9-d infusion or on glucose disposal during an i.v. glucose tolerance test performed on d 8 of infusion. Finally, the chronic FGF21 infusion had no effect on indices of adiponectin production, including plasma adiponectin and adipose tissue mRNA abundance of adiponectin and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperones ERO1A and DSBA-L involved in the assembly of adiponectin into multimeric complexes. These data show that human FGF21 does not act as an insulin sensitizer during the energy and glucose deficit of early lactation but do not rule out such a role in other physiological states.
24 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557012
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Morteza H. Ghaffari, Amirhossein Jahanbekam, Hassan Sadri, Katharina Schuh, Georg Dusel, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Christian Koch, Helga Sauerwein
ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the differences in the metabolic profiles in serum of dairy cows that were normal or overconditioned when dried off for elucidating the pathophysiological reasons for the increased health disturbances commonly associated with overconditioning. Fifteen weeks antepartum, 38 multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to either a high body condition (HBCS; n = 19) group or a normal body condition (NBCS; n = 19) group and were fed different diets until dry-off to amplify the difference. The groups were also stratified for comparable milk yields (NBCS: 10,361 ± 302 kg; HBCS: 10,315 ± 437 kg; mean ± standard deviation). At dry-off, the cows in the NBCS group (parity: 2.42 ± 1.84; body weight: 665 ± 64 kg) had a body condition score (BCS) <3.5 and backfat thickness (BFT) <1.2 cm, whereas the HBCS cows (parity: 3.37 ± 1.67; body weight: 720 ± 57 kg) had BCS>3.75 and BFT>1.4 cm. During the dry period and the subsequent lactation, both groups were fed identical diets but maintained the BCS and BFT differences. A targeted metabolomics (AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit, Biocrates Life Sciences AG, Innsbruck, Austria) approach was performed in serum samples collected on d −49, +3, +21, and +84 relative to calving for identifying and quantifying up to 188 metabolites from 6 different compound classes (acylcarnitines, AA, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and hexoses). The concentrations of 170 metabolites were above the limit of detection and could thus be used in this study. We used various machine learning (ML) algorithms (e.g., sequential minimal optimization, random forest, alternating decision tree, and naïve Bayes–updatable) to analyze the metabolome data sets. The performance of each algorithm was evaluated by a leave-one-out cross-validation method. The accuracy of classification by the ML algorithms was lowest on d 3 compared with the other time points. Various ML methods (partial least squares discriminant analysis, random forest, information gain ranking) were then performed to identify those metabolites that were contributing most significantly to discriminating the groups. On d 21 after parturition, 12 metabolites (acetylcarnitine, hexadecanoyl-carnitine, hydroxyhexadecenoyl-carnitine, octadecanoyl-carnitine, octadecenoyl-carnitine, hydroxybutyryl-carnitine, glycine, leucine, phosphatidylcholine-diacyl-C40:3, trans-4-hydroxyproline, carnosine, and creatinine) were identified in this way. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that branched-chain AA degradation (before calving) and mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids along with fatty acid metabolism, purine metabolism, and alanine metabolism (after calving) were significantly enriched in HBCS compared with NBCS cows. Our results deepen the insights into the phenotype related to overconditioning from the preceding lactation and the pathophysiological sequelae such as increased lipolysis and ketogenesis and decreased feed intake.
25 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557013
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): M.H. Ghaffari, K. Schuh, G. Dusel, D. Frieten, C. Koch, C. Prehn, J. Adamski, H. Sauerwein, H. Sadri
ABSTRACT

The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of overconditioning around calving on gene expression of key components of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in skeletal muscle as well as the AA profiles in both serum and muscle of periparturient cows. Fifteen weeks antepartum, 38 multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to either a high body condition group (HBCS; n = 19) or a normal body condition group (NBCS; n = 19) and were fed different diets until dry-off (d −49 relative to calving) to amplify the difference. The groups were also stratified for comparable milk yields (NBCS: 10,361 ± 302 kg; HBCS: 10,315 ± 437 kg). At dry-off, the NBCS cows (parity: 2.42 ± 1.84; body weight: 665 ± 64 kg) had a body condition score (BCS) <3.5 and backfat thickness (BFT) <1.2 cm, whereas the HBCS cows (parity: 3.37 ± 1.67; body weight: 720 ± 57 kg) had a BCS>3.75 and BFT>1.4 cm. During the dry period and the subsequent lactation, both groups were fed identical diets but maintained the BCS and BFT differences. Blood samples and skeletal muscle biopsies (semitendinosus) were repeatedly (d −49, +3, +21, and +84 relative to calving) collected for assessing the concentrations of free AA and the mRNA abundance of various components of mTOR and UPS. The differences in BCS and BFT were maintained throughout the study. The circulating concentrations of most AA with the exception of Gly, Gln, Met, and Phe increased in early lactation in both groups. The serum concentrations of Ala (d +21 and +84) and Orn (d +84) were lower in HBCS cows than in NBCS cows, but those of Gly, His, Leu, Val, Lys, Met, and Orn on d −49 and Ile on d +21 were greater in HBCS cows than in NBCS cows. The serum concentrations of 3-methylhistidine, creatinine, and 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratio increased after calving (d +3) but did not differ between the groups. The muscle concentrations of all AA (except for Cys) remained unchanged over time and did not differ between groups. The muscle concentrations of Cys were greater on d −49 but tended to be lower on d +21 in HBCS cows than in NBCS cows. On d +21, mTOR and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 mRNA abundance was greater in HBCS cows than in NBCS cows, whereas ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 was not different between the groups. The mRNA abundance of ubiquitin-activating enzyme 1 (d +21), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 1 (d +21), atrogin-1 (d +21), and ring finger protein-1 (d +3) enzymes was greater in HBCS cows than in NBCS cows, whereas ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2 was not different between the groups. The increased mRNA abundance of key components of mTOR signaling and of muscle-specific ligases of HBCS cows may indicate a simultaneous activation of anabolic and catabolic processes and thus increased muscle protein turnover, likely as a part of the adaptive response to prevent excessive loss of skeletal muscle mass during early lactation.
26 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557014
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): R. Avilés, J.A. Delgadillo, J.A. Flores, G. Duarte, J. Vielma, M.J. Flores, K. Petrovski, L.A. Zarazaga, H. Hernández
ABSTRACT

In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that in does kidding in summer, melatonin administration during dry period is galactopoietic for the subsequent lactation and results in improved growth of their suckling kids. Twenty-five multiparous pregnant creole does were enrolled into a randomized complete block design during their dry period in the 49 d prepartum, and under natural long photoperiods around the summer solstice, pregnant does either received 2 subcutaneous ear implants (18 mg) of melatonin (MEL, n = 10) or served as nonimplanted controls (CONT, n = 15). During the first 14 wk of subsequent lactation (suckling and milking periods), MEL does yielded more milk than CONT does. Throughout subsequent lactation, milk composition was not affected by treatment. In MEL does, peripheral triiodothyronine levels peaked at 2 wk of lactation, remaining higher than in CONT does. The mean daily weight gain was higher in MEL compared with CONT kids and was also higher in males than females, and for males, was positively correlated with milk yield. The current data support our hypothesis that melatonin during the prepartum period is galactopoietic in suckling does.
27 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557015
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): O.K. Spaans, K.A. Macdonald, M. Neal, M.J. Auldist, J.A.S. Lancaster, A.M. Bryant, G.J. Doole, J.R. Roche
ABSTRACT

In theory, a late winter–early spring calving date in temperate grazing systems best matches pasture supply and herd demand, thereby minimizing the need for nonpasture feeds and maximizing profitability. We used a quantitative case study approach to define the effects of season of calving on biophysical and financial performance in a grazing system without the confounding effects of imported feeds (i.e., milk production directly from grazed pasture). A 2-yr production system experiment was established to quantify the effects of changing onset of seasonal calving (i.e., planned start of calving; PSC) from winter (July in the Southern Hemisphere) to spring (October), summer, (January), or autumn (April) on pasture and animal production and profitability. Eighty Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 PSC treatments, each of which had a different PSC [mean calving date of January 10 (JAN), April 10 (APR), July 10 (JUL), or October 10 (OCT)]. Data were analyzed for consistency of treatment response over years using ANOVA procedures with year, PSC treatment, and year × PSC treatment interactions as fixed effects. Collated biological data and financial data extracted from a national economic database were used as fixed variables to model the financial performance for the different treatments. A stochastic risk analysis was undertaken, where historical pasture growth and milk price data were used to estimate the probability distributions for stochastic input variables. Gross farm revenue and operating profit per hectare were modeled under 2 scenarios: (A) milk price did not include a premium for milk supplied during the winter, and (B) milk price included a realistic premium for milk supplied in winter. Annual and seasonal pasture growth did not differ between treatments, but the pasture growth (kg of dry matter/ha) and profile of the JUL treatment best matched the lactation nutrient demand profile. In comparison, profiles for JAN, APR, and OCT calving treatments had periods of greater surplus and deficit due to the time of calving and herd demand relative to the pasture growth profile. As a result, the JAN and OCT treatments conserved more pasture as silage and cows consumed a larger proportion of their annual diet as silage. Although the amount of silage conserved and consumed did not differ between the JUL and APR calving treatments, the timing of the silage consumption was different, with silage making up a greater proportion of the diets in the APR treatment 1 to 90 and 91 to 180 d postcalving and being offered to the JUL calving treatment only 271 to 365 d postcalving. As a result of differences in the quantity and proportion of pasture and pasture silage in the lactating diet, the JUL treatment herd tended to produce greater milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, fat, protein, and lactose yields (kg/cow) than the other PSC treatments, which did not differ from each other. Operating expenses per hectare did not differ materially between calving date scenarios, but operating expenses per kilogram of fat-corrected milk and kilogram of fat and protein were 15 to 20% less in the JUL treatment. With or without a realistic winter milk premium, gross farm revenue and operating profit per hectare were greater in the JUL treatment than in the APR treatment, which had greater revenue and profitability than the remaining 2 calving date treatments. In summary, our results indicate that a PSC in late winter is most profitable in a grazing system not importing feed, with or without a realistic price incentive scheme.
28 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557016
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): J. Qu, T.C. Hsiao, E.J. DePeters, D. Zaccaria, R.L. Snyder, J.G. Fadel
ABSTRACT

Water is essential in livestock production systems. In typical dairy production systems, 90% of the total water used by a dairy farm is attributed to feed production. Theoretically, ration manipulation is a method to potentially reduce the irrigation water needed for feed crops without dramatically increasing diet costs. However, published quantitative studies on the relationship between feed production and water use that are integrated with linear programming models are scarce. The overall objective of this study was to develop an optimization framework that could achieve a balance between minimization of dietary costs and dietary irrigation water usage, and that could be used as a framework for future research and models for various livestock production systems. Weighted goal programming models were developed to minimize the dietary costs and irrigation water usage for a hypothetical cow under 8 different environmental scenarios. The environmental conditions used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, including 2 atmospheric CO2 concentrations (400 and 550 ppm), 2 water years (dry and wet), and 2 irrigation methods (furrow and drip). A systematic weighting scheme was used to model the trade-off between minimizing diet cost and minimizing irrigation water use for feedstuffs. Each environmental condition generated a set of distinct diets, which each met the same nutrient requirements of the hypothetical cow but had a different water usage when the weighting scheme was changed from weighting minimum diet costs to minimum irrigation water usage. For water resource planning in areas of dairy production, this set of unique solutions provides the decision maker with different feeding options according to diet cost, water usage, and available feeds. As water was more constrained, dietary dry matter intake increased, concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, ether extract, and energy decreased, and the concentration of lignin increased because less nutritive but more water-saving feedstuffs were included in the diet. Mitigation costs of water usage were calculated from goal programming results and indicated that the potential value of water under water-limited conditions (e.g., in a drought region) was higher than that under water-sufficient conditions. However, a smaller increase in feed costs can initially significantly reduce water usage compared with that of a least-cost diet, which implies that the reduction of water usage through ration manipulation might be possible. This model serves as a framework for the study of irrigation water usage in dairy production and other livestock production systems and for decision-making processes involved in water resources planning in the broader area of animal production.
29 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557017
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Ines Adriaens, Olivier Martin, Wouter Saeys, Bart De Ketelaere, Nicolas C. Friggens, Ben Aernouts
ABSTRACT

Automated monitoring of fertility in dairy cows using milk progesterone is based on the accurate and timely identification of luteolysis. In this way, well-adapted insemination advice can be provided to the farmer to further optimize fertility management. To properly evaluate and compare the performance of new and existing data-processing algorithms, a test data set of progesterone time-series that fully covers the desired variability in progesterone profiles is needed. Further, the data should be measured with a high frequency to allow rapid onset events, such as luteolysis, to be precisely determined. Collecting this type of data would require a lot of time, effort, and budget. In the absence of such data, an alternative was developed using simulated progesterone profiles for multiple cows and lactations, in which the different fertility statuses were represented. To these, relevant variability in terms of cycle characteristics and measurement error was added, resulting in a large cost-efficient data set of well-controlled but highly variable and farm-representative profiles. Besides the progesterone profiles, information on (the timing of) luteolysis was extracted from the modeling approach and used as a reference for the evaluation and comparison of the algorithms. In this study, 2 progesterone monitoring tools were compared: a multiprocess Kalman filter combined with a fixed threshold on the smoothed progesterone values to detect luteolysis, and a progesterone monitoring algorithm using synergistic control, PMASC, which uses a mathematical model based on the luteal dynamics and a statistical control chart to detect luteolysis. The timing of the alerts and the robustness against missing values of both algorithms were investigated using 2 different sampling schemes: one sample per cow every 8 h versus 1 sample per day. The alerts for luteolysis of the PMASC algorithm were on average 20 h earlier compared with the ones of the multiprocess Kalman filter, and their timing was less sensitive to missing values. This was shown by the fact that, when 1 sample per day was used, the Kalman filter gave its alerts on average 24 h later, and the variability in timing of the alerts compared with simulated luteolysis increased with 22%. Accordingly, we postulate that implementation of the PMASC system could improve the consistency of luteolysis detection on farm and lower the analysis costs compared with the current state of the art.
30 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557018
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): N.A. Carpinelli, F. Rosa, R.C.B. Grazziotin, J.S. Osorio
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using multiple 3-dimensional accelerometers to estimated individual dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four Holstein cows in late lactation were assigned into 2 groups, a calibration group (n = 12) and a validation group (n = 12). All cows were fitted with 3 sensors that recorded 3-dimensional acceleration (i.e., x, y, and z) at 10-s intervals, 1 on the lateral side of the left hind leg and 2 attached directly to a halter over the nose and jaw area on the left side. Then, 3 accelerations were generated from each accelerometer (e.g., Leg-X, Leg-Y, and Leg-Z). Six new variables were created based on the change in acceleration in the nose and jaw accelerometers between 2 consecutive time points (e.g., LagJaw-X). For both groups (i.e., calibration and validation), cows were continuously video recorded while data on acceleration and intake of total mixed ration were collected for 10 consecutive days. Cows were fed once daily using an individual gate system, and individual refusals were recorded next day before morning feeding. Cows were fed a common lactating cow diet (17.9% crude protein; 1.70 Mcal/kg of dry matter). In the calibration group, individual eating bouts were obtained based on video recordings and merged with the corresponding accelerometer data. Then, a stepwise regression analysis was conducted using the REG procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) to determine the ranges in acceleration that accounted for the highest variation in DMI (highest R2) in each acceleration variable. All 32,767 potential acceleration combinations were tested in the validation group using the acceleration ranges predetermined in the calibration group. The CORR procedure of SAS was used to test the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between the type of DMI [i.e., based on accelerations (DMIaccel
) or actual DMI (DMIactual
)]. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to perform a repeated-measures analysis with type (DMIaccel
vs. DMIactual
), day, and their interaction (T × D) in the model. From this analysis, 8 candidate acceleration models were selected based on high r and similarity (P> 0.15) in terms of T and T × D between DMIaccel
and DMIactual
. A simulated effect on DMIactual
was artificially created in the validation group by dividing this group (n = 12) into high and low intake cows (n = 6/group; DMI of 24.1 vs. 18.7 kg/d), and the candidate models were tested to determine whether they were sensitive enough to detect this effect. From these candidate models, AEN (Leg-X + Jaw-Z + LagJaw-Z) showed a weak correlation (r = 0.36) between DMIaccel
and DMIactual
, but DMIaccel
and DMIactual
were highly similar (21.2 vs. 21.4 kg/d of DMI). In addition, this was the only model that could detect the simulated effect on DMIactual
(22.1 vs. 20.3 kg/d of DMI) in the validation group. The fact that the simulated effect on DMIactual
was detected based only on accelerations is highly significant, and models such as AEN could be substantially improved if they were derived from a greater sample size and included different physiological stages in dairy cows.
31 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557019
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): M.J. Fuenzalida, P.L. Ruegg
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe weekly quarter-level somatic cell count (QSCC) after occurrence of nonsevere clinical mastitis (CM) that was diagnosed as culture negative, or caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae. All cases occurred in cows enrolled in negatively, controlled randomized clinical trials. We hypothesized that after occurrence of CM, QSCC patterns would vary among etiologies and this effect would not be mitigated by treatment using intramammary (IMM) ceftiofur. Data from two previously published randomized clinical trials performed on 3 Wisconsin dairy farms were used. Only cases confirmed as culture negative (NG) or E. coli or Kleb. pneumoniae (GRAMNEG) were used for analysis. In NG, cows were assigned to no antimicrobial treatment (negative control, n = 44) or 5 d of once daily IMM (n = 41) infusions with an approved product containing ceftiofur hydrochloride. In GRAMNEG, cows were assigned to IMM treatment with the same ceftiofur product for 2 different durations (2 d, n = 36; or 8 d, n = 38) or no antimicrobial treatment (negative control, n = 36). For quarters enrolled in NG, no significant differences were identified for weekly QSCC between quarters in the treated or negative control groups (5.4 log10SCC for both groups). For quarters enrolled in GRAMNEG, no significant differences were identified for QSCC between quarters that received the 2-d (6.2 log10SCC) or 8-d (6.3 log10SCC) IMM treatment or were in the negative control group (6.0 log10SCC). At the pathogen level, regardless of treatment, QSCC varied among pathogens and log10SCC were 5.4 (culture negative), 5.8 (E. coli), and 6.2 (Kleb. pneumoniae). Patterns of QSCC of CM diagnosed as culture negative and E. coli were similar in magnitude and time to resolution of the inflammatory response. In conclusion, as compared to CM diagnosed as culture negative or caused by E. coli, CM caused by Kleb. pneumoniae was associated with poorer outcomes. Regardless of IMM ceftiofur treatment, the immune response of the cow resulted in rapid reduction of SCC of quarters diagnosed as culture negative and quarters with CM caused by E. coli. In contrast, the SCC remained elevated for quarters with CM caused by Kleb. pneumoniae and a greater proportion of those cases remained chronically infected.
32 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557020
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Ulrike S. Sorge, Elizabeth M. Binger, Jeremy Schefers, Paul J. Plummer
ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate skin biopsies of udder sores and negative control cows for the presence of mange and nonbacterial pathogens via histopathology and (b) to identify and compare bacterial abundance in the lesions of cows with udder sores and from the skin of healthy controls from the same farms. Cows from 3 dairy farms with (n = 23) and without (n = 12) udder sore lesions were enrolled, and punch biopsies (23 lesions, 23 negative control samples of cows with lesions, and 12 control samples of cows without lesions) were collected. The biopsies were evaluated histopathologically, and their 16S metagenome was analyzed. No signs of mange or viral or fungal infections were detected histopathologically in any samples. The α diversity of microbial populations decreased in lesions, across all farms, and the abundance of spirochaetes did not notably change, compared with controls. However, compared with control samples, the microbial fractions of Fusobacterium, Helcococcus spp., Anaerococcus spp., Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., and Trueperella spp. increased several-fold in lesions. In summary, our results suggest that spirochaetes, viruses, and mange are unlikely to cause udder sores. Instead, sores were associated with a marked increase in the abundance of Fusobacterium, Helcococcus, Anaerococcus, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Trueperella. Future studies are needed to determine which of these bacteria initiates this polymicrobial infection.
33 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557021
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): P.J. Gorden, M.D. Kleinhenz, R. Warner, P.K. Sidhu, J.F. Coetzee
ABSTRACT

Flunixin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and the most commonly prescribed analgesic in cattle in the United States. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a transdermal formulation of flunixin for control of pyrexia associated with bovine respiratory disease and the control of pain associated with foot rot. The transdermal formulation is not currently approved for use in lactating dairy cattle in the United States, but extra-label use in dairy cattle is permissible under US regulations. The objectives of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetics in milk of dairy cows treated with transdermal flunixin and determine an appropriate withdrawal time for milk. Ten lactating Holstein cows were enrolled into the study in mid lactation. Following treatment, cows were milked 3 times per day through 144 h. Milk samples were collected for drug analysis using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The geometric mean maximum concentration for flunixin in milk was 0.010 μg/mL and was 0.061 μg/mL for the active metabolite, 5-hydroxyflunixin. The geometric mean terminal half-life was 20.71 h for flunixin and 22.62 h for 5-hydroxyflunixin. Calculations to approximate a withdrawal time in milk following transdermal flunixin administration were accomplished using a statistical tolerance limit procedure. This analysis indicated that it would be prudent to observe a withdrawal period of 96 h following the last treatment. This is more than twice as long as the labeled withdrawal period of 36 h following use of the injectable formulation. The withdrawal period suggested by this work should be applied carefully, as this study was not conducted under the full quality control practices required by the US FDA for a full drug approval study. Caution should be taken when applying this withdrawal time to diseased animals, animals that are milked with different milking frequencies, and those in different stages of production as these have all been shown to affect drug depletion from milk.
34 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557022
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Lucas J.L. Pizauro, Camila C. de Almeida, Glenn A. Soltes, Durda Slavic, Fernando A. de Ávila, Luiz F. Zafalon, Janet I. MacInnes
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determinate whether coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) from buffalo milk or the milking environment possess virulence factors that are associated with intramammary infections or antimicrobial resistance. Milk samples (n = 320) from 80 lactating buffalo were evaluated for clinical and subclinical mastitis by physical examination, the strip cup test, California Mastitis Test (CMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) over a 4-mo period. In addition, swabs were obtained from the hands of consenting milkers (16), liners (64), and from the mouths (15) and nostrils (15) of buffalo calves. No clinical cases of mastitis were observed; however, CMT together with SCC results indicated that 8 animals had subclinical mastitis. Eighty-four CNS isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and cydB real-time PCR (qPCR) and then evaluated by qPCR for presence of the eta, etb, sea, sec, cna, seb, sei, seq, sem, seg, see, and tst toxin genes, adhesion- and biofilm-associated genes (eno, ebps, fib, fnbA, coa), and the methicillin resistance gene (mecA). Resistance to antibiotics commonly used for mastitis treatment in Brazil was determined using the Kirby-Bauer test. Two strains were positive for the see and eta toxin genes; and mecA (1), eno (27), ebps (10), fnbA (10), and coa (5) genes were also detected. A notable number of isolates were resistant to erythromycin (30), penicillin (26), and cotrimoxazole (18); importantly, 10 vancomycin-resistant isolates were also detected. A smaller number of isolates were resistant to rifampicin (8), oxacillin (7), clindamycin (5), cefepime (4), tetracycline (3), ciprofloxacin (2), and chloramphenicol (1), and none were resistant to gentamicin or ciprofloxacin. Isolates with resistance to 2 (13 isolates), 3 (3), 4 (3), 5 (1), and 6 (1) antibiotics were detected. Taken together, our findings suggest that CNS isolates may not be a significant cause of clinical or even subclinical mastitis in buffaloes, but they may be a reservoir of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes.
35 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557023
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): E.K. Miller-Cushon, K.C. Horvath, T.F. Fabris, G.E. Dahl, J. Laporta
ABSTRACT

In dairy cattle, mammary biopsies are commonly used to study development and function of the mammary gland. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in activity and feeding patterns following the mammary biopsy procedure. Pregnant, nonlactating Holstein dairy cows (20 d before expected calving date) were exposed to either (1) a biopsy procedure, in which a mammary tissue sample (60 × 4 mm in diameter) was obtained from cows (n = 9) using a biopsy tool from the rear left quarter, following administration of a sedative (xylazine, 20 µg/kg of body weight) and local anesthetic (3 mL of lidocaine), or (2) a sham procedure, in which cows (n = 8) were removed from the pen and restrained for a similar duration of time as for the biopsy procedure. Behavior of cows was monitored for 5 d, beginning on the day following biopsy (approximately 14 h after the procedure). Cows were fitted with accelerometers to record daily lying time, lying bout frequency, and lying side. Daily individual feed intake was recorded using the Calan Broadbent feeding system, and feeding time and meal characteristics were determined from a subset of cows (n = 6 per treatment) using a change-of-state data logger to record the times the cows were accessing the feed bunk. Total daily lying time did not differ between treatments [13.9 h/d; standard error (SE) = 0.56], but biopsied cows had more frequent, shorter lying bouts on the biopsied side on d 1 following the procedure (6.67 vs. 4.25 bouts/d, SE = 1.03, and 70.0 vs. 97.0 min/bout, SE = 8.6; left vs. right side), whereas control cows had no side preference. We found no effects of treatment on feed intake and feeding time but, on the first day after treatment, biopsied cows had meals that were more frequent (7.2 vs. 4.6 meals/d; SE = 0.93) and tended to be shorter (28.2 vs. 60.9 min/meal; SE = 11.8) than control cows. In conclusion, we did not detect effects of mammary biopsy on feed intake or lying time during our time frame of observation, but activity patterns were altered, which could be indicative of increased overall restlessness and specific pain in the biopsied quarter.
36 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557024
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Julia L. Tetens, Steffen Billerbeck, Julia A. Schwenker, Christina S. Hölzel
ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial residues in milk have been discussed as a possible selector for Enterobacteriaceae that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) in dairy herds. Such residues are found in waste milk after antibiotic treatment of mastitis, but antibiotic dry cow therapy might also lead to antibiotic residues in colostrum and in milk during early lactation. While it is known that feeding of waste milk selects ESBL bacteria in calves, this was not investigated for colostrum yet, which is supposed to contain much lower antibiotic concentrations than waste milk. In this observational prospective case study on 2 farms, we hypothesized that blanket dry cow treatment with β-lactams would have more selective (here: increasing) effects on ESBL concentrations than selective (here: individually chosen) antibiotic dry cow therapy. Thus, we compared concentrations of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in feces of calves (n = 50) at 2 dairy farms with different management of antibiotic dry cow therapy. Considerably higher concentrations of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were observed in blanket antibiotic dry cow therapy on d 3 of the calf's life (7.6 vs. 5.3 log cfu/g of calf feces). Both farms used narrow-spectrum penicillin combined with aminoglycosides for drying off, and the majority of ESBL isolates (93%) were co-resistant to aminoglycosides. No waste milk was fed to calves and no calf was treated with β-lactam antibiotics or aminoglycosides during the first 3 d of life, thus differences were most likely associated with different frequency of antibiotic dry cow therapy on farms (19 of 25 mother cows on farm A, 9 of 25 on farm B). Even though the presumable selection effect of antibiotics used for drying off decreased within the next 3 wk, this result further emphasizes the need for the reduction and prudent use of antibiotic dry cow therapy on farms.
37 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557025
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): P.L. Venjakob, R. Staufenbiel, W. Heuwieser, S. Borchardt
ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to evaluate postpartum serum calcium dynamics for different parity groups of dairy cows and to assess whether serum calcium concentration on d 0, 1, and 3 postpartum was associated with the risk of developing acute puerperal metritis (APM). The study took place on a commercial dairy farm in northern Germany and included 4,043 Holstein dairy cows. Calving difficulties, such as dystocia, twins, or stillbirth, were recorded. Blood samples were obtained on d 0, 1, and 3 after calving for analysis of serum calcium concentration. Animals were examined daily for clinical symptoms of retained placenta, APM, mastitis, and displaced abomasum until 10 d in milk. To determine serum calcium dynamics postpartum, we performed repeated-measures ANOVA with first-order autoregressive covariance. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association of serum calcium concentration with the risk of developing metritis. Serum calcium concentration was affected by time relative to calving, parity, and APM. Increasing parity negatively affected serum calcium concentration on d 0 and 1. Serum calcium concentration reached its lowest level on d 1 and 3 in multiparous and primiparous cows, respectively. The concentration increased from d 1 to 3 in multiparous cows and decreased from d 0 to 3 in primiparous cows. The association of APM and serum calcium dynamics varied by parity. On d 3, serum calcium concentration was significantly lower in animals with subsequent APM than in those without APM. The overall incidence of APM was 12.0% (primiparous cows, 20.4%; multiparous cows, 8.6%). An association existed between serum calcium concentration on d 3 after calving and APM. Primiparous cows had an odds ratio of 0.12 for serum calcium concentration on d 3, indicating that a primiparous cow with serum calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L had a 88% lower chance of developing APM compared with a cow with a concentration of 1.5 mmol/L. Multiparous cows had an odds ratio of 0.34 for serum calcium concentration on d 3, indicating that a multiparous cow with serum calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L had a 66% lower chance of developing APM compared with a cow with a concentration of 1.5 mmol/L. Primiparous cows with low serum calcium concentration had the highest predicted probability of developing APM. Our results reveal a dynamic in serum calcium concentration in the first 3 d in milk. Consequently, the day of sampling and the observed risk period for hypocalcemia are important when conducting epidemiological studies to evaluate associations between hypocalcemia and clinical diseases.
38 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557026
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Ruan R. Daros, Hanna K. Eriksson, Daniel M. Weary, Marina A.G. von Keyserlingk
ABSTRACT

Lameness has been extensively studied in lactating cows, whereas few studies have reported on lameness during the dry period. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study to describe the epidemiology of lameness during the dry period and to identify risk factors associated with onset, cure, and chronic cases of lameness. A total of 455 cows from 6 freestall commercial dairy farms were enrolled at 9 wk before calving and gait scored weekly until calving using a 5-point scale. A subset of cows was also followed fortnightly after calving to measure the association between lameness during the dry period and lameness during early lactation. Body condition score (BCS) was assessed in a 5-point scale using increments of 0.5. Hoof-trimming records, parity, and previous lactation milk production were retrieved from farm's database. Cows were considered sound when 2 consecutive scores were ≤2 and lame when 2 consecutive scores = 3, or any assessment with score>3; when in a sequence of scores only one score = 3 (or ≤2), the cow was considered sound (or alternatively lame). Following this lameness definition, we derived weekly lameness status for each cow and calculated the number of new cases of lameness, the number of cure cases and the number of chronic cases. The incidence rate of lameness cases during the dry period was 8.2 lameness cases/100 cow per wk, whereas cure rate was 7.1 cure cases/100 cow per wk; at the end of the dry period 50% of cows had developed lameness and 36% were cured. Multilevel logistic regression models using farm as random effect were fitted to assess (1) the association between being lame in wk 2 or 8 postcalving with being lame in the last week precalving, (2) risk factors for lameness onset, (3) risk factors for lameness cure, and (4) risk factors for chronic lameness. Cows that were lame in the week immediately before calving were more likely to be lame in wk 2 and 8 after calving. We found that the interaction between parity and hoof-trimming before dry-off was associated with lameness onset; primiparous cows that were trimmed before dry-off had lower odds of developing lameness, whereas the opposite was found for multiparous cows. The same interaction was also associated with the odds of chronic lameness. Cows that were diagnosed with noninfectious hoof lesions compared with cows that were not diagnosed with hoof lesions before dry-off, and cows that had BCS <3 compared with cows with BCS 3.0 to 3.5 at dry-off had higher odds of chronic lameness. Conversely, primiparous cows and cows with BCS 3.0 to 3.5 had higher odds of curing lameness during the dry period. Our results suggest that the dry period may be a period of high risk for lameness development and that hoof-trimming before dry-off may not be effective for all cows.
39 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557027
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): S.M. Rowe, S.M. Godden, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, B.A. Crooker, M. Boyle
ABSTRACT

Objectives of this study were to (1) describe the intramammary infection (IMI) prevalence and pathogen profiles in quarters of cows approaching dry-off in US dairy herds, (2) compare IMI prevalence in quarters of cows exposed to different bedding material types, and (3) identify associations between bedding bacteria count and IMI in cows approaching dry-off. Eighty herds using 1 of 4 common bedding materials (manure solids, organic non-manure, new sand, and recycled sand) were recruited in a multi-site cross-sectional study. Each herd was visited twice for sampling. At each visit, aseptic quarter-milk samples were collected from 20 cows approaching dry-off (>180 d pregnant). Samples of unused and used bedding were also collected. Aerobic culture was used to determine the IMI status of 10,448 quarters and to enumerate counts (log10 cfu/mL) of all bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Streptococcus-like organisms (SSLO), coliforms, Klebsiella spp., noncoliform gram-negatives, Bacillus spp., and Prototheca spp. in unused (n = 148) and used (n = 150) bedding. The association between bedding bacteria count and IMI was determined using multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects. Quarter-level prevalence of IMI was 21.1%, which was primarily caused by non-aureus Staphylococcus spp. (11.4%) and SSLO (5.6%). Only modest differences in IMI prevalence were observed between the 4 common bedding material types. Counts of all bacteria in unused bedding was positively associated with odds of IMI caused by any pathogen [ALL-IMI; odds ratio (OR) = 1.08]. A positive association was also observed for counts of SSLO in unused bedding and SSLO-IMI (OR = 1.09). These patterns of association were generally consistent across the 4 common bedding materials. In contrast, the association between counts of all bacteria in used bedding and ALL-IMI varied by bedding type, with positive associations observed in quarters exposed to manure solids (OR = 2.29) and organic non-manure (OR = 1.51) and a negative association in quarters exposed to new sand (OR = 0.47). Findings from this study suggest that quarter-level IMI prevalence in late-lactation cows is low in US dairy herds. Furthermore, bedding material type may not be an important risk factor for IMI in late lactation. Higher levels of bacteria in bedding may increase IMI prevalence at dry-off in general, but this relationship is likely to vary according to bedding material type.
40 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557028
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): P.D. Constable, A.A. Megahed, M.W.H. Hiew
ABSTRACT

Urine pH (UpH) and net acid excretion (NAE) are used to monitor the degree of systemic acidification and predict the magnitude of resultant hypercalciuria when feeding an acidogenic ration to control periparturient hypocalcemia in dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of urine dipstick and pH paper for measuring UpH, and to characterize the UpH–NAE relationship and the association of urine Ca concentration ([Ca]) with UpH and NAE. Urine samples (n = 1,116) were collected daily from 106 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows fed an acidogenic ration during late gestation. Net acid excretion was measured by titration, and UpH was measured by a glass-electrode pH meter (reference method), Multistix-SG urine dipsticks (Siemens Medical Solutions Inc., Ann Arbor, MI), and Hydrion pH paper (Micro Essential Laboratory Inc., Brooklyn, NY). Diagnostic performance was evaluated using Spearman correlation coefficient (rs), Bland–Altman plots, and logistic regression. Urine pH measured by urine dipstick (rs = 0.94) and pH paper (rs = 0.96) were strongly associated with UpH. Method-comparison studies indicated that the urine dipstick measured an average of 0.28 pH units higher, and pH paper 0.10 pH units lower, than UpH. Urine [Ca] was more strongly associated with UpH (rs = −0.65) than NAE (rs = 0.52). Goals for controlling periparturient hypocalcemia under the study conditions were UpH <6.22 and <6.11, based on achieving urine [Ca] ≥5 mmol/L and estimated urinary Ca excretion ≥4 g/d, respectively. Urine pH was as accurate at predicting urine [Ca] as NAE when UpH>6.11. We conclude that pH paper is an accurate, practical, and low-cost cow-side test for measuring UpH and provides a clinically useful estimate of urine [Ca].
41 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557029
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): C.L. Holschbach, S.M. Raabis, T.L. Ollivett
ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this randomized controlled challenge study was to investigate the effect of ampicillin on ultrasonographic (US) lung consolidation after experimental challenge with Pasteurella multocida in preweaned dairy calves. The secondary objectives were to determine whether ampicillin affected respiratory score, gross consolidation, or the detection of P. multocida in lung tissue at postmortem exam (PME). Holstein bull calves (n = 39) were transported to the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine isolation facility at the mean (±SD) age of 52 ± 6 d. After a 7-d acclimation period, 30 calves were inoculated intratracheally with 1010 cfu of ampicillin-sensitive P. multocida. Lung US and respiratory scoring were performed 2, 6, 12, and 24 h post-challenge, then US once daily and respiratory scoring twice daily until d 14. Calves were randomized to receive ampicillin [n = 17, treatment (TX), 6.6 mg/kg i.m. once daily for 3 d] or placebo [n = 11, control (CON), saline, equal volume, i.m. once daily for 3 d] when ≥1 cm2 of lung consolidation was observed and ≥6 h had elapsed since challenge. Lung lesions ≥1 cm2 were considered positive for consolidation. Calves were respiratory score positive if ≥2 in 2 or more categories based on the Wisconsin respiratory health score chart. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for US score and respiratory score as a proxy for time with consolidation and clinical respiratory disease, respectively. Gross lung lesions and pathogens were quantified following PME. At the time of first treatment, consolidation had developed in 28/30 calves (TX, n = 17; CON, n = 11) and 6% (1 out of 17) of TX and 9% (1 out of 11) of CON calves had a positive respiratory score. The TX calves had a significantly lower median (interquartile range given in parentheses) AUC for US score [TX: 23 (20, 29), CON: 47 (33, 53)], whereas mean AUC for respiratory score was not different between groups (TX: 93 ± 28, CON: 96 ± 17). On d 14, 70% (12 out of 17) of TX and 100% (11 out of 11) of CON calves had lung consolidation, and 24% (4 out of 17) of TX and 27% (3 out of 11) of CON calves had clinical respiratory disease. On PME, median consolidation was 10% (6, 15) for TX and 10% (2, 28) for CON calves. Lung cultures were positive for P. multocida in 77% (13 out of 17) of TX and 91% (10 out of 11) of CON calves. Lung health benefited from a 3-d ampicillin therapy, but benefits were short-lived. Treatment failures might be due to incomplete resolution of the initial lung infection. Future studies are needed to optimize TX strategies to improve long-term lung health.
42 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557030
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Gunnar Dalen, Amira Rachah, Håvard Nørstebø, Ynte H. Schukken, Olav Reksen
ABSTRACT

Management of udder health is particularly focused on preventing new infections. Data from the DeLaval Online Cell Counter (DeLaval, Tumba, Sweden) may be used in forecasting to improve decision support for improved udder health management. It provides online cell counts (OCC) as a proxy for somatic cell counts from every milking at the cow level. However, these values are typically too insensitive and nonspecific to indicate subclinical intramammary infection (IMI). Our aim was to describe and evaluate use of dynamic transmission models to forecast subclinical IMI episodes using milk cultures or changes in OCC patterns over time. The latter was expressed by an elevated mastitis risk variable. Data were obtained from the dairy herd of the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Oslo, Norway). In total, 173 cows were sampled monthly for bacteriological milk culture during a 17-mo study period and 5,330 quarter milk samples were cultured. Mastitis pathogens identified were assigned to 1 of 2 groups, Pat 1 or Pat 2. Pathogens from which a high cell count would be expected during a subclinical IMI episode were assigned to the Pat 1 group. Pathogens not in the Pat 1 group were assigned to the Pat 2 group. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were the most common Pat 1 pathogens. Corynebacterium bovis, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus were the most common Pat 2 pathogens. The OCC were successfully recorded from 82,182 of 96,542 milkings. The current study included 324 subclinical IMI episodes. None of the mastitis pathogens demonstrated a basic reproduction number (R0)>1. Patterns of OCC change related to an episode of Pat 1 subclinical IMI at specificity levels of 80, 90, and 95% at sensitivity levels of 69, 59, and 48% respectively, demonstrated an R0>1. An existing infection was significant for transmission for several Pat 2 pathogens, but only for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis among Pat 1 pathogens. Dynamic transmission models showed that patterns of OCC change related to an episode of Pat 1 subclinical IMI were significantly related to the same pattern occurring in susceptible cows at specificity levels of 80, 90, and 99% at sensitivity levels of 69, 48, and 8%, respectively. We conclude that changes in herd prevalence of subclinical IMI can be predicted using dynamic transmission models based on patterns of OCC change. Choice of specificity level depends on management goals and tolerance for false-positive alerts.
43 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557031
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): V. Doré, D.M. Foster, H. Ru, G.W. Smith
ABSTRACT

Neonatal diarrhea remains the primary cause of mortality in dairy calves around the world, and optimal treatment protocols are needed. The main goals of therapy are to restore hydration and electrolyte concentrations, correct strong ion (metabolic) acidemia, and provide nutritional support. Administration of oral electrolyte solutions (OES) has long been the primary method used to treat neonatal diarrhea in humans and calves because OES are capable of addressing each of the primary goals of therapy. In calves with moderate dehydration, we hypothesized that oral electrolytes would be as good as or better than small volumes of intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) fluids. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to compare the ability of a commercially available oral electrolyte solution (OES) administered alone or in combination with hypertonic saline with small volumes of IV or SC fluid therapy to resuscitate calves with diarrhea. Thirty-three Holstein calves from 5 to 14 d of age were utilized in this clinical trial. Diarrhea and dehydration were induced by adding sucrose to the milk replacer. In addition, hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone were given orally and furosemide intramuscularly. Depression status, clinical hydration scores, fecal consistency, and body weight were recorded at regular intervals. Treatment began when calves had severe diarrhea and had a decrease in plasma volume of at least 10%. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups of 8 to 9 calves per group: (1) OES; (2) OES with hypertonic saline (4 mL/kg, IV); (3) IV fluids (lactated Ringer's, 2 L); or (4) SC fluids (lactated Ringer's, 2 L). Treatments were given at 0 and 12 h. Changes in plasma volume, blood pH, electrolyte levels, and physical examination scores were determined before therapy and again at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after each treatment. All 4 treatments were ultimately successful in improving hydration as well as increasing blood pH; however, animals in both groups that received OES had much faster resuscitation than those in either the IV or SC fluid group. In conclusion, oral electrolyte products remain the gold standard for resuscitating diarrheic calves with moderate dehydration and acidemia and will likely perform better than small volumes of IV lactated Ringer's solution. Subcutaneous fluids by themselves are a poor treatment option and should be only be used as supportive therapy following the initial correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis.
44 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557032
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Gemma L. Charlton, Emma C.L. Bleach, S. Mark Rutter
ABSTRACT

Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease (JD) is a fatal chronic enteritis that causes detrimental effects on production and health and significantly reduces the welfare of cattle. Control of JD is highly desirable, but single milk ELISA testing may not be sensitive enough to identify all affected animals, particularly in the early stages of the disease. The objective of this study was to compare the activity of JD-positive (JD5) to JD-negative (JD0) cows from calving until wk 20 of lactation. The study was conducted at Harper Adams University, United Kingdom, using 42 multiparous [3.1 ± 0.22 (mean ± standard error of the mean); range: 2–7 lactations] Holstein Friesian cows, fitted with an IceQube accelerometer (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, UK) on the back left leg. The sensors recorded data on lying and standing time, steps, and motion index with a granularity of 15 min. In addition, start and stop times for lying bouts, and exact lying bout durations were recorded, which permits calculation of the number of lying bouts. Every 3 mo the cows were milk sampled and subsequently tested for JD using an ELISA. Cows in the infection group JD0 were classed as JD negative and cows in the infection group JD5 were classed as JD positive. Johne's-positive cows [JD5; n = 21 (repeat ELISA positive)] were matched to negative cows [JD0; n = 21 (repeat ELISA negative)] based on lactation number and age. Around peak lactation we found differences in lying behavior. The JD5 cows spend less time lying/d during wk 7 to 11 of lactation. The largest difference observed was around wk 8 of lactation, with JD5 cows spending, on average, 2 h/d less time lying down than JD0 cows (9.3 ± 0.33 vs. 11.3 ± 0.61 h/d, respectively). The JD5 cows also had fewer lying bouts per day from wk 7 to 15 of lactation (excluding wk 13), and during wk 11 and 12 average lying bout duration was longer for JD5 cows compared with JD0 cows. No differences were observed in steps per day, milk yield, BCS, and mobility score between JD5 and JD0 cows from calving to wk 20 of lactation. As far as we are aware, this is the first study to show changes in activity of JD-positive cows. The results show that activity data from leg-mounted accelerometers has the potential to help identify JD-positive cows, although more research is required.
45 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557033
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): K.A. Rink, P. Turk, S.L. Archibeque-Engle, H. Wilmer, J.K. Ahola, J.C. Hadrich, I.N. Roman-Muniz
ABSTRACT

Dairy farms producing 98% of the US milk supply participate in the Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM) Animal Care Program. Producers who sell milk to cooperatives or processors participating in FARM must follow program standards. The objectives of this study were to assess producer perceptions about the knowledge, experience, and value of FARM and to determine whether perceptions differ based on demographics. A concurrent triangulation design was implemented through collecting quantitative and qualitative data using a 30-question survey instrument. Quantitative questions aimed to address project objectives, and qualitative data were provided through 1 open-ended survey question that asked participants what they thought the main goal of the FARM program was. Participants offered additional feedback through providing text in comment boxes, writing on the back of the survey, or writing a separate letter and returning it with their survey. Quantitative data were analyzed using principal components analysis and modeling, and qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Dairy producers from cooperatives or processors that participate in the FARM program were recruited via electronic and postal mail. A total of 487 respondents from 40 states completed the survey. Of the survey participants, 414 (85.0%) answered the open-ended question and 190 (39.0%) provided additional qualitative feedback. Thematic analysis revealed 5 main themes: distrust of program, producers on the defense, anger, efficiency, and nostalgia. Of respondents, 73.6% reported being knowledgeable about the FARM Animal Care Program. Greater level of formal education and larger herd size were associated with greater producer knowledge. More dairy producer input in the revisions of FARM was identified as a need by 83.3% of respondents. Although 89.3% of respondents reported positive experiences with evaluations and relationships with evaluators, 45.6% did not think that the program had value overall. Respondent age was positively associated with perceived value of FARM. Respondent age was also significant in determining the reasons why FARM was considered to be important. Results indicate that to increase buy-in and positive perceptions from producers, future versions of FARM should solicit producer input during the development of program standards, target specific producer demographics for program promotion, and address perceived communication deficits and program inequalities. Findings from this study can be used to inform future versions of the program.
46 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557034
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Marlen I. Lasprilla-Mantilla, Victoria Wagner, Joan Pena, Annie Frechette, Karine Thivierge, Simon Dufour, Christopher Fernandez-Prada
ABSTRACT

The primary aim of this work was to isolate common bovine digestive tract parasites in recycled manure bedding (RMS), as well as to determine the ability of current RMS preparation procedures to eliminate these pathogens. Other objectives were to assess whether any of the aforementioned parasites could be retrieved in bulk milk from dairies using RMS and to study whether the prevalence of these parasites differed among manure of cows housed on RMS versus on straw bedding. For the study, 27 RMS farms and 61 control farms were recruited. Samples of manure from the pre-pit and milk from the bulk tank were recovered from straw-bedding farms and RMS-based farms. In addition, samples from the manure solid fraction after liquid extraction, RMS before use, and RMS currently in use were recovered from RMS herds. Parasites were first detected by double centrifugation zinc sulfate flotation to enhance isolation of gastrointestinal protozoa, and by modified Wisconsin sugar flotation for the appraisal of gastrointestinal nematodes. Cryptosporidium parasites were confirmed by nested PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the gene encoding the small subunit rRNA. Results revealed a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. (C. parvum, C. andersoni, and C. meleagridis, identified by PCR) and Eimeria spp. (mainly E. bovis and E. zuernii) parasites in both types of farms, with a larger proportion of manure samples from RMS-bedded farms testing positive for Cryptosporidium parasites compared with manure from straw-bedded farms. Both Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. oocysts were found at every step of RMS preparation and transformation, showing that current RMS preparation strategies do not guarantee the destruction of protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium parvum, a potential zoonotic risk for professionals in close contact with livestock, was found to be present in 32 out of 61 straw-bedded and 24 of 27 RMS farms. No protozoan parasites were found in any sample derived from bulk milk, neither by microscopy analysis nor by molecular methods.
47 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557035
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Peter T. Thomsen, Katrine K. Fogsgaard, Margit Bak Jensen, Peter Raundal, Mette S. Herskin
ABSTRACT

Housing in hospital pens may be beneficial for lame cows due to soft flooring and less competition for resources. We compared recovery from lameness among dairy cows housed in designated hospital pens, with deep-litter straw, with recovery among cows housed together with the rest of the lactating cows in their home pens, with cubicles and slatted or solid concrete floors. Additionally, we compared lying behavior in the 2 groups of cows. A total of 168 lame dairy cows from 5 herds were included in the study. Each herd was visited once weekly, and lame cows (locomotion score 3 or 4 on a 5-point scale) were examined in a hoof-trimming chute, trimmed, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: housing in a hospital pen (termed “treatment”; 72 cows) or housing under the herds' standard conditions together with the rest of the lactating cows in the herd (termed “control”; 96 cows). Cows were locomotion scored weekly until they were no longer lame or until they had been part of the trial for 3 weeks (i.e., 2, 3, or 4 locomotion scorings per cow). We categorized cows to describe the progression of lameness over time: recovery (divided into fast, medium, or slow), improvement without recovery, constant lameness, or worsening of lameness. Lying behavior was recorded in a sample of 60 of the 168 cows for a period of 5 d. Overall, recovery from lameness was significantly different between treatment and control cows. The proportion of cows included in the study with locomotion score 4 and a subsequent improvement was significantly higher among treatment cows than among control cows. Among cows included with locomotion score 4, 40% of treatment cows also had a locomotion score 4 at the fourth locomotion scoring, 46% had improved to a score 3, and 14% were no longer lame. In comparison, 73% of control cows had a locomotion score 4 at the fourth locomotion scoring, 16% had improved to a score 3, and 11% were no longer lame. We found no differences between treatment and control cows for mean daily lying time, number of steps per day, number of daily lying bouts, or mean duration of lying bouts. Housing of lame dairy cows in a hospital pen with a soft surface, easier access to feed and water, a smaller group size, and reduced waiting time for milking may have positive effects on recovery from lameness. Typically, farmers have housed only severely lame cows in hospital pens. However, our results indicate that less severely lame cows may also benefit from a stay in a hospital pen.
48 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557036
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Kim Fechner, Nico Dreymann, Sebastian Schimkowiak, Claus-Peter Czerny, Jenny Teitzel
ABSTRACT

Feeding pasteurized milk to suckling calves is a popular practice used increasingly on dairy farms. Waste milk is frequently fed to calves because of its high nutritional value and economic benefits compared to milk replacement products. However, one of the disadvantages of feeding waste milk is the potential for exposure to a high number of bacterial contaminants, which may lead to serious illnesses or infections in calves. One of these contaminants is Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease (paratuberculosis). The transmission and distribution of paratuberculosis in dairy herds occurs mostly through the feeding newborn calves with contaminated colostrum or milk, because this age group is believed to be most susceptible to infection. To reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens, on-farm pasteurization of milk has become increasingly popular. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of a new commercial high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer (73.5°C for 20 to 25 s) in terms of MAP inactivation under experimental on-farm conditions. The pasteurizer uses a newly developed steam-heating technique, allowing for the pasteurization of the transition milk without clumping. In 3 independent trials, we spiked fresh raw milk samples to a level of 107 or 104 viable MAP cells/mL before pasteurization. We examined the thermal inactivation and viability of MAP using culture and a D29 bacteriophage-based assay. To verify the identity and number of MAP cells, we also performed PCR assays. Pasteurization of the inoculated milk (107 and 104 MAP cells/mL) resulted in a remarkable reduction in viable MAP cells. The mean inactivation rate of MAP ranged from 0.82 to 2.65 log10 plaque-forming units/mL, depending on the initial MAP amount inoculated and the addition of conservative agents to the pasteurized milk. Nevertheless, approximately 103 MAP cells/mL remained viable and could be transferred to calves after high-temperature, short-time pasteurization of milk.
49 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557037
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): J.V. González-Martín, N. Pérez-Villalobos, W. Baumgartner, S. Astiz
ABSTRACT

Right displaced abomasum (RDA) and abomasal volvulus (AV) are common diseases in cattle. However, presently there is no consensus regarding the pathogenesis and nomenclature of the different positions that the abomasum can adopt in the right side of the cow. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the etiopathogenesis of the right displaced abomasum according to the description of the features observed in 268 cows with left displaced abomasum (LDA), which were rolled to induce the movement of the abomasum from the left side to the right (in fact, inducing an RDA in 44% of cases), to facilitate the surgical approach, and immediately surgically treated (abomasal omentopexy from the right side). The observed RDA positions matched previously published descriptions and names, and the authors propose a holistic and simpler nomenclature and a clear hypothesis on RDA etiopathogenesis. In 54.1% of the cases, the abomasum moved to a normal position after rolling. The most common RDA position observed was caudal displacement of the RDA (CdRDA; 70 out of 119 RDA cases; 26.1% of the total number of cows), followed by lateral displacement (LRDA; 32 of 119; 11.9% of all cases), cranial displacement (CrRDA; 8 of 119; 3% of the total), medial displacement (MRDA; 4 of 119; 1.5% of the total), and finally, displacement lateral to the omasum (LORDA; 3 of 119; 1.1% of the total). Adverse events directly due to the rolling procedure were mesenteric root volvulus (3 of 268), cecocolic volvulus (2 of 268) and torsion (1 of 268), and uterus torsion (2 of 10 pregnant cows); 1 abortion (1 of 10 pregnant cows) was also observed. We suggest that CdRDA is the first stage of an RDA that can become an LRDA with increasing pressure. An LRDA can become an AV if rotating counterclockwise, viewed from above. An LDA, CdRDA, or LRDA could be initial forms of LORDA and CrRDA, and occur when forestomachs are empty or when the animal stands up on its front legs first. The LORDA and CrRDA forms can lead to an omasum-abomasum volvulus (OAV) or to a reticulum-omasum-abomasum volvulus (ROAV) when pressure increases. With this study we establish, for the first time, the sequence and incidence of each RDA form and its complications, increasing knowledge of this syndrome and its pathogenesis. This understanding critically aids the surgeon's ability to accurately assess and correct this disease and to predict prognosis.
50 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557038
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): A.K. Schwalm, C. Metzger-Boddien, G. Seemann, J. Mandl, A. Obiegala, M. Pfeffer, R. Sting
ABSTRACT

Bovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a bacterial, chronic, and wasting intestinal disease caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Johne's disease causes severe losses in dairy farm productivity and is also suspected to be a potential trigger for Crohn's disease in humans. The fecal-oral infection of MAP to neonates is recognized as an important within-herd transmission route. Our objective was to recommend diagnostic methods for herds with suspected paratuberculosis requiring fast results, as well as for herds with breeding programs or others that aim at being nonsuspected of paratuberculosis infection. We determined a period of 8 wk from sampling to diagnostic findings suitable for testing of cows during the dry period. We therefore tested environmental and individual fecal samples with one rapid and one highly sensitive diagnostic method. Environmental samples (boot swabs) were taken as a first step in 3 herds and tested using a DNA extraction protocol for feces and subsequent real-time PCR (referred to as fecal PCR). Additionally, cultivation in liquid medium for 6 wk was performed and verified with real-time PCR (referred to as liquid culture). Automation of DNA extraction based on magnetic beads and the PCR setup was performed with pipetting robots. As a result, we successfully detected MAP in boot swabs of all herds by both methods. In a second step, 245 individual fecal samples from the 3 herds were examined using also fecal PCR and liquid culture. The results obtained by fecal PCR were compared with detection of MAP using cultivation in liquid medium for 6 wk. Testing individual cows, we identified MAP-specific DNA in 53 fecal samples using the liquid culture. Using fecal PCR, we revealed 43 positive samples of which 39 also tested positive in the liquid culture, revealing MAP-positive cows in all 3 herds. The fecal PCR procedure allows rapid detection of MAP-specific DNA with 74% of the sensitivity of liquid culture. For the purpose of testing with maximal sensitivity, cultivation in liquid medium is recommended. Cultivation of MAP in liquid medium M7H9C means a significant time gain in comparison to cultivation on solid media, which requires twice as much time. Thus, this testing fits within the 6- to 8-wk dry period of gravid cows and provides test results before calving, a prerequisite to prevent fecal-oral transmission to newborn calves.
51 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557039
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): R.A. Black, P.D. Krawczel
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of exercise and pasture turnout on lying behavior, labor length, and cortisol concentrations around the time of parturition in dairy cows. Twenty-nine primiparous and 31 multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Holstein (n = 58) and Jersey × Holstein cross (n = 2) dairy cows were assigned to control (n = 20), exercise (n = 20), or pasture (n = 20) treatments at dry-off using rolling enrollment. Control cows remained in the dry cow group pen. Exercise cows were removed from the dry cow group pen 5 times per week and walked for 1.4 ± 0.1 h at 1.88 ± 0.58 km/h. Pasture cows were moved to an outdoor paddock 5 times per week for 1.8 ± 0.3 h/d. Cows were housed in deep-bedded sand freestalls in a naturally ventilated, 4-row freestall barn. Cows were moved into maternity pens on the day of projected calving or when cows displayed signs that calving was imminent (restlessness, raised or lifted tail, ruptured amniotic sac, or swollen vulva), and treatments were discontinued. Cameras continuously recorded cows from entry into the pen until farm staff noted a calf, and one observer continuously watched video for two visually observable periods throughout the calving process: time from initial observation of amniotic sac to initial observation of calf's feet, and time from initial observation of calf's feet to full expulsion of calf. Assisted calvings were excluded. Accelerometers were attached to the rear fetlocks of cows 3 d before dry-off and removed 14 d postpartum. Activity was summarized by day for the 7 d before and after delivery time recorded from video observation into lying time (hours per day), lying bout frequency (bouts per day), lying bout duration (minutes per bout), and steps (number per day). Plasma total cortisol concentration was measured on d 0 and 3 postpartum and determined by a radioimmunoassay procedure using a commercially available kit. Data were analyzed using mixed linear model. During calving, time from appearance of the amniotic sac to appearance of the calf's feet was longer for pasture cows compared with control. Control cows engaged in fewer lying bouts and less overall lying time compared with pasture and exercise cows. Cortisol concentrations were higher on the day of calving compared with 3 d later, regardless of treatment. Understanding the effects of lying alterations around calving and increases in labor period length may allow for physical activity recommendations for late-gestation dairy cows.
52 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557040
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): N.M. Steele, T.H. Swartz, K.M. Enger, H. Schramm, R.R. Cockrum, S.J. Lacy-Hulbert, R.R. White, J. Hogan, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe
ABSTRACT

Vaccination against coliform mastitis has become part of mastitis control programs in the past 3 decades, as a means of reducing the severity of clinical mastitis. Our study objective was to evaluate the effect of 2 commercially available vaccines on clinical, behavioral, and antibody response following Escherichia coli intramammary challenge in cows near peak lactation. Cows (n = 12 per group) were vaccinated with vaccine 1 (V1) or vaccine 2 (V2) at dry-off, 21 d pre-calving, and 14 d post-calving. Twelve cows served as unvaccinated controls (CTL). Cows were challenged with E. coli in a rear quarter at approximately 100 d in milk. Milk samples were collected pre- and post-challenge to enumerate E. coli and determine somatic cell count. Serum was collected before each vaccination and at d 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 30, and 60 relative to challenge, to study antibody response. Milk IgA and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were determined in whey. Vaginal temperature, cow activity, and milk yield and components were monitored post-challenge. Bacterial count, somatic cell score, milk yield and component decline, vaginal temperature, activity measures, and antibody and cytokine response were analyzed for treatment differences. The effects of parity, breed, and a repeated measure of time were also tested. Seven cows had to be removed from the study post-challenge for antibiotic treatment (CTL and V1, n = 3 each; V2, n = 1), 2 of which were euthanized (both CTL). Vaccinated cows exhibited fever (vaginal temperature ≥39.4°C) 3 h earlier than CTL cows, but we found no differences between treatments for bacterial count, somatic cell score, or milk yield reduction. Vaccinated cows spent more time lying per rest bout 2 d post-challenge, but total daily lying time was not different from CTL cows during the 7 d post-challenge. The vaccines differed in antibody response: V1 cows had greater serum IgG1 and IgG2 post-challenge. A parity effect was also evident: primiparous cows had lower bacterial counts, somatic cell score and a smaller milk yield decline than multiparous cows, but also had lower antibody production. Immunization with either J5 bacterin did not reduce clinical signs of mastitis in cows challenged at 100 d in milk, demonstrating that the effects of J5 vaccination had diminished at peak lactation.
53 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557041
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): N. Khayatzadeh, G. Mészáros, Y.T. Utsunomiya, F. Schmitz-Hsu, F. Seefried, U. Schnyder, M. Ferenčaković, J.F. Garcia, I. Curik, J. Sölkner
ABSTRACT

Heterosis is the beneficial deviation of crossbred progeny from the average of parental lines for a particular trait. Heterosis is due to nonadditive genetic effects with dominance and epistatic components. Recent advances in genotyping technology have encouraged researchers to estimate and scan heterosis components for a range of traits in crossbred populations, applying various definitions of such components. In this study, we defined the intralocus (dominance) component of heterosis using local genetic ancestry and performed genome-wide association analysis for admixed Swiss Fleckvieh bulls and their parental populations, Red Holstein Friesian and Swiss Simmental, for semen traits. A linear mixed model for 41,824 SNP, including SNP additive genetic, breed additive, and breed dominance effects on 1,178 bulls (148 Red Holstein Friesian, 213 Swiss Simmental, and 817 Swiss Fleckvieh) with a total of 43,782 measurements was performed. In total, 19 significant regions for breed dominance were identified for volume (2 regions on Bos taurus autosome 10 and 22) and percentage of live spermatozoa (17 regions on Bos taurus autosome 3, 4, 5, 7, 13, 14, and 17), and genes associated with spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and male fertility traits were located there. No significant region for breed dominance was detected for total number of spermatozoa. The signals for breed dominance were relatively wide, most likely due to limited numbers of recombination events in a small number of generations (10–15 generations) of crossbreeding in the recent Swiss Fleckvieh composite.
54 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557042
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): G.M. Tarekegn, P. Gullstrand, E. Strandberg, R. Båge, E. Rius-Vilarrasa, J.M. Christensen, B. Berglund
ABSTRACT

Evaluating fertility traits based on endocrine progesterone profiles is becoming a promising option to improve dairy cow fertility. Several studies have been conducted on endocrine fertility traits, mainly in the Holstein breed. In this study, focusing also on the Swedish Red (SR) breed, genetic parameters were estimated for classical and endocrine fertility traits, the latter based on in-line milk progesterone records obtained for 14 Swedish herds using DeLaval Herd Navigator (DeLaval International, Tumba, Sweden). A total of 210,403 observations from 3,437 lactations of 1,107 SR and 1,538 Holstein cows were used. Mixed linear animal models were used for estimation of genetic parameters. Least squares means analysis showed that Holstein cows had a 2.5-d-shorter interval from calving to commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and longer length of first inter-ovulatory interval (IOI) than SR cows. The highest mean interval for C-LA, IOI, and first luteal phase length (LPL) was observed in the fourth parity. The incidence of short (<18 d), normal, (18–24 d), and long (>24 d) IOI was 29.3, 40.7, and 30%, respectively. Genetic analysis indicated moderate heritability (h
2) for C-LA (h
2 = 0.24), luteal activity during the first 60 d in milk (LA60, h
2 = 0.15), proportion of samples with luteal activity (PLA, h
2 = 0.13), and calving to first heat (CFH, h
2 = 0.18), and low heritability estimates for LPL (h
2 = 0.08) and IOI (h
2 = 0.03) in the combined data set for both breeds. Similar heritability estimates were obtained for each breed separately except for IOI and LPL in SR cows, for which heritability was estimated to be zero. Swedish Red cows had 0.01 to 0.06 higher heritability estimates for C-LA, LA60, and PLA than did Holstein cows. Calving interval had moderate heritability among the classical traits for Holstein and the combined data set, but h
2 was zero for SR. Commencement of luteal activity had a strong genetic correlation with LA60 (mean ± SE; −0.88 ± 0.06), PLA (−0.72 ± 0.11), and CFH (0.90 ± 0.04). Similarly, CFH had a strong genetic correlation with IOI (0.98 ± 0.20). Number of inseminations per series showed a weak genetic correlation with all endocrine traits except IOI. Overall, endocrine traits had higher heritability estimates than classical traits in both breeds, and may have a better potential to explain the actual reproductive status of dairy cows than classical traits. This might favor inclusion of some endocrine fertility traits—especially those related to commencement of luteal activity—as selection criteria and breeding goal traits if recording becomes more common in herds. Further studies on genetic and genomic evaluations for endocrine fertility traits may help to provide firm conclusions. A prerequisite is that the data from automatic devices be made available to recording and breeding organizations in the future and included in a central database.
55 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557043
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Md Mesbah-Uddin, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Mogens Sandø Lund, Didier Boichard, Goutam Sahana
ABSTRACT

Genotype imputation, often focused on SNP and small insertions and deletions (indels; size ≤50 bp), is a crucial step for association mapping and estimation of genomic breeding values. Here, we present strategies to impute genotypes for large chromosomal deletions (size>50 bp), along with SNP and indels in cattle. The pipelines include a strategy for extending the whole-genome sequence reference panel for large deletions, a 2-step genotype refinement approach using Beagle4 and SHAPEIT2 software, and finally, joint imputation of SNP, indels, and large deletions to the existing SNP array-typed population using Minimac3 software. Using these pipelines we achieved an imputation accuracy of the squared Pearson correlation (r2)> 0.6 at minor allele frequencies as low as 0.7% for SNP and indels, and 0.2% for large deletions. This highlights the potential of our approach to build a haplotype reference panel and impute different classes of sequence variants across a wide allele frequency spectrum with high accuracy.
56 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557044
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Scott J. Denholm, Alan A. Sneddon, Tom N. McNeilly, Shabina Bashir, Mairi C. Mitchell, Eileen Wall
ABSTRACT

Enhancing micronutrient (i.e., mineral and vitamin) concentrations within milk and serum from dairy cows is important for both the health of the cow and the nutritive value of the milk for human consumption. However, a good understanding of the genetics underlying the micronutrient content in dairy cattle is needed to facilitate such enhancements through feeding or breeding practices. In this study, milk (n = 950) and serum (n = 766) samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 479) on 19 occasions over a 59-mo period and analyzed for concentrations of important elements. Additionally, a subset of 256 milk samples was analyzed for concentrations of vitamin B12. Cows belonged to 2 genetic lines (average and highest genetic merit for milk fat plus protein yield) and were assigned to 1 of 2 diets based on either a by-product or homegrown ration. Univariate models accounting for repeated records were used to analyze element and vitamin B12 data and investigate the effect of genotype and feeding system as well as derive estimates of variance components and genetic parameters. Bivariate models were used to study correlations both within and between milk and serum. Only concentrations of Hg in milk were seen to be affected by genotype, with higher concentrations in cows with high genetic merit. In contrast, element concentrations were influenced by feeding system such that cows fed the homegrown diet had increased milk concentrations of Ca, Cu, I, Mn, Mo, P, and K and increased serum concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, and V. Cows on the by-product diet had increased milk concentrations of Mg, Se, and Na and increased serum concentrations of P and Se. Heritability (h
2) estimates were obtained for 6 milk and 4 serum elements, including Mg (h
2

milk
= 0.30), K (h
2

serum
= 0.18), Ca (h
2

milk
= 0.20; h
2

serum
= 0.12), Mn (h
2

milk
= 0.14), Cu (h
2

serum
= 0.22), Zn (h
2

milk
= 0.24), Se (h
2

milk
= 0.15; h
2

serum
= 0.10), and Mo (h
2

milk
= 0.19). Significant estimates of repeatability were observed in all milk and serum quantity elements (Na, Mg, P, K, and Ca) as well as 5 milk and 7 serum trace elements. Only K in milk and serum was found to have a significant positive genetic and phenotypic correlation (0.52 and 0.22, respectively). Significant phenotypic associations were noted between milk and serum Ca (0.17), Mo (0.19), and Na (−0.79). Additional multivariate analyses between measures within sample type (i.e., milk or serum) revealed significant positive associations, both phenotypic and genetic, between some of the elements. In milk, Se was genetically correlated with Ca (0.63), Mg (0.59), Mn (0.40), P (0.53), and Zn (0.52), whereas in serum, V showed strong genetic associations with Cd (0.71), Ca (0.53), Mn (0.63), Mo (0.57), P (0.42), K (0.45), and Hg (−0.44). These results provide evidence that element concentrations in milk and blood of dairy cows are significantly influenced by both diet and genetics and demonstrate the potential for genetic selection and dietary manipulation to alter nutrient concentration to improve both cow health and the healthfulness of milk for human consumption.
57 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557045
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): T.D.W. Luke, T.T.T. Nguyen, S. Rochfort, W.J. Wales, C.M. Richardson, M. Abdelsayed, J.E. Pryce
ABSTRACT

In this study, we estimated genetic parameters and genomic prediction accuracies of serum biomarkers of health in early-lactation dairy cows. A single serum sample was taken from 1,393 cows, located on 14 farms in southeastern Australia, within 30 d after calving. Sera were analyzed for biomarkers of energy balance (β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acids), macromineral status (Ca and Mg), protein nutritional status (urea and albumin), and immune status (globulins, albumin-to-globulin ratio, and haptoglobin). After editing, 47,162 SNP marker genotypes were used to estimate genomic heritabilities and breeding values (GEBV) for these traits in ASReml. Heritabilities were low for β-hydroxybutyrate, fatty acids, Ca, Mg, and urea (0.09 ± 0.04, 0.18 ± 0.05, 0.07 ± 0.04, 0.19 ± 0.06, and 0.18 ± 0.05, respectively), and moderate for albumin, globulins, and albumin-to-globulin ratio (0.27 ± 0.06, 0.46 ± 0.06, and 0.41 ± 0.06, respectively). The heritability of haptoglobin concentration was close to 0. The magnitude of genetic correlations between traits (estimated using bivariate models) varied considerably (0.01 to 0.96), and standard errors of these correlations were high (0.02 to 0.44). Interestingly, the direction of most genetic correlations was favorable, suggesting that selecting for more optimal concentrations of one biomarker may result in more optimal concentrations of other biomarkers. Correlations between biomarker GEBV and existing breeding values for survival, somatic cell count, and daughter fertility were small to moderate (0.07 to 0.45) and favorable, whereas correlations with breeding values for milk production traits were small (≤0.15). Accuracies of GEBV were evaluated by using 5-fold cross validation, and by calculating accuracies from prediction error variances associated with the GEBV. Accuracies of GEBV predicted using 5-fold cross validation were low (0.05 to 0.27), whereas the means of individual accuracies were greater, ranging from 0.31 to 0.51. Although increasing the size of the reference population should theoretically improve accuracies, our results suggest that genomic prediction of health biomarkers may allow identification of cows that are less susceptible to diseases in early lactation.
58 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557046
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): G. Gebreyesus, A.J. Buitenhuis, N.A. Poulsen, M.H.P.W. Visker, Q. Zhang, H.J.F. van Valenberg, D. Sun, H. Bovenhuis
ABSTRACT

In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), sample size is the most important factor affecting statistical power that is under control of the investigator, posing a major challenge in understanding the genetics underlying difficult-to-measure traits. Combining data sets available from different populations for joint or meta-analysis is a promising alternative to increasing sample sizes available for GWAS. Simulation studies indicate statistical advantages from combining raw data or GWAS summaries in enhancing quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection power. However, the complexity of genetics underlying most quantitative traits, which itself is not fully understood, is difficult to fully capture in simulated data sets. In this study, population-specific and combined-population GWAS as well as a meta-analysis of the population-specific GWAS summaries were carried out with the objective of assessing the advantages and challenges of different data-combining strategies in enhancing detection power of GWAS using milk fatty acid (FA) traits as examples. Gas chromatography (GC) quantified milk FA samples and high-density (HD) genotypes were available from 1,566 Dutch, 614 Danish, and 700 Chinese Holstein Friesian cows. Using the joint GWAS, 28 additional genomic regions were detected, with significant associations to at least 1 FA, compared with the population-specific analyses. Some of these additional regions were also detected using the implemented meta-analysis. Furthermore, using the frequently reported variants of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) genes, we show that significant associations were established with more FA traits in the joint GWAS than the remaining scenarios. However, there were few regions detected in the population-specific analyses that were not detected using the joint GWAS or the meta-analyses. Our results show that combining multi-population data set can be a powerful tool to enhance detection power in GWAS for seldom-recorded traits. Detection of a higher number of regions using the meta-analysis, compared with any of the population-specific analyses also emphasizes the utility of these methods in the absence of raw multi-population data sets to undertake joint GWAS.
59 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557047
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Xiaoping Wu, Md Mesbah-Uddin, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Mogens S. Lund, Goutam Sahana
ABSTRACT

Widespread use of a limited number of elite sires in dairy cattle breeding increases the risk of some deleterious allelic variants spreading in the population. Genomic data are being used to detect relatively common (frequency>1%) haplotypes that never occur in the homozygous state in live animals. Such haplotypes likely include recessive lethal or semilethal alleles. The aim of this study was to detect such haplotypes in the Nordic Holstein population and to identify causal genetic factors underlying these haplotypes. Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) genotypes for 26,312 Nordic Holstein animals were phased to construct haplotypes. Haplotypes that are common in the population but never observed as homozygous were identified. Two such haplotypes overlapped with previously identified recessive lethal mutations in Holsteins—namely, structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (HH3) and brachyspina. In addition, we identified 9 novel putative recessive lethal-carrying haplotypes, with 26 to 36 homozygous individuals expected among the genotyped animals but only 0 to 3 homozygotes observed. For 2 out of 9 homozygous-deficient haplotypes, insemination records of at-risk mating (carrier bull with daughter of carrier sire) showed reduced insemination success compared with not-at-risk mating (noncarrier bull with daughter of noncarrier sire), supporting early embryonic mortality. To detect the causative variant underlying each homozygous-deficient haplotype, data from the 1000 Bull Genome Project were used. However, no variants or deletions identified in the chromosome regions covered by the haplotypes showed concordance with haplotype carrier status. The carrier status of detected haplotypes could be used to select bulls to reduce the frequency of the latent lethal mutations in the population. If desired, at-risk matings could be avoided.
60 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557048
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s):
61 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557049
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Juan Cordero-Solorzano, Henk K. Parmentier, Joop A.J. Arts, Jan van der Poel, Dirk Jan de Koning, Henk Bovenhuis
ABSTRACT

Natural antibodies (NAb) are produced without any antigenic stimulation as a part of the innate immune system and provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Hence, they may be a useful trait when estimating an animal's potential immune competence and in selection for disease resistance. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with different NAb traits in milk and potentially describe candidate genes. Milk samples from 1,695 first-lactation Holstein Friesian cows with titer measurements for keyhole limpet hemocyanin, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and peptidoglycan-binding total NAb and isotypes IgG1, IgM, and IgA were used. Genome-wide association study analyses were performed using imputed 777K SNP genotypes, accounting for relationships using pedigree information. Functional enrichment analysis was performed on the significantly associated genomic regions to look for candidate genes. For IgM NAb, significant associations (false discovery rate <0.05) were found on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 17, 18, and 21 with candidate genes related to immunoglobulin structure and early B cell development. For IgG1, associations were found on BTA3, and we confirmed a quantitative trait loci on BTA21 previously reported for IgG NAb in serum. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of milk NAb that will help unravel the complex relationship between milk immunoglobulins and disease resistance in dairy cattle.
62 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557050
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): N.E. Schultz, K.A. Weigel
ABSTRACT

Genomic data are widely available in the dairy industry and provide a cost-effective means of predicting genetic merit to inform selection decisions and increase genetic gains. As more dairy farms adopt genomic selection practices, dairy producers will soon have genomic data available on all of the animals within their herds. This is a very rich, but currently underused, source of information. Herdmates provide an excellent indication of how a selection candidate's genetics will perform within a given herd, noting that herdmates often include close relatives that share a similar environment. The study objective was to evaluate the utility of incorporating herdmate data into genomic predictions in a data set composed of 3,303 Holsteins from one herd in Canada and 6 herds throughout the United States. Within-herd prediction accuracy was assessed for milk-production and feed-efficiency traits determined from genomic best linear unbiased prediction under 4 different scenarios. Scenario 1 did not include herdmates in the training population. Scenarios 2 through 4 included herdmates in the training population, and scenarios 3 and 4 also included modeling of herd-specific marker effects. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to maximize the number of herdmates in the training population in scenarios 2 through 4, while maintaining constant training population size with scenario 1. Results from the present study reveal the importance of incorporating herdmate data into genomic evaluations. Inclusion of herdmates in the training population improved mean within-herd prediction accuracy for milk-production traits (± standard error) by 0.08 ± 0.03 (milk yield), 0.07 ± 0.03 (fat percentage), and 0.05 ± 0.01 (protein percentage) and feed-efficiency traits by 0.07 ± 0.02 (milk energy), 0.03 ± 0.02 (DMI), and 0.08 ± 0.01 (metabolic body weight). Modeling herd-specific marker effects further improved mean within-herd prediction accuracy for milk yield and energy by 0.03 ± 0.01 and 0.02 ± 0.01, respectively. Herds with higher within-herd heritability and low genomic correlation with the remaining herds benefitted most from the inclusion of herdmate data.
63 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557051
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): B. Li, L. Fang, D.J. Null, J.L. Hutchison, E.E. Connor, P.M. VanRaden, M.J. VandeHaar, R.J. Tempelman, K.A. Weigel, J.B. Cole
ABSTRACT

Improving feed efficiency (FE) of dairy cattle may boost farm profitability and reduce the environmental footprint of the dairy industry. Residual feed intake (RFI), a candidate FE trait in dairy cattle, can be defined to be genetically uncorrelated with major energy sink traits (e.g., milk production, body weight) by including genomic predicted transmitting ability of such traits in genetic analyses for RFI. We examined the genetic basis of RFI through genome-wide association (GWA) analyses and post-GWA enrichment analyses and identified candidate genes and biological pathways associated with RFI in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 4,823 lactations of 3,947 Holstein cows in 9 research herds in the United States. Of these cows, 3,555 were genotyped and were imputed to a high-density list of 312,614 SNP. We used a single-step GWA method to combine information from genotyped and nongenotyped animals with phenotypes as well as their ancestors' information. The estimated genomic breeding values from a single-step genomic BLUP were back-solved to obtain the individual SNP effects for RFI. The proportion of genetic variance explained by each 5-SNP sliding window was also calculated for RFI. Our GWA analyses suggested that RFI is a highly polygenic trait regulated by many genes with small effects. The closest genes to the top SNP and sliding windows were associated with dry matter intake (DMI), RFI, energy homeostasis and energy balance regulation, digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, immune regulation, leptin signaling, mitochondrial ATP activities, rumen development, skeletal muscle development, and spermatogenesis. The region of 40.7 to 41.5 Mb on BTA25 (UMD3.1 reference genome) was the top associated region for RFI. The closest genes to this region, CARD11 and EIF3B, were previously shown to be related to RFI of dairy cattle and FE of broilers, respectively. Another candidate region, 57.7 to 58.2 Mb on BTA18, which is associated with DMI and leptin signaling, was also associated with RFI in this study. Post-GWA enrichment analyses used a sum-based marker-set test based on 4 public annotation databases: Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, Reactome pathways, and medical subject heading (MeSH) terms. Results of these analyses were consistent with those from the top GWA signals. Across the 4 databases, GWA signals for RFI were highly enriched in the biosynthesis and metabolism of amino acids and proteins, digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates, skeletal development, mitochondrial electron transport, immunity, rumen bacteria activities, and sperm motility. Our findings offer novel insight into the genetic basis of RFI and identify candidate regions and biological pathways associated with RFI in dairy cattle.
64 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557052
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): I. Ansia, H.H. Stein, M.R. Murphy, J.K. Drackley
ABSTRACT

Digestibilities of nutrients, especially protein, are crucial characteristics of milk replacers in a calf-rearing program. Endogenous synthesis of proteins and microbial fermentation in the large intestine alter apparent total-tract digestibility of AA. Therefore, collection of digesta samples at the end of the ileum is the only method to estimate true small intestinal digestibility of AA. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of inserting a T-cannula into the distal ileum of preweaning calves for use in digestibility studies. A second objective was to evaluate the use of a “broken-line” statistical model to compare treatment effects on calf growth and digesta pH. A T-cannula was surgically installed in the terminal ileum of 2 calves approximately 5 cm anterior to the ileocecal junction at 15 d of age, and 2 paired noncannulated calves were used as controls. Cannulation did not affect mean body weight (BW), average daily gain, milk and water intakes, and body frame dimensions. However, final BW (89.2 vs. 94.6 kg) was lower and starter intake (0.06 vs. 0.21 kg/d) tended to be decreased in cannulated calves compared with control calves. No effects on health scores, rectal temperature, or the odds of incurring diarrhea or being medicated were observed. Flow of digesta (46.4 ± 0.04 g/h) increased linearly after feeding, whereas there was a quadratic effect of time on digesta pH, with the nadir at approximately 8.5 h postfeeding. The broken-line model successfully fitted daily fluctuations of pH and allowed us to detect differences in growth slopes between cannulated and control calves. Despite the expected negative effect on BW, we conclude that this technique permitted sampling of representative ileal digesta while allowing satisfactory growth and health of the calves.
65 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557053
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): G. Ferreira
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a live-yeast product when feeding relatively high-forage diets to high-producing cows in mid lactation. Eight primiparous [607 ± 43 kg of body weight (BW) and 130 ± 16 d in milk (DIM) at the beginning of the experiment] and 16 multiparous (706 ± 63 kg of BW and 137 ± 22 DIM at the beginning of the experiment) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and DIM, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets (control vs. yeast) for a 12-wk period according to a randomized complete block design. The formulated diets contained 50.4% corn silage, 10.4% alfalfa hay, and 39.2% concentrate. The yeast diet was formulated to provide approximately 5.4 × 1011 cfu/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BeneSacc; Global Nutritech Biotechnology LLC, Richmond, VA). Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using 240-h undigested neutral detergent fiber (NDF) as an internal marker. Supplementing live yeast to lactating dairy cows did not affect dry matter intake (25.0 kg/d), milk yield (38.6 kg/d), milk fat concentration (4.78%), milk fat yield (1.83 kg/d), milk protein concentration (3.09%), milk protein yield (1.18 kg/d), milk lactose concentration (4.79%), milk lactose yield (1.84 kg/d), BW gain (−0.05 kg/d), or body condition score gain (0.16 units). The digestibility of dry matter was greater for the control treatment than for the yeast treatment (69.3 and 67.1%, respectively), but the digestibilities of crude protein (61.5%), NDF (40.5%), and starch (98.6%) were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, supplementation of live yeast did not affect production performance or nutrient digestibility of high-producing cows in mid lactation. The reasons for the lack of effect are not clear, but an evaluation of interactions between yeast and rumen buffer supplementation is warranted.
66 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557054
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): K. Izumi, R. Fukumori, S. Oikawa, M. Oba
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of butyrate supplementation on the dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and blood metabolites of lactating dairy cows fed diets differing in starch content. Eight Holstein cows after peak lactation (58.6 ± 9.96 d in milk; mean ± SD) were blocked by parity and assigned to 1 of 2 Latin squares (4 × 4) balanced for carryover effects with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments differed by dietary starch content (20.6 vs. 27.5%) and butyrate supplementation (butyrate vs. control) with 21-d periods. Experimental diets contained 36 and 30% corn silage, 18 and 15% grass silage, and 46 and 55% concentrates, respectively, for low starch and high starch diets, on a dry matter (DM) basis. Butyrate was provided as Gustor BP70 WS (Norel S.A., Madrid, Spain), containing 70% sodium butyrate and 30% fatty acid mixture, at 2% of dietary DM (providing butyrate at 1.1% of dietary DM), and control premix contained 70% wheat bran and 30% fatty acid mixture. Interaction effects between dietary starch content and butyrate supplementation were not observed for primary response variables, and milk yield was not affected by treatment. Butyrate supplementation increased serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration compared with control (0.706 vs. 0.930 mM), but did not exceed 1.2 mM, a commonly accepted value for subclinical ketosis, and DMI was not affected. Cows fed butyrate had increased milk fat content (4.58 vs. 4.37%) and milk fat yield (1.51 vs. 1.42 kg/d), tended to have increased 4% fat-corrected milk yield (35.9 vs. 34.3 kg/d) and feed efficiency (1.56 vs. 1.50; 4% fat-corrected milk yield/DMI), and had decreased milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration (10.8 vs. 11.7 mg/dL) compared with control. Cows fed high starch diets tended to have increased DMI (23.3 vs. 22.5 kg/d), increased milk protein yield (1.13 vs. 1.05 kg/d), and decreased MUN concentration (10.3 vs. 12.2 mg/dL). Inclusion of butyrate at 1.1% of dietary DM increased milk fat production and decreased MUN concentration without affecting DMI or increasing the risk of subclinical ketosis, regardless of dietary starch content.
67 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557055
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): R.N. Klopp, F.X. Suarez-Mena, T.S. Dennis, T.M. Hill, R.L. Schlotterbeck, G.J. Lascano
ABSTRACT

Growth and the digestibility of nutrients can be greatly affected by diet preweaning and the rate at which calves are weaned. A 2 × 2 factorial design [moderate (MOD) or high (HI) milk replacer (MR) feeding rates and abrupt (AB) or gradual (GR) weaning] was used to compare these effects. Calves (n = 50) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: MOD-AB, MOD-GR, HI-AB, and HI-GR. Calves assigned to MOD-AB were fed 0.66 kg of MR for the first 42 d and then 0.33 kg for the last 7 d; those assigned to MOD-GR were fed 0.66 kg of MR for 28 d, 0.33 kg for 14 d, and 0.17 kg for the last 7 d; those assigned to HI-AB were fed 0.66 kg of MR for 7 d, 0.82 kg for 7 d, 1.1 kg for 28 d, and 0.66 kg for the last 7 d; and those assigned to HI-GR were fed 0.66 kg of MR for 7 d, 0.82 kg for 7 d, 1.1 kg for 14 d, 0.66 kg for 14 d, and 0.33 kg for the last 7 d. All calves received the same MR [25% crude protein (CP), 17% fat; dry matter (DM) basis] and were given ad libitum access to water and a textured starter (42% starch and 20% CP). On d 26 to 30 and d 45 to 49, a fecal sample was taken from 5 calves in each treatment via the rectum to estimate apparent digestibility coefficients (dC). Apparent dC of DM, organic matter, and fat were greater for HI versus MOD calves. Apparent dC of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and sugar were greater for MOD versus HI calves. Apparent dC of DM was greater for AB versus GR calves [90.9, 89.0 ± 0.5384 (standard error)], and the apparent dC of acid detergent fiber was greater for GR versus AB calves (39.5, 32.3 ± 1.67). Feed efficiency was greater for HI versus MOD and AB versus GR. There were no significant differences between CP or starch dC based on treatment, and no interactions were observed. Starter consumption was greater for MOD calves compared with HI calves, and GR calves consumed more than AB calves. These results suggest that providing calves high amounts of MR preweaning enhanced readily available nutrient dC, but providing moderate amounts of MR resulted in increased fibrous fraction dC. Accordingly, the AB weaning strategy had higher dC for DM and organic matter, but there was a depression in fiber dC.
68 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557056
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): C. Lee, N.E. Lobos, W.P. Weiss
ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to examine effects of prepartum, postpartum, or continuous prepartum and postpartum supply of rumen-protected lysine (RPLys) and rumen-protected methionine (RPMet) on performance and blood metabolites of transition cows. The experiment consisted of a prepartum (3 wk), postpartum (3 wk), and carryover (10 wk) period. Eighty-eight prepartum cows (36 primiparous and 52 multiparous cows) were blocked by parity and expected calving date and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments arranged factorially. Treatments were a prepartum diet (12% crude protein on a dry matter basis) without (Pre−) or with supplemental RPLys (10 g of digestible Lys/cow per day) and RPMet (4 g of digestible Met/cow per day; Pre+) followed by postpartum diets (16% crude protein on a dry matter basis) without (Post−) or with supplemental RPLys (26 g of digestible Lys/cow per day) and RPMet (11 g of digestible Met/cow per day; Post+). Prepartum, only 2 treatments were applied, but postpartum cows received treatments of Pre−Post−, Pre−Post+, Pre+Post−, or Pre+Post+. During the prepartum period, treatment did not affect dry matter intake and body weight. During the postpartum period, milk protein content was greater (3.23 vs. 3.11%) for Post+ compared with Post− independent of prepartum treatment. However, dry matter intake, body weight, milk yield, and yields of milk components were not affected by Post+ versus Post−. No effects of prepartum treatment or interactions between pre- and postpartum treatments were observed on postpartum performance of cows. No effects of pre- and postpartum supplementation of RPLys and RPMet on performance during the carryover period were found except prepartum supplementation of RPLys and RPMet decreased somatic cell count (4.60 vs. 4.83; log10 transformed) compared with Pre− in the postpartum period and this effect continued during the carryover period [i.e., 4.42 and 4.55 (log10 transformed) for Pre+ and Pre−, respectively]. Prepartum supplementation of RPLys and RPMet increased or tended to increase plasma concentration of Lys, Met, and branched-chain AA compared with Pre− in prepartum cows. Cows on Post+ tended to have greater plasma Lys concentration compared with Post−, but plasma Met concentration was not affected. Health events of postpartum cows were not affected by treatments. In conclusion, we did not observe positive effects of supplementing with RPLys and RPMet on performance of prepartum and postpartum cows. However, prepartum supply of RPLys and RPMet may have potential to improve udder health and immune status of fresh cows.
69 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557057
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): J.D. Quigley, L. Deikun, T.M. Hill, F.X. Suarez-Mena, T.S. Dennis, W. Hu
ABSTRACT

Newborn Holstein male calves (n = 50) born on a single dairy farm were assigned randomly at birth to receive 3 feedings of 1.8 L of pooled maternal colostrum (MC) at 1, 6, and 12 h of age or 1 feeding of 500 g of a colostrum replacer reconstituted to 1.8 L at 1 h of age, followed by 2 feedings of 227 g of a commercial milk replacer (MR) reconstituted to 1.8 L at 6 and 12 h of age (CR). All feedings were administered by esophageal feeder. At 2 to 3 d of age, calves were transported to the experimental facility and assigned within colostrum group to receive 0.66 kg/d dry matter (DM) of MR to 39 d, and then 0.33 kg/d to 42 d (MRM) or 0.77 kg/d of MR DM to d 13, 1.03 kg/d for 22 d, and 0.51 kg/d for 7 d (MRH). The MR contained 25.8% crude protein and 17.6% crude fat (DM basis) and was based on whey proteins and lard as the primary fat source. Calf starter (21.7% crude protein, 15.7% neutral detergent fiber, 37.4% starch, DM basis) and water were available for ad libitum consumption throughout the 56-d study. Serum IgG and total protein were measured at 2 to 3 d of age. Intakes of MR and calf starter were monitored daily. Calf health and fecal scores were also monitored daily. Body weight was measured weekly, and hip width and body condition score were monitored every 2 wk. Digestion of DM, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract were determined at 1 and 3 wk from 5 calves randomly selected within treatment and using chromic oxide as a digestibility marker added to the MR. Calves fed CR had lower serum IgG and total protein than calves fed MC. Also, calves fed CR grew more slowly, consumed less calf starter, and were less efficient to 56 d than calves fed MC. The number of days calves were treated with veterinary medications was higher when calves were fed CR. Calves fed MC-MRH gained more BW than other calves from 3 to 8 wk of age. Calves fed CR-MRH consumed less calf starter than other calves during wk 7 and 8. Digestion of nutrients at 1 and 3 wk of the study was unaffected by type of colostrum or level of MR fed and did not change from 1 to 3 wk. Over the first 2 mo of life, the calves fed MRH consumed less calf starter than calves fed MRM, but average daily gain or hip width change did not differ. One feeding of CR followed by 2 feedings of MR in the first 24 h likely reduced absorption of IgG from CR and contributed to differences in health and growth. Differences in animal performance observed in this study were unrelated to MR digestibility.
70 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557058
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): A.O. Hendawy, M. Shirai, H. Takeya, S. Sugimura, S. Miyanari, S. Taniguchi, K. Sato
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) as a dietary supplement on milk yield and composition as well as iron status and immune response in lactating dairy cows. In this study 13 lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to either a control group or a treatment group supplemented with 10 mg of 5-ALA per kilogram of dry matter. During feeding, 5-ALA was mixed with a small amount of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. The experiments followed a crossover design with 2 periods. Each period consisted of an adaptation period of 12 d and a test period of 2 d. Dairy cows fed the diet supplemented with 5-ALA exhibited increased counts of white blood cells and granulocytes compared with the control group. The rate of phagocytosis and mitogen-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cows fed 5-ALA were higher than in cows fed a basal diet. However, 5-ALA did not affect iron status or plasma biochemical composition. Supplementation with 5-ALA improved milk protein and milk casein contents; however, it had no effect on milk production, milk fat, lactose, total solids, or solids-not-fat, compared with the control. We conclude that dietary supplementation of 5-ALA to lactating dairy cows may have a positive effect on milk protein synthesis and the immune response.
71 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557059
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): S.Y. Morrison, P.A. LaPierre, K.N. Brost, J.K. Drackley
ABSTRACT

Strategies that can improve health and maximize growth in the preweaning period should improve the subsequent production and longevity of replacement animals. Few data are available that quantify feed and water consumption, as well as growth, in healthy versus non-healthy calves—the objective of this study. A database of Holstein calves (<1 wk of age; n = 313) was developed to compare calves that developed diarrhea in the first 21 d after arrival from commercial farms to the research facility versus calves that remained healthy. Individual calf data from 4 experiments included daily intake of milk replacer, free water, electrolyte solution, and starter grain, as well as weekly body weight (BW) and frame measures for 21 d after arrival. Calves with a fecal score of>2 for ≥3 consecutive days over the first 21 d of each experiment were retrospectively classified as diarrheic (DIA; n = 96); the remainder were classified as healthy (HEA; n = 217). Other health issues were minimal. The likelihood of elevated fecal score occurrence and the cumulative number of days with an elevated score were greater for DIA calves than for HEA calves. The initial total protein concentration in blood did not differ between classifications. Cumulative milk replacer dry matter intake (DMI) and water consumed from milk replacer were significantly less for DIA calves than for HEA calves, because DIA calves were more likely to refuse milk replacer. Cumulative starter DMI was decreased for DIA versus HEA calves. As a result, cumulative total DMI was significantly less for DIA calves than for HEA calves. Cumulative free water intake did not differ between classifications. The DIA calves were more likely to receive electrolyte solution and have more days given electrolyte solution than HEA calves. As a result, total cumulative intake of electrolyte solution was greater in DIA calves than in HEA calves. Cumulative total water intake did not differ between classifications. Initial BW did not differ between classifications; however, a classification × time interaction for BW indicated that HEA calves were heavier than DIA calves and had greater ADG. Significant classification × time interactions for hip height and heart girth revealed that HEA calves had a larger frame size. Gain–feed ratios for both milk replacer intake and total DMI differed between classifications: DIA calves were less feed-efficient than HEA calves. In conclusion, diarrhea in young calves decreases DMI, BW gain, and feed efficiency relative to HEA calves within 21 d of arrival.
72 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557060
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): X. Huang, K.A. Estes, P.S. Yoder, C. Wang, N. Jiang, T. Pilonero, M.D. Hanigan
ABSTRACT

Nitrogen efficiency in dairy cows can be improved by more precisely supplying essential amino acids (EAA) relative to animal needs, which requires accurate estimates of the availability of individual EAA from feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to determine EAA availability for 7 feed ingredients. Seven heifers (258 ± 28 kg BW) were randomly chosen and assigned to 8 treatment sequences in a 7 × 8 incomplete Latin square design. Treatments were a basal diet (BD), and 10% (on a dry matter basis) of BD replaced by corn silage (CS), grass hay (GH), alfalfa hay (AH), dried distillers grain (DDGS), soybean hulls (SH), wet brewers grain (BG), or corn grain (CG). Total plasma AA entry rates were estimated for each EAA within each diet by fitting a 4-pool dynamic model to observed plasma, 13C AA enrichment resulting from a 2-h constant infusion of a 13C algal AA mixture. Individual EAA availability from each test ingredient was determined by regression of entry rates for that AA on crude protein intake for each ingredient. The derived plasma total EAA entry rates for corn silage, grass hay, alfalfa hay, dried distillers grain, soyhulls, brewers grain, and corn grain were 30.6 ± 3.4, 27.4 ± 3.2, 31.3 ± 3.4, 37.2 ± 3.2, 26.4 ± 3.2, 37.8 ± 3.2, and 33.5 ± 3.2% (±standard error) of EAA from each ingredient, respectively. Using the previous estimate of 8.27% EAA utilization by splanchnic tissues during first pass, total rumen-undegradable protein EAA absorbed from the gut lumen was 33.4, 29.9, 34.1, 40.6, 28.8, 41.2, and 36.5% of the EAA in each ingredient respectively.
73 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557061
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): A.J. Fleming, H. Lapierre, R. Martineau, R.R. White, M.D. Hanigan
ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to predict essential amino acid (EAA) use and release by the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver of dairy cows. Previously derived equations were tested using data assembled from the literature, refit to the data, and modifications were undertaken to determine the best model for each EAA. The refitted model has the same structure as the original equations but is parameterized using a database of group means, as the original equations were derived using a single study with individual cow data and found to be biased. The PDV clearance model predicted portal vein concentrations given inputs of absorbed and arterial fluxes of EAA with root mean squared errors (RMSE) ranging from 3.3 to 12.1% of the observed means, and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 when using previously reported parameters. The reparameterized model generated from the assembled data set resulted in predictions of EAA portal vein concentrations with RMSE ranging from 3.2 to 8.6% and CCC ranging from 0.93 to 1.00. Slope bias ranged from 12.4 to 55.3% of mean squared errors and was correlated with arterial EAA concentrations. Modifying the model to allow rate constants to vary as a function of arterial EAA concentrations reduced slope bias, resulting in RMSE ranging from 1.9 to 6.5% and CCC from 0.97 to 1.00. Alternatively, splitting the model to account for use of EAA from absorption separately from arterial use resulted in poorer predictions and biologically infeasible parameter estimates. The liver clearance model predicted hepatic vein concentrations from arterial and portal vein input fluxes with RMSE across EAA ranging from 1.9 to 6.8% and CCC ranging from 0.97 to 1.00 when using reported parameters. The reparameterized model generated from the assembled data set resulted in predictions of EAA hepatic vein concentrations with RMSE ranging from 1.9 to 6.7% and CCC ranging from 0.97 to 1.00. Significant slope bias was present for Arg, His, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val. Altering the model to represent the clearance rate constant as a function of arterial concentrations resulted in RMSE ranging from 1.8 to 6.5% and CCC ranging from 0.97 to 1.00. The combination of PDV and liver clearance models provided predictions of total splanchnic use similar to those of an empirical model representing splanchnic use as a fractional proportion of absorption that had RMSE ranging from 3.0 to 8.6% and CCC ranging from 0.95 to 0.99, with significant slope bias for the majority of EAA.
74 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557062
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): B.E. Till, J.A. Huntington, W. Posri, R. Early, J. Taylor-Pickard, L.A. Sinclair
ABSTRACT

Modification of milk and cheese fat to contain long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) by feeding microalgae (ALG) to dairy cows has the potential to improve human health, but the subsequent effect on the sensory attributes of dairy products is unclear. The objective was to determine the effect of feeding dairy cows different amounts of ALG that was rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on milk and cheese FA profile, cheese sensory attributes, and cow performance. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 row and column design, with 4 periods of 28 d, with cheddar cheese production and animal performance measurements undertaken during the final 7 d of each period. Cows were fed a basal diet that was supplemented with ALG (Schizochytrium limancinum) at 4 rates: 0 (control, C), 50 (LA), 100 (MA), or 150 g (HA) of ALG per cow per day. We found that both milk and cheese fat content of DHA increased linearly with ALG feed rate and was 0.29 g/100 g FA higher in milk and cheese from cows fed HA compared with C. Supplementation with ALG linearly reduced the content of saturated FA and the ratio of n-6:n-3 FA in milk and cheese. Supplementation with ALG altered 20 out of the 32 sensory attributes, with a linear increase in cheese air holes, nutty flavor, and dry mouth aftertaste with ALG inclusion. Creaminess of cheese decreased with ALG inclusion rate and was positively correlated with saturated FA content. We also observed a quadratic effect on fruity odor, which was highest in cheese from cows fed HA and lowest in LA, and firmness and crumbliness texture, being highest in MA and lowest in HA. Supplementation with ALG had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield, or live weight change of the cows, with mean values of 23.1, 38.5, and 0.34 kg/d respectively, but milk fat content decreased linearly, and energy-corrected milk yield tended to decrease linearly with rate of ALG inclusion (mean values of 39.6, 38.4, 37.1, and 35.9 g/kg, and 41.3, 41.3, 40.5, and 39.4 kg/d for C, LA, MA, and HA, respectively). We conclude that feeding ALG to high-yielding dairy cows improved milk and cheese content of DHA and altered cheese taste but not cow performance, although milk fat content reduced as inclusion rate increased.
75 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557063
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Michelle C. Der Bedrosian, Limin Kung
ABSTRACT

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of treating whole-plant corn at harvest with various doses of an exogenous acidic protease on fermentation and changes in nutritive value after a short period (45 d) of ensiling. Whole-plant corn (37% dry matter) was chopped and treated with 0, 20, 200, 1,000, or 2,000 mg of protease/kg of wet forage. Forages (~500 g) were packed in bag silos and ensiled at 22 to 23°C for 45 d. Data were analyzed as a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the main effects of the dose of protease, day of ensiling, and their interaction. Treatment with protease did not alter the concentrations of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, lactic acid, or acetic acid compared with untreated silage, with the exception that the concentration of starch was lower in silage treated with 20 mg of protease/kg compared with untreated silage. However, the 2 highest doses of protease resulted in silages with higher concentrations of ethanol and more yeasts compared with untreated silage. Protease treatment did not affect the ruminal in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. Concentrations of soluble protein (percentage of crude protein) increased after ensiling for all treatments but was not different between silage treated with the lowest dose of protease and untreated silage. Soluble protein increased in a dose-dependent manner above the low dose of protease in silages. Concentrations of NH3-N were higher only in silages treated with the 2 highest doses of protease compared with untreated silage. Silages treated with the 3 highest doses of protease were higher in ruminal in vitro digestibility of starch compared with untreated silage but were similar to each other. The concentrations of total AA were determined in fresh forage and silages for the untreated and 200 and 2,000 mg/kg doses of protease. Neither amount of added protease affected the total concentrations of essential, nonessential, or total AA in silage. However, of the essential AA, treatment with protease resulted in silages with lower concentrations of lysine and arginine but higher concentrations of leucine compared with untreated silage. The 200 mg/kg dose of protease substantially improved ruminal in vitro starch digestion in corn silage after a short period of ensiling without affecting concentrations or numbers of ethanol and yeasts, respectively.
76 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557064
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Marcela R. Tosta, Luciana L. Prates, David A. Christensen, Peiqiang Yu
ABSTRACT

Several processing techniques can be used to slow the degradation rate in the rumen and thus provide more bypass crude protein (CP) and starch to the small intestine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing methods on cool-season adapted oat grain compared with dry-rolled barley grain, when fed as total mixed ration (TMR) for lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods and fed TMR with 1 of 4 treatments: dry-rolled oats, steam-flaked oats, pelleted oats, or dry-rolled barley. Dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 28.19 to 31.61 kg/d and was lower for rolled oats compared with pelleted oats. Despite the nutrient intake being higher for cows fed pelleted oats, those fed rolled oats had the highest milk production and milk fat percentage (49.23 kg/d and 4%, respectively). Ruminal fermentation characteristics were similar across treatments, with only significant differences in concentrations of acetate (lowest for pelleted oats) and total short-chain fatty acids (highest value for rolled barley) and a lower pH for flaked oats at the 9-h and 12-h points. Dietary treatments did not affect total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, or CP; digestibility of starch was the lowest for rolled barley (89.04%). Measured blood metabolites, urea, glucose, and β-hydroxybutyrate, were not affected by dietary treatment. Purine derivatives and microbial N supply were also unaffected by dietary treatments. Cows fed flaked oat–based TMR showed the lowest N excretion in milk; however, the lack of difference between diets with regard to urinary N and fecal N excretion resulted in no significant changes in N balance between diets. Therefore, rolled oats allow cows to have higher milk production with lower DMI compared with all other treatments in this study.
77 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557065
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): A. Kahyani, G.R. Ghorbani, M. Alikhani, E. Ghasemi, A. Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, K.A. Beauchemin, S.M. Nasrollahi
ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effects of feeding diets that were formulated to contain similar proportions of undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) from forage, with wheat straw (WS) substituted for corn silage (CS), alfalfa hay (AH), or both. The diets were fed to lactating dairy cows and intake, digestibility, blood metabolites, and milk production were examined. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (body weight = 642 ± 50 kg; days in milk = 78 ± 11 d; milk production = 56 ± 6 kg/d; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a randomized block design with 6-wk periods after a 10-d covariate period. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation followed by 28 d of data collection. The control diet contained CS and AH as forage sources (CSAH) with 17% of dietary dry matter as uNDF after 30 h of incubation (uNDF30). Wheat straw was substituted for AH (WSCS), CS (WSAH), or both (WSCSAH) on an uNDF30 basis, and beet pulp was used to obtain similar concentrations of NDF digestibility after 30 h of incubation (NDFD30 = 44.5% of NDF) across all diets. The 4 diets also contained similar concentrations of net energy for lactation and metabolizable protein. Dry matter intake was greatest for WSCS (27.8 kg/d), followed by CSAH (25.7 kg/d), WSCSAH (25.2 kg/d), and WSAH (24.2 kg/d). However, yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM), and energy-corrected milk did not differ, resulting in higher FCM efficiency (kg of FCM yield/kg of dry matter intake) for WSAH (1.83) and WSCSAH (1.79), followed by CSAH (1.69) and WSCS (1.64). Milk protein percentage was greater for CSAH (2.84%) and WSCS (2.83%) than for WSAH (2.78%), and WSCSAH (2.81%) was intermediate. The opposite trend was observed for milk urea nitrogen, which was lower for CSAH (15.8 mg/dL), WSCS (15.8 mg/dL), and WSCSAH (17.0 mg/dL) than for WSAH (20 mg/dL). Total-tract NDF digestibility and ruminal pH were greater for diets containing WS than the diet without WS (CSAH), but digestibility of other nutrients was not affected by dietary treatments. Cows fed WSAH had less body reserves (body weight change = −13.5 kg/period) than the cows fed the other diets, whereas energy balance was greatest for those fed WSCS. The results showed that feeding high-producing dairy cows diets containing different forage sources but formulated to supply similar concentrations of uNDF30 while maintaining NDFD30, net energy for lactation, and metabolizable protein constant did not influence milk production. However, a combination of WS and CS (WSCS diet) compared with a diet with CS and AH improved feed intake, ruminal pH, total-tract NDF digestibility, and energy balance of dairy cows.
78 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557066
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): D.J. Johnston, K. Theodoridou, A.W. Gordon, T. Yan, W.C. McRoberts, C.P. Ferris
ABSTRACT

The European livestock sector has a significant deficit of high-quality protein feed ingredients. Consequently there is interest in using locally grown protein grain crops to partially or completely replace imported protein feeds in dairy cow rations. Field bean (FB; Vicia faba) has been identified as a locally grown crop with significant potential. The current study was designed to examine the effects of FB on cow performance and nutrient utilization in the diet of early-lactation dairy cows, including high levels of FB (up to 8.4 kg/cow per day). The experiment used 72 dairy cows in a 3-treatment continuous design (from calving until wk 20 of lactation). All cows were given ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates [45:55 on a dry matter (DM) basis]. Concentrates offered contained either 0, 349, or 698 g of FB/kg of concentrate (treatments FB0, FB-Low, and FB-High, respectively), with FB completely replacing soybean meal, rapeseed meal, maize gluten, and wheat in the concentrate for the FB-High treatment. Following completion of the 20-wk experiment, ration digestibility, nutrient utilization, and methane (CH4) production were measured using 4 cows from each treatment. Neither silage DM intake, total DM intake, nor milk yield were affected by treatment. Cows on FB0 had a higher milk fat content than those on FB-High, and cows on FB0 and FB-Low had higher milk protein contents than did those on FB-High. Field bean inclusion increased the degree of saturation of milk fat produced. Milk fat yield, milk protein yield, and milk fat plus protein yield were higher with FB0 than with either FB-Low or FB-High. Treatment had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, nitrogen (N), gross energy, or neutral detergent fiber, whereas digestibility of acid detergent fiber was higher with FB0 than with FB-High. Neither the efficiency of gross energy or N utilization, nor any of the CH4 production parameters examined, were affected by treatment. Similarly, none of the fertility or health parameters examined were affected by treatment. The reduction in milk fat observed may have been due to the higher starch content of the FB-High diet, and the reduction in milk protein may have been due to a deficit of methionine in the diet. It is likely that these issues could be overcome by changes in ration formulation, thus allowing FB to be included at the higher range without loss in performance.
79 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557067
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Yunqing Wu, Ying Xiong, Xuelan Chen, Dan Luo, Bao Gao, Jing Chen, Xiaolin Huang, Yuankui Leng, Yonghua Xiong
ABSTRACT

The traditional gold nanoparticle (AuNP) growth-based plasmonic ELISA (pELISA) strictly and directly controlled by reducing reagents can achieve high sensitivity, but it remains fragile toward the surrounding environment. This work developed a sandwich pELISA for Cronobacter detection in powdered infant formula samples by mediating AuNP growth through DNA. In this assay, DNA adsorbed on the surface of gold nanoseeds guided the anisotropic crystal growth with hydroxylamine as a reducing reagent, and the catalase–hydrogen peroxide (Cat–H2O2) system was introduced to bridge the DNA-directed AuNP growth and pELISA, as such DNA can be cleaved into fragments by the hydroxyl radical generated from oxidation of H2O2 through Fenton reagents. Under optimized conditions, the proposed pELISA can qualitatively detect Cronobacter species (Cronobacter muytjensii ATCC 51329) by the naked eye with a cut-off limit of 3 × 105 cfu/mL. This method also revealed a good linear range (3 × 102 to 3 × 107 cfu/mL) for quantitative detection of C. muytjensii ATCC 51329 with a limit of detection of 1.6 × 102 cfu/mL, which is approximately 162.5 times lower than that of horseradish peroxidase-based conventional ELISA (2.6 × 104 cfu/mL). By taking advantage of highly stable DNA-directed AuNP growth, the proposed method shows a good performance in powdered infant formula samples spiked with different concentrations of C. muytjensii ATCC 51329 with average recoveries ranging from 90.79 to 119.09% and coefficient of variation ranging from 4.24 to 9.55%. These values corresponded to an acceptable accuracy and precision for the proposed method. In brief, this work shows potential for screening other analytes in food safety, clinical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring.
80 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557068
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): A.G. D'Alessandro, G. Martemucci, P. Loizzo, M. Faccia
ABSTRACT

Donkey milk is characterized by low contents of total solids, fat, and caseins, especially κ-casein, which results in formation of a very weak gel upon renneting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fortification of donkey milk with microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) for cheesemaking in relation to different enzyme addition protocols (patterns, PAT). Four independent trials were performed using MTGase (5.0 U/g of milk protein) according to the following experimental patterns: control (no MTGase addition); MTGase addition (40°C) 15 min before starter inoculation (PAT1); addition of MTGase to milk simultaneously with starter culture (40°C) (PAT2); and MTGase addition simultaneously with rennet (42°C) in acidified milk (pH 6.3) (PAT3). Evolution of pH during acidification, cheesemaking parameters, and proximal composition and color of cheese at 24 h were recorded. The protein fractions of cheese and whey were investigated by urea-PAGE and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Addition of MTGase had no significant effect on moisture, protein, fat, or cheese yield. The addition of MTGase with rennet (PAT3) improved curd firmness compared with the control. Among the different patterns of MTGase addition, PAT3 reduced gel formation time, time between rennet addition and cheese molding, and weight loss of cheese at 24 h. The PAT3 treatment also resulted in the lowest lightness and highest yellowness color values of the cheese. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE of cheeses revealed that MTGase modified the protein pattern in the high-molecular-weight zone (range 37–75 kDa) compared with the control. Of the MTGase protocols, PAT3 showed better casein retention in cheese, as confirmed by the lanes of α- and β-caseins in the electropherogram of the whey, which was subtler for this protocol. In conclusion, MTGase may be used in cheese production from donkey milk to improve curd firmness; MTGase should be added simultaneously with the rennet.
81 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557069
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): B. Sprick, Z. Linghu, J.K. Amamcharla, L.E. Metzger, J.S. Smith
ABSTRACT

In recent years, using dairy phospholipids (PL) as functional ingredients has increased because PL have nutritional benefits and functional properties. In this study, a novel 2-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was used to extract whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC), a dairy co-product obtained during the manufacture of whey protein isolate, for PL enrichment. In the first step, nonpolar lipids in WPPC were removed using neat supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) at 41.4 MPa and 60°C. In the second stage, the feasibility of using the polar solvent ethanol as a co-solvent to increase the solubility of S-CO2 extraction solvent was explored. A 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design with extraction pressure (35.0, 41.4, and 55.0 MPa), temperature (40 and 60°C), and concentration of ethanol (10, 15, and 20%) as independent factors was used to evaluate the extraction efficiency providing the most total PL, and the best proportion of each individual PL from the spent solids collected during S-CO2 SFE. All lipid fractions were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance lipid chromatography. The total amount of PL extracted from WPPC was significantly affected by ethanol concentration; the extraction pressure and temperature were nonsignificant. The optimal SFE condition for generating a concentrated PL lipid fraction was 35.0 MPa, 40°C, and 15% ethanol concentration; the highest amount of extracted PL averaged 26.26 g/100 g of fat. Moreover, adjusting SFE condition allowed successful recovery of a high concentration of sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine, giving averages of 11.07, 10.07, and 7.2 g/100 g of fat, respectively, 2 to 3 times more than conventional solvent extraction. In addition, exhausted solids obtained after the SFE process were enriched with denatured proteins (72% on dry basis) with significantly more water-holding capacity and emulsifying capacity than untreated WPPC. Overall, this 2-stage SFE process using neat S-CO2 and ethanol has the greatest potential to produce a PL-rich lipid fraction from WPPC.
82 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557070
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): J.C. Ribeiro Júnior, F.F. Silva, J.B.A. Lima, E.H. Ossugui, P.I. Teider Junior, A.C.L.P. Campos, A. Navarro, R. Tamanini, J. Ribeiro, A.A. Alfieri, V. Beloti
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to quantify, identify, evaluate antimicrobial resistance, and characterize the virulence factors of enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga-toxigenic (STEC), and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli in raw milk (RM) and legal (LMFC) and illegal (IMFC) Minas Frescal cheeses in southern and northeast Brazil. Illegal cheeses are those made without official inspection service or sanitary surveillance. We evaluated samples of RM produced in Paraná (southern) and Maranhão (northeast) States, LMFC produced using pasteurized milk in inspected industries, and IMFC potentially produced with raw milk. Mean total coliform counts were 8.4 × 104 cfu/mL for RM, 1.4 × 107 cfu/mL for LMFC, and 2.9 × 107 cfu/mL for IMFC. Mean E. coli counts were 2.4 × 103 cfu/mL for RM, 1.9 × 102 cfu/mL for LMFC, and 1.1 × 105 cfu/mL for IMFC. Among the 205 E. coli isolates from RM, 9.75% were identified as EPEC, mainly (90%) in samples from Paraná. Of the total isolates from the cheese samples, 97.4% (n = 111) came from IMFC, of which 1.8 and 2.7% were identified as EPEC and STEC, respectively; no EHEC was detected. The phylogenetic group A (60%) and typical EPEC (68%) predominated, which confirms the possible human origin of pathogenic isolates in RM and IMFC. Of these, 50% were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and streptomycin was the antimicrobial with the highest number (8) of EPEC and STEC resistant isolates. This study reports the first isolation of serogroup O28ac in Brazilian milk. We found no predominance of a specific serogroup of EPEC or STEC in milk or cheese or clonal isolates in the same sample, indicating different origins of the contamination in these products, presumably mostly related to poor hygienic handling.
83 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557071
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Ji-Young Hong, Na-Kyoung Lee, Sung-Hun Yi, Sang-Pil Hong, Hyun-Dong Paik
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the β-glucan contents, physicochemical features, and microbial communities in milk kefir prepared using Saccharomyces cerevisiae KU200284 isolated from cucumber jangajji, a fermented vegetable commonly eaten in Korean. Three types of milk kefir were manufactured, with (1) activated kefir grain, (2) activated kefir grain with commercial S. cerevisiae BOF, and (3) activated kefir grain with S. cerevisiae KU200284. β-Glucan contents of milk kefir using kefir grain and kefir grain with S. cerevisiae strains BOF and KU200284 were 8.29, 8.59, and 8.57%, respectively. The pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, Brix level, and alcohol contents of milk kefir using kefir grain with S. cerevisiae strains were acceptable compared with milk kefir using only kefir grain. In milk kefir produced using kefir grains and S. cerevisiae strains, 16S rRNA reads showed representative strains of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens (>72% relative abundance) and Acetobacter fabarum (>16% relative abundance). In particular, milk kefir using kefir grain with S. cerevisiae KU200284 had the highest relative abundance of L. kefiranofaciens. In addition, the internal transcribed sequence (ITS) rRNA reads in tested milk kefir showed representative strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus (>52% relative abundance) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (>16% relative abundance). In contrast, milk kefir using S. cerevisiae strains had higher relative abundance of S. cerevisiae (>37%). The β-glucan production, physicochemical properties, and microbial community profiling indicate that S. cerevisiae KU200284 could be used in functional dairy products as a starter culture.
84 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557072
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Ziwei Zhang, Chaoxin Man, Linlin Sun, Xinyan Yang, Mingyu Li, Wei Zhang, Yujun Jiang
ABSTRACT


Lactobacillus plantarum J26, a significant probiotic isolated from Chinese traditional fermented dairy products, exerts a positive immunomodulatory effect by regulating the expression of immune-related genes. We investigated expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the intestinal tract of mice stimulated by L. plantarum J26. In vivo, these cytokines were upregulated, peaked on d 5, and then decreased to the control level, indicating that L. plantarum J26 could induce expression of the genes encoding these proinflammatory cytokines. Teichoic acids produced by L. plantarum are recognized as key immunomodulatory molecules involved in the regulation of the host immune response. To better understand the genetic basis of this immunomodulatory mechanism, we sequenced and analyzed the whole genome of L. plantarum J26. The genome of L. plantarum J26 contains a circular chromosome and 4 circular plasmids. Lactobacillus plantarum J26 was predicted to synthesize ribitol-type backbones of wall teichoic acid. Furthermore, orthologous average nucleotide identity (OrthoANI) values showed that the genome was highly similar (>98.00%) to other L. plantarum strains, especially to L. plantarum ST-III and JDM1. The genomic data of L. plantarum J26 provide a genetic basis to further elucidate its mechanism of immunoregulation and will facilitate its application in the functional dairy food industry.
85 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557073
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Qin Wu, Qiang Zhu, Yana Liu, Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir, Adeel Sattar, Dapeng Peng, Yanfei Tao, Dongmei Chen, Yulian Wang, Zonghui Yuan
ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed a microbiological inhibition method for the rapid screening of antibiotics in milk with Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC12980 as an indicator bacterium and an easy sample pretreatment. We observed that the limits of detection of the kit for 34 common antibiotic residues in milk, including β-lactams (13), aminoglycosides (6), tetracyclines (4), sulfonamides (6), macrolides (4), lincosamides (1), were lower than or close to the maximum residue limits formulated by the European Union and China. Moreover, the false-positive rate was 1% and the false-negative rates were less than 5%. The ruggedness of the method (the reproducibility of detection capability of different batches of medium) met requirements at determined levels and residual limits. The shelf life of the kit was more than 6 mo at 4°C. Additionally, we observed good correlations between the kit results and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry results for incurred milk (samples taken from animals treated with antibiotics according to the pre-slaughter medication data), which indicated that the kit was reliable for screening antibiotics in incurred samples. In conclusion, the kit has a broad application potential with high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, stability, and reliability, combined with simple operation, low cost, and high-throughput capacity.
86 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557074
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Shixi Song, Xingyu Wang, Ke Xu, Lufang Ning, Xingbin Yang
ABSTRACT

An aptamer-based strategy was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of viable Lactobacillus casei in dairy products. Three highly specific aptamers for L. casei were obtained using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment protocol using the whole bacterium cell as the target (cell-SELEX) facilitated by polyethyleneglycol and chitosan modified graphene oxide and complementary ring-mediated rolling circle amplification. Two aptamers, one for separating and enriching the L. casei cells and the other for generating fluorescence signals, were employed to develop an aptamer-based strategy, which was demonstrated for the selective detection of L. casei in commercial dairy drinks, with a dynamic range of 105 to 109 cfu/mL. Viable and nonviable L. casei cells could be discriminated based on the significant difference in fluorescence intensity. This established strategy is of high selectivity and sensitivity, and can be used for rapid analysis of viable L. casei in quality control and food surveillance areas.
87 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557075
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): D.S. Mehta, L.E. Metzger, A.N. Hassan, B.K. Nelson, H.A. Patel
ABSTRACT

Spore formers are common spoilage-causing microorganisms in dairy products; however, their modes of spoilage (proteolysis, lipolysis, etc.) have not been described in detail for cultured dairy products such as sour cream and yogurt. The objective of the present study was to test the ability of spore-forming strains isolated from dairy environments for their spoilage-causing activities at typical sour cream (24°C) and yogurt (42°C) fermentation temperatures. A total of 25 spore-forming strains were isolated from different sources, including raw milk, pasteurizer balance tank, biofilms formed on heat exchangers, and milk powder. These strains were tested for proteolytic and lipolytic activities and for their ability to degrade phospholipids, common stabilizers (starch, gelatin, xanthan gum, pectin), and exopolysaccharides (EPS) at sour cream and yogurt fermentation temperatures. A higher percentage of positive strains was observed for selected activities at yogurt fermentation temperature compared with sour cream fermentation temperature. Identified proteolytic spore-forming strains, based on a skim milk agar method, were subsequently quantified for their level of proteolysis using non-casein nitrogen (NCN) content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE (SDS-PAGE). The proteolytic strains that showed the highest levels of proteolysis (highest percentages of NCN content) at 24°C were Bacillus mojavensis BC, Bacillus cereus DBC, Bacillus subtilis DBC, B. mojavensis DBC1, and Paenibacillus polymyxa DBC1. At 42°C the strains with the highest levels of proteolysis (highest percentages of NCN content) were B. subtilis DBC, B. mojavensis BC, B. mojavensis DBC1, B. cereus DBC, and Bacillus licheniformis DBC6. Results of SDS-PAGE demonstrated that proteolytic strains had primarily hydrolyzed β- and κ-CN. A viscometric method was used to evaluate the susceptibility of exopolysaccharides (EPS) to degradation by selected spore formers. This method helped to determine that EPS produced by commercial yogurt and sour cream cultures is susceptible to degradation by spore formers present in dairy environments.
88 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557076
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): M. Andretta, T.T. Almeida, L.R. Ferreira, A.F. Carvalho, R.S. Yamatogi, L.A. Nero
ABSTRACT

Considering the growing consumption of artisanal foods worldwide, we aimed to evaluate the microbial safety of Serro artisanal cheese (SAC), produced in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This cheese is produced with raw milk using 1 of 2 natural starter cultures: “pingo” and “rala.” A total of 53 SAC samples (pingo = 8; rala = 45) were obtained from different farmers and subjected to conventional and molecular assays to detect and enumerate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS), diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Brucella abortus. The SAC samples were also subjected to an ELISA to detect classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (CSE: SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE) and to PCR assays to detect staphylococcal enterotoxin-related genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see). Coagulase-positive staphylococci isolates were obtained and tested by the same assays to detect their potential in CSE production and presence of CSE-related genes. None of the SAC samples showed any of the screened food-borne pathogens and zoonotic agents, and none showed the presence of CSE by phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Despite the absence of microbial hazards, mean counts of CPS in SAC samples were 5.2 log cfu/g (pingo starter) and 4.6 log cfu/g (rala starter), indicating poor hygiene practices during production. None of the tested CPS isolates (n = 116) produced CSE or presented CSE-related genes. Despite the relative microbial safety, hygienic conditions during SAC production must be improved to meet official guidelines established in Brazil.
89 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557077
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): A.G. Galstyan, A.N. Petrov, E.E. Illarionova, V.K. Semipyatniy, S.N. Turovskaya, A.E. Ryabova, S.A. Khurshudyan, R.R. Vafin, I.A. Radaeva
ABSTRACT

Whole milk powder (WMP) is a universal raw material component that can overcome the problem of seasonality of raw milk. It can be used to provide high-nutritional products to remote areas experiencing a raw milk shortage. Its long shelf life depends on the conditions of storage and transportation, which are recommended to be carried out in a range from 0 to 10°C. At higher temperatures, the quality of WMP deteriorates because of a substantial increase in the degradation of fat and protein fractions. A range of low negative temperatures for storage have not been systematically investigated. Previous studies have shown that freezing WMP results in protein denaturation, crystallization of lactose, and extraction of free fat, all of which reduce the quality characteristics of the product, including deterioration of solubility, quick rancidification, and microbiological changes. However, these previous studies did not simulate the possible situations of transportation and storage of milk powder at low negative temperatures that occur in practice. Given the volume of transportation, distances and climatic characteristics of transportation routes play an important role in WMP preservation. In this study, we simulated storage and transport of WMP at −20°C. The samples were periodically thawed to 10 and 20°C and examined for physicochemical, functional-technological, thermodynamic, microbiological, and organoleptic parameters. Based on our results, storage of WMP at −20°C for 40 d did not have a significant effect on its qualitative characteristics. We observed some compaction of product structure and clustering or clumping, which was reversible by slight mechanical impact. Artificial contamination of the packaging surface with yeast and molds, followed by thawing of the samples, indicated the absence of the contaminants, which was explained by possible redistribution of moisture in the system.
90 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557078
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Rachel C. Anderson, Julie E. Dalziel, Neill W. Haggarty, Kelly E. Dunstan, Pramod K. Gopal, Nicole C. Roy
ABSTRACT

Colostrum plays an important role in initiating the development of the intestinal barrier in newborn mammals. Given its bioactivity, there is much interest in the potential use of bovine colostrum to improve human gastrointestinal health throughout the life span. There is evidence that bovine colostrum is effective at improving small intestinal barrier integrity and some indication that it may alter colonic motility. However, for colostrum to be used as a product to improve intestinal health, it needs to be bioactive after processing. The aim of this study was to determine whether industrial processing of bovine colostrum affects its ability to improve small intestinal barrier integrity or alter distal colon motility. Three colostrum sample types were compared; raw whole colostrum powder (WCP), raw skim colostrum powder (SCP), and industrially produced colostrum milk protein concentrate (CMPC). To determine whether these colostrum powders had different effects on small intestinal barrier integrity, their effects on the transepithelial electrical resistance across an in vitro intestinal epithelial layer (Caco-2 cells) were measured, both with and without a challenge from the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α. These results showed that CMPC enhanced transepithelial electrical resistance across unchallenged epithelial cell layers, whereas the raw colostrum samples, WCP and SCP, did not have an effect. The colostrum samples were also compared to determine how they affect contractility in the distal colon isolated from the rat. Skim colostrum powder was the only sample to act directly on colonic tissue to modulate motility, increasing the amplitude of contractions. The results show that bovine colostrum is able to improve small intestinal barrier integrity and alter colon motility, and they implicate different components. The barrier integrity enhancement was apparent only in the industrial CMPC, which may have been due to the increase in protein concentration or the release of small peptides as a result of processing. The ability to alter colon motility was present in SCP but absent in WCP, again implying that an increase in protein concentration is responsible for the effect. However, this effect was not apparent for the industrially processed CMPC, suggesting denaturation or degradation of the active component. The beneficial effect of colostrum on small intestinal barrier integrity was present after processing, confirming that it is feasible to industrially produce an active product for gut health.
91 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557079
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Carlotta Giromini, Julie A. Lovegrove, David I. Givens, Raffaella Rebucci, Luciano Pinotti, Elisa Maffioli, Gabriella Tedeschi, Tamil S. Sundaram, Antonella Baldi
ABSTRACT

Over the past decades, several studies investigated the health-promoting functions of milk peptides. However, to date many hurdles still exist regarding the widespread use of milk-derived bioactive peptides, as they may be degraded during gastrointestinal digestion. Thus, the aim of our study was to in vitro digest intact whey protein isolate (WPI) and casein proteins (CNP), mimicking in vivo digestion, to investigate their bioactive effects and to identify the potential peptides involved. Whey protein isolate and CNP were digested using a pepsin–pancreatin protocol and ultra-filtered (3-kDa cutoff membrane). A permeate (<3 kDa) and a retentate (>3 kDa) were obtained. Soy protein was included as a control (CTR). Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE1-I) and antioxidant activity (AOX) were assessed and compared with those observed in undigested proteins and CTR. Furthermore, the permeate was characterized by nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-nano ESI MS/MS) using a shotgun peptidomic approach, and retentate was further digested with trypsin and analyzed by MS using a shotgun proteomic approach to identify potentially bioactive peptides. Further, the effects of WPI, CNP, and CTR retentate on cell metabolic activity and on mucus production (MUC5AC and MUC2 gene expression) were assessed in intestinal goblet HT29-MTX-E12 cells. Results showed that WPI permeate induced a significant ACE1-I inhibitory effect [49.2 ± 0.64% (SEM)] compared with undigested WPI, CNP permeate, and retentate or CTR permeate (10.40 ± 1.07%). A significant increase in AOX (1.58 ± 0.04 and 1.61 ± 0.02 µmol of trolox AOX equivalents per mg of protein, respectively) upon digestion was found in WPI. Potentially bioactive peptides associated with ACE1-I and antihypertensive effects were identified in WPI permeate and CNP retentate. At specific concentrations, WPI, CNP, and CTR retentate were able to stimulate metabolic activity in HT29-MTX-E12 cells. Expression of MUC5AC was increased by CNP retentate and unaltered by WPI retentate; MUC2 expression was significantly increased by 0.33 mg/g of CNP and reduced by 1.33 mg/g of CNP. Our results confirm that milk proteins may be rich sources of bioactive compounds, with the greatest beneficial potential of CNP at the intestinal goblet cell level.
92 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557080
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): Priti Mudgil, Bincy Baby, Ying-Yuan Ngoh, Ranjit Vijayan, Chee-Yuen Gan, Sajid Maqsood
ABSTRACT

Novel bioactive peptides from camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were identified and tested for inhibition of cholesterol esterase (CEase), and their possible binding mechanisms were elucidated by molecular docking. Papain-generated CMPH showed the highest degree of hydrolysis. All CMPH produced upon enzymatic degradation demonstrated a dramatic enhancement of CEase inhibition compared with intact camel milk proteins, with papain-generated hydrolysate P9 displaying the highest inhibition. Peptide identification and their modeling through PepSite 2 revealed that among 20 potential bioactive peptides in alcalase-generated hydrolysate A9, only 3 peptides, with sequences KFQWGY, SQDWSFY, and YWYPPQ, showed the highest binding toward CEase catalytic sites. Among 43 peptides in 9-h papain-generated hydrolysate P9, 4 peptides were found to be potent CEase inhibitors. Molecular docking revealed that WPMLQPKVM, CLSPLQMR, MYQQWKFL, and CLSPLQFR from P9 hydrolysates were able to bind to the active site of CEase with good docking scores and molecular mechanics–generalized born surface area binding energies. Overall, this is the first study reporting CEase inhibitory potential of peptides generated from milk proteins.
93 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 32557081
Publication date: December 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 12
Author(s): YoHan Nam, Jong-Hwa Kim, Maytiya Konkit, Wonyong Kim
ABSTRACT

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is correlated with alcohol consumption, and ALD progression depends on various factors. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial for mitigating ALD. However, the valuable effects of LAB-derived dairy products remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the effects of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 1447 dry cells (CAU 1447) and cream cheese derived from CAU 1447 on ALD progression following long-term alcohol consumption in rats. Oral administration of CAU 1447 and CAU 1447 cream cheese significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride levels. We found that CAU 1447 and CAU 1447 cream cheese downregulated mRNA encoding various cytokines and antioxidative factors in the liver. Oral CAU 1447 cream cheese administration increased short-chain fatty acid, butyrate, and acetate levels in feces. Thus, administration of CAU 1447 and CAU 1447 cream cheese induced hepatoprotective effects, indicating potential applications as a supplement for ALD mitigation.

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SJR: 1.350
SNIP: 1.491
Impact (Scopus CiteScore): 0.284
Quartile: Q1
CiteScore percentile: 95%
CiteScore rank: 16 out of 367
Cited by WUR staff: 3362 times. (2016-2018)

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