|Title||Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea leprosula Miq. cuttings, mycorrhizae and nutrients|
|Author(s)||Mulyana Omon, R.|
|Source||Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; Supriyanto; W.T.M. Smits. - Wageningen : Tropenbos International - ISBN 9789051130577 - 144|
|Department(s)||Forest Ecology and Forest Management|
|Publication type||Dissertation, internally prepared|
|Keyword(s)||shorea leprosula - dipterocarpaceae - stekken - vegetatieve vermeerdering - mycorrhizae - ectomycorrhiza - plantenvoeding - bosecologie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - kunstmeststoffen - toepassing - lichtrelaties - kalimantan - indonesië - bodembiologie - shorea leprosula - dipterocarpaceae - cuttings - vegetative propagation - mycorrhizas - ectomycorrhizas - plant nutrition - forest ecology - soil fertility - fertilizers - application - light relations - kalimantan - indonesia - soil biology|
|Abstract||"Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea leprosula cuttings, mycorrhizace and nutrients" discusses the mycorrhizal development in conditions of different dosage of NPK fertilizer, on different soil substrates and under different environmental conditions (controlled conditions and semicontrolled conditions).
This research was conducted in a greenhouse at the Research Station Samboja (WANARISET), East Kalimantan Indonesia. The book consists of four chapters.
Chapter 1, with a general introduction, provides an overview of the literature on Dipterocarpaceae, mycorrhizae, fertilization, and soil substrates with special reference to environmental factors.
Chapter 2 describes an experiment on the influence of environmental factors, mycorrhizal inoculation, fertilization, soil substrates and their interactions per treatment. The results show that those environmental factors, soil substrates and mycorrhizal inoculation affected both the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development. NPK fertilizer did not significantly affect the growth of S. leprosula cuttings. The strongest growth of S. leprosula cuttings was obtained under controlled conditions.
The environmental factors, especially light intensity, significantly affected both the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development. The light intensitymaximizing the growth of S. leprosula cuttings was 12 µmol.m -2 occuring at 9.00 hrs and 16.00 hrs. As confirmed by other studies, photosynthetic activities are more significant at 9.00 hrs and 16.00 hrs, while at 12.00 hrs the photosynthetic activity is lower than those at 9.00 hrs and 16.00 hrs.
Sandy loam and sandy clay favour the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development as compared with clay. Sandy clay and sandy loam are more aerated than clay. The higher oxygen supply favours the mycorrhizaldevelopment.
Chapter 3 discusses an experiment on mycorrhizal development and the inoculum potential in various soil substrates, observed by an intrascope in perforons (rootboxes). The results show that an unidentified and unsterilized soil inoculum advances the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development. Autoclaving of the soil causes a decrease in nutrient availability in the soil, especially of N, P, K, and Mg, whereas Ca and Fe increase. In sterilized substrates a new mycorrhizal development, either from spores that had survived the beat, or from airborne spores, was found. Sterilization by autoclaving at 121° C for two hoursclearly affected the nutrient availability negatively. The physiological state and age of cuttings also affected the mycorrhizal development.
Chapter 4 includes the general discussion and conclusion. Aeration or oxygen supply in the soil substrates indeed affects the growth of S. leprosula and the mycorrhizal development. The potential inoculum plays an important role in promoting the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development. Light intensity affected the growth of S. leprosula cuttings. In this Chapter, also the physiological effects of the mycorrhizal development were discussed. The combined effect of all experimental inputs was explained in a sapstream model of the whole cutting. This also highlighted the role played by Amanita sp in mobilizing magnesium, which as the main component of chlorophyll, boosted the photosynthesis.
Several new facts emerged. When young, Shorea leprosula proves to be shade requiring, not shade-tolerant, because high light intensity damages it. This is a new temperament. If the squash test is right, two distinct morphological types of mycorrhizae are caused by one Amanita species, providing a striking case of dimorphism probably caused by stress. Finally Fe-uptake and processing may well be a parameter for very complex root processes, and should be the subject of through research.
At the end of the Chapter, the application of knowledge obtained by the implementation in nursery techniques was discussed, especially the use of soil inocula and fertilization aspects for the S. leprosula and the necessity of light management by means of adequate roofing.