|Title||Development of an endogenous androgen receptor-mediated luciferase expression assay (AR-LUX) for interactive androgenic action|
|Source||Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.H. Koeman, co-promotor(en): Jac Aarts; R.J.T. Rodenburg. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058089779 - 138|
|Publication type||Dissertation, internally prepared|
|Keyword(s)||androgenen - groeibevorderaars - rundvee - anabole steroïden - hormoonverstoorders - androgens - growth promoters - cattle - anabolic steroids - endocrine disruptors|
|Categories||Environmental Toxicology, Ecotoxicology|
|Abstract||The research described in this thesis was aimed at developing an in vitro cell-based reporter gene system applicable to the detection of the illegal use of androgenic growth promoters in cattle, and the presence of potential endocrine disrupters present in surface waters and interfering with androgenic action. The system is based on a luciferase reporter gene placed under transcriptional control of an authenticated androgen-responsive element (ARE) and an endogenously expressed androgen receptor. This system allows for the integration of the effects of certain modulators of androgenic signal transduction. A second important goal of the research was to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying enhanced growth promotion by mixtures of androgenic and estrogenic compounds. The use of such mixtures, which results in activation and subsequent interaction of multiple steroid receptors, is occasionally observed in illegal hormonal treatments of cattle.
When applied to the screening of calf urine samples for anabolic androgens, the developed AR-LUX assay was able to identify androgen-treated animals with similar results as obtained by standard GC-MS analysis. However, both techniques should be regarded as complementary rather than interchangeable screening tools. Liquid samples confiscated at cattle farms outside the
Also, the AR-LUX assay was used to determine the androgenic activity of a number of aquatic environmental samples. A number of these samples were found to contain androgenic activity at varying concentrations. Interestingly, in 2 samples containing androgens, enhancing interactive mixture effects were observed, which were probably due to interactions by estrogenic compounds and estrogen receptor activation.
Our research furthermore indicates that certain established progestagens are able to activate ARE-mediated luciferase expression via progesterone receptors; we hypothesise preferentially through the progesterone receptor-α isoform. This indicates that androgen reporter assays based on the activation of the androgen receptor alone rather than on activation of a response element might produce results quite different from those observed in assay systems featuring multiple steroid receptors. This further emphasizes the notion that the AR-LUX assay is not merely detecting activation of the androgen receptor by androgens, but also allows for the detection of other androgenic substances that regulate gene expression via alternative pathways leading to activation of an established androgen response element.