This study provides insights into the nature and magnitude of the impacts of the WTO Doha Round for international trade and the resulting welfare improvements. The analysis of specific economic consequences for the Netherlands is a special feature of this study. These effects at national level are considered in the context of overall effects at EU and world levels. A third of the estimated benefit is attributable to trade facilitation, a third to agricultural liberalisation and the remaining third to both reductions in industrial tariffs and liberalisation in services. The analysis underlines the importance of trade policy reform by developing countries for achieving the benefits of freer trade. About one quarter of the global gains can only be realized if developing countries actively participate. The results highlight the importance of taking a long-term structural view. Developing countries have to think carefully about the risks of reinforcing an emphasis on primary exports. The Netherlands, could enjoy a disproportionate share of world welfare gains. Dutch output would expand particularly in the food processing and the transport and logistics sectors. The results confirm the comparative advantage of the Netherlands in agriculture, food processing and transport and the large dependence of the Dutch economy on international trade.
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