|Title||The relation between farming practices, ecosystem, and white spot in syndrome virus (WSSV) disease outbreaks in penaeus monodon farms in the Philippines|
|Author(s)||Tendencia Alapide, E.|
|Source||Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Roel Bosma; J.H. Primavera. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733702 - 135|
Aquaculture and Fisheries
|Publication type||Dissertation, internally prepared|
|Keyword(s)||garnalen - witte-vlekken-syndroom-virus - garnalenteelt - uitbraken (ziekten) - epidemiologie - infectieziekten - dierziektepreventie - aquatische ecosystemen - fysicochemische eigenschappen - mangroves - filippijnen - shrimps - white spot syndrome virus - shrimp culture - outbreaks - epidemiology - infectious diseases - animal disease prevention - aquatic ecosystems - physicochemical properties - mangroves - philippines|
|Categories||Cultured Shellfish and Crustaceans / Animal Disease Prevention|
The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) affecting shrimp aquaculture in most producing countries has caused huge economic losses resulting in bankruptcy to both large and small farmers. Studies done on WSSV epidemiology were mostly tank-based and on species other than Penaeus monodon. There is a need to investigate WSSV epidemiology in P. monodon in on-farm situations, thus including both risk and protective factors. This thesis aimed to generate knowledge that can improve prevention against WSSV in shrimp culture through better farm husbandry by studying the epidemiology of WSSV in on-farm situations. To achieve this goal data from cross-sectional and case studies were analysed to identify on-farm WSSV risk and protective factors, and longitudinal studies were done to assess factors affecting water quality and causing WSSV infection to result in an outbreak.
The thesis identified the following WSSV risk factors related to the physico-chemical parameters of the water: low and fluctuating temperature, low and fluctuating salinity, and pH fluctuation. The risk of high temperature and high salinity for an outbreak of WSV disease may be related to fluctuations in these two parameters. Risk factors related to farm husbandry techniques were feeding with molluscs, sludge removal and its deposition on the dike, sharing water source with other farms and having the same receiving and intake water. Identified WSSV protective factors were high mangrove to pond area ratio, feeding with natural food or phytoplankton, and higher percentage of beneficial bacteria like the yellow colonies that grow on thiosulphate citrate bilesalt sucrose agar, a Vibrio selective medium.
Results of the longitudinal studies demonstrated that WSSV infection may not result in outbreaks in greenwater pond and in ponds with mangroves in the receiving environment. Our results did not provide explanations why the WSSV infection did not result in an outbreak in farms with mangroves in the receiving environment. In greenwater ponds, this was attributed to the better water and soil quality, higher plankton count, and higher heterotrophic bacterial count.