Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 441270
Title First report of (homo)anatoxin-a and dog neurotoxicosis after ingestion of benthic cyanobacteria in The Netherlands
Author(s) Faassen, E.J.; Harkema, H.; Begemann, L.L.J.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.
Source Toxicon 60 (2012)3. - ISSN 0041-0101 - p. 378 - 384.
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.04.335
Department(s) Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management
FBR Fresh Supply Chains
Corporate Staff
WIMEK
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2012
Keyword(s) zwemwater - cyanobacteriën - toxinen - waterverontreiniging - oppervlaktewater - ijsselmeer - nederland - swimming water - cyanobacteria - toxins - water pollution - surface water - lake ijssel - netherlands - blue-green-algae - fresh-water - anatoxin-a - mass-spectrometry - homoanatoxin-a - identification - cylindrospermopsin - biosynthesis - microcystin
Categories Water Pollution
Abstract In April and May 2011, three dogs died and one dog became ill after swimming in Lake IJmeer (The Netherlands). At the time, the lake was infested with the benthic cyanobacterial species Phormidium. A Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra) and a Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) also died near Lake IJmeer in the same period. One of the dogs and both birds were subjected to a pathological investigation. Furthermore, the Phormidium mat; algal samples from the dikes; contents of the animals' digestive systems and organ tissues were analysed for the following cyanobacterial toxins: (homo)anatoxin-a; (7-deoxy-)cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxins and gonyautoxins by LC-MS/MS. Samples were also analysed for the nontoxic (homo)anatoxin-a metabolites dihydro(homo)anatoxin-a and epoxy( homo) anatoxin-a. The dog necropsy results indicated neurotoxicosis and its stomach contained Phormidium filaments. Anatoxin-a was detected in the Phormidium mat (272 mu g g(-1) dry weight, stdev 65, n = 3) and in the dog's stomach contents (9.5 mu g g(-1) dry weight, stdev 2.4, n = 3). Both samples also contained the anatoxin-a metabolite dihydroanatoxin-a, and a trace of homoanatoxin-a was detected in the Phormidium mat. The birds were in bad nutritive condition at the time of necropsy and their stomachs and intestines did not contain any cyanobacterial material. Furthermore, no cyanobacterial toxins were detected in their stomachs, intestines and organs and they both had lesions that are not associated with cyanobacterial intoxication. This is the first report of anatoxin-a and homoanatoxina occurrence in The Netherlands, these toxins have likely caused the deaths of three dogs. The birds probably died of other causes. Dutch recreational waters are at this moment only screened for pelagic cyanobacterial species, the current bathing water protocol therefore does not protect humans and animals from negative effects of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria.
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