Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 456830
Title Effect of rooting depth, plant density and planting date on maize (Zea Mays L.) yield and water use efficiency in semi-arid Zimbabwe: Modelling with AquaCrop
Author(s) Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.
Source Agricultural Water Management 146 (2014). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 280 - 296.
Department(s) Soil Physics and Land Management
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2014
Keyword(s) fao crop model - management options - tillage - soils - parameterization - conservation - simulation - paradigm
Abstract Under low and poorly distributed rainfall higher food production can be achieved by increasing crop water use efficiency (WUE) through optimum soil fertility management and selection of deep-rooting cultivars, appropriate plant density and planting dates. We explored AquaCrop's applicability in selecting adaptive practices for improving maize yield and WUE under rainfed smallholder farming in semi-arid Zimbabwe. AquaCrop was first tested using field measurements without calibration. The model was subsequently applied to estimate the effect of effective rooting depth (ERD), plant density and planting date on maize yield. Simulations were done with daily rainfall data for 25 seasons. During model testing AquaCrop simulated canopy cover development well and simulated biomass accumulation showed good agreement with measured values. The model overestimated soil water, and observed final biomass and grain yield were 96 and 92% of simulated values, respectively. Model application showed that increasing ERD from 0.40 m at 32,500 plants ha-1 to 0.60 m at 44,400 plants ha-1 increased grain yield from 6.0 to 7.8 t ha-1, biomass water use efficiency by 20.5%, grain water use efficiency by 23.6% and transpiration water use efficiency by 26.8%. At 0.60 and 0.80 m ERD and 44,400 plants ha-1, biomass and grain yield, and WUE, were similar. Drainage below the rootzone was =40% of non-productive water losses in normal and wet seasons whilst soil evaporation contributed 47% in dry seasons at 0.80 m ERD. To improve yield and WUE, we recommend: incorporation of deep-rooting legumes, deeper-rooting cultivars (=0.60 m effective rooting depth) and practices that improve ERD, a plant density of 44,400 plants ha-1; and practices that reduce soil evaporation e.g. mulching and addition of organic fertilisers to improve soils’ available water capacity and enhance response to mineral fertilisers. Further research should include field testing of results from this study with farmers.
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