Ochratoxin, produced primarily by Penicillium verrucosum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, produced primarily by Fusarium graminearum are the primary mycotoxin contaminants of wheat. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi during colonization and growth on plants. The occurrence of mycotoxins in commodities represents a major threat to humans and animals. The detection and control of each toxigenic fungal species in planta is key to reduce fungal contamination and in turn to prevent mycotoxins from entering human food and animal feed. Detection and control of Fusarium species in planta is crucial to prevent mycotoxins from entering the human food and animal feed chains. Species-specific PCR methodologies based on evolutionarily conserved genes have their roots in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. Microarray technology is a rapid and cost-effective method that has potential for parallel analysis of a high number of target organisms
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