Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 488608
Title Porosity, Bulk Density, and Volume Reduction During Drying: Review of Measurement Methods and Coefficient Determinations
Author(s) Qiu, J.; Khalloufi, S.; Martynenko, A.; Dalen, G. van; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Almeida-Rivera, C.
Source Drying Technology 33 (2015)14. - ISSN 0737-3937 - p. 1681 - 1699.
Department(s) Food Process Engineering
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2015
Keyword(s) pore-size distribution - cooked beef product - mercury porosimetry - physical-properties - structural-properties - vacuum impregnation - image-analysis - porous-media - true density - shrinkage
Abstract Several experimental methods for measuring porosity, bulk density and volume reduction during drying of foodstuff are available. These methods include among others geometric dimension, volume displacement, mercury porosimeter, micro-CT, and NMR. However, data on their accuracy, sensitivity, and appropriateness are scarce. This paper reviews these experimental methods, areas of applications and limits. In addition, the concept of porosity, bulk density and volume reduction and their evolution as a function of moisture content during drying is presented. In this study, values of initial porosity (¿0) and density ratio (ß) of some food products are summarized. It has been found that ¿0 is highly dependent on the type of food products, while ß ranges from 1.1 to 1.6. The possibility of calculating solid density based on food compositions has also been validated. The inter-predictions between porosity, bulk density and volume density have been made mathematically evident.
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