|Title||A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control : from identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients|
|Source||Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Vincenzo Fogliano, co-promotor(en): P. Vitaglione. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575448 - 138|
Food Quality and Design
|Publication type||Dissertation, internally prepared|
|Keyword(s)||eetlustcontrole - perceptie - voedselvoorkeuren - speeksel - cannabinoïden - biomarkers - ingrediënten - ontwikkeling - gewichtscontrole - appetite control - perception - food preferences - saliva - cannabinoids - biomarkers - ingredients - development - weight control|
|Categories||Human Nutrition Physiology|
A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control.
From identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients.
Human dietary behaviour is driven by homeostatic, hedonic and environmental factors. Foods can
influence these factors throughout extrinsic (marketing suggestions, portion sizes, form) and
intrinsic characteristics (taste, flavour, smell, texture). In turn biochemical response and
psychological traits influenced food taste, flavour, smell and texture perception determining the
hedonic value of a meal. This interplay between the food and the subjective psychophysiological
response determine the control of energy intake, therefore must be considered in developing food
for appetite control.
In the present thesis four human studies are described. Of these two were conducted to investigate
the role of the saliva and the endocannabinoids system in the food preference and liking during the
cephalic phase of digestion. We found out that salivary enzymes activity are influenced by
nutritional status, food preference and food habits. Moreover, food palatability influenced some
plasma endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine concentrations during the cephalic phase
response and indicated that 2-arachidonoylglycerol and pancreatic polypeptide can be used as
biomarkers of food liking in humans. These findings can have interesting implications in designing
foods for appetite control:
salivary enzymatic activity must be considered because it influence taste and texture
perception and consequently food choice;
the measure of 2-arachidonoylglycerol can offer the possibility to merge the sensory and
biochemical approach to compare the satiating and rewarding capacity of foods.
The other two studies investigated the potential satiating effect on the short term energy intake of
specific food ingredients. As previous in animal studies shown, we demonstrated (chapter 4) that
also in humans the circulating oleoylethanolamide levels can be modulated by the fatty acid
composition of a meal and this can influence the short-term energy intake. Therefore, we
highlighted the anorexigenic effect of the oleoylethanolamide that can be a target of specific food
ingredients. In the study described in the chapter 5, we aimed in assessing the appetite control
capability of bitter compounds. The ingredient was microencapsulated with the double aim to avoid
the (not palatable) taste perception in the mouth and to deliver the compounds directly in the
gastrointestinal tract and target the enteroendocrine bitter taste receptors. We showed that
microencapsulated bitter compounds are effective to reduce daily energy intakes in humans. This
study demonstrated that sense the taste receptors directly in the gastrointestinal tract may be a valid
way to trigger satiety and control appetite.
The general conclusions of the present thesis are that a fine design of ingredients for appetite
control is necessary to develop novel foods for appetite control that has to take in account from one
side the hedonic value from the other side the functionality.