|Title||Development of a model to assess masking potential for marine mammals by the use of air guns in Antarctic waters|
|Author(s)||Wittekind, Dietrich; Tougaard, Jakob; Stilz, Peter; Dähne, Michael; Clark, Christopher W.; Lucke, K.; Benda-Beckmann, Sander von; Ainslie, Michael A.; Siebert, Ursula|
|Source||In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II Springer New York LLC (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ) - ISBN 9781493929801 - p. 1243 - 1249.|
|Publication type||Peer reviewed book chapter|
|Keyword(s)||Mysticetes - Pinnipeds - Propagation modeling - Seismic|
We estimated the long-range effects of air gun array noise on marine mammal communication ranges in the Southern Ocean. Air gun impulses are subject to significant distortion during propagation, potentially resulting in a quasi- continuous sound. Propagation modeling to estimate the received waveform was conducted. A leaky integrator was used as a hearing model to assess communication masking in three species due to intermittent/continuous air gun sounds. Air gun noise is most probably changing from impulse to continuous noise between 1,000 and 2,000 km from the source, leading to a reduced communication range for, e.g., blue and fin whales up to 2,000 km from the source.