Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 505376
Title The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system : Technology potential and energy dissipation
Author(s) Egmond, W.J. Van; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.
Source Journal of Power Sources 325 (2016). - ISSN 0378-7753 - p. 129 - 139.
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.05.130
Department(s) Environmental Technology
WIMEK
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2016
Keyword(s) Aqueous based battery - Flow batteries - Ion-exchange membranes - Large scale electricity energy storage - Reverse electrodialysis - Salinity gradient energy
Abstract

Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable energy storage system which operates by performing cycles during which energy generated from renewable resource is first used to produce highly concentrated brine and diluate, followed up mixing these two solutions in order to generate power. In this work, we present theoretical results of the attainable energy density as function of salt type and concentration. A linearized Nernst-Planck model is used to describe water, salt and charge transport. We validate our model with experiments over wide range of sodium chloride concentrations (0.025-3 m) and current densities (-49 to +33 A m-2). We find that depending on current density, charge and discharge steps have significantly different thermodynamic efficiency. In addition, we show that at optimal current densities, mechanisms of energy dissipation change with salt concentration. We find the highest thermodynamic efficiency at low concentrate concentrations. When using salt concentrations above 1 m, water and co-ion transport contribute to high energy dissipation due to irreversible mixing.

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