|Title||Direct and Long-Term Metabolic Consequences of Lowly vs. Highly-Digestible Starch in the Early Post-Weaning Diet of Mice|
|Author(s)||Fernández-Calleja, José M.S.; Bouwman, Lianne M.S.; Swarts, Hans J.M.; Oosting, Annemarie; Keijer, Jaap; Schothorst, Evert M. van|
|Source||Nutrients 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2072-6643|
Human and Animal Physiology
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||adipose tissue - amylopectin - amylose - C57BL mice - carbohydrates - glycemic index - indirect calorimetry - metabolic flexibility - nutrition - sexual dimorphism|
Starches of low and high digestibility have different metabolic effects. Here, we examined whether this gives differential metabolic programming when fed in the immediate post-weaning period. Chow-fed mice were time-mated, and their nests were standardized and cross-fostered at postnatal days 1⁻2. After postnatal week (PW) 3, individually housed female and male offspring were switched to a lowly-digestible (LDD) or highly-digestible starch diet (HDD) for three weeks. All of the mice received the same high-fat diet (HFD) for nine weeks thereafter. Energy and substrate metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation were studied at the end of the HDD/LDD and HFD periods by extended indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance (PW 11) and metabolic flexibility (PW14) were analyzed. Directly in response to the LDD versus the HDD, females showed smaller adipocytes with less crown-like structures in gonadal white adipose tissue, while males had a lower fat mass and higher whole body fat oxidation levels. Both LDD-fed females and males showed an enlarged intestinal tract. Although most of the phenotypical differences disappeared in adulthood in both sexes, females exposed to LDD versus HDD in the early post-weaning period showed improved metabolic flexibility in adulthood. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the type of starch introduced after weaning could, at least in females, program later-life health.