|Title||Veterinary medicinal product usage among food animal producers and its health implications in Central Ethiopia|
|Author(s)||Tufa, Takele Beyene; Gurmu, Feraol; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Hogeveen, Henk; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Ayana, Dinka; Woldemariyam, Fanos Tadesse; Hailemariam, Eyerusalem; Gutema, Fanta Desissa; Stegeman, J.A.|
|Source||BMC Veterinary Research 14 (2018)1. - ISSN 1746-6148|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Antimicrobial resistance - Antimicrobial usage - Central Ethiopia - Farmers' knowledge, awareness, and practices - Food animals|
Background: Antimicrobials and anthelmintics are the most commonly used veterinary drugs to control animal diseases. However, widespread use of these drugs could contribute to the emergence of drug resistance. Information on the practice of antimicrobial usage among food animal raising communities in Central Ethiopia is scarce. We used a standardised questionnaire survey to assess knowledge, awareness, and practices related to drug use and resistance in food animals among the farmers in and around Bishoftu town. Results: Of the total of 220 livestock owners interviewed, around 80% of the respondents were not able to define what antimicrobials are and for what purposes they are used. Only 14.1% (n = 31) of the respondents had awareness about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and its consequences; and 35.5% (n = 11/31) and 9.7% (n = 3/31) of them agreed that the irrational use of antimicrobials in animals could lead to AMR in animals and humans. Oxytetracycline was the most commonly available antibiotic in veterinary drug shops/pharmacies and the most widely used drug in the area. However, 43.3% of the respondents did not see clinical improvements after using antibiotics. Similarly, the respondents explained that no response was observed in 73.3, 70.8 and 52.5% of the cases after medication with anthelmintics, antiprotozoal and acaricides, respectively. About 56.7% of the respondents considered traditional medicines equally important to modern medicines. It was also noted that there were illegal drug vendors, dispensing medicines under unfavourable conditions which include a direct exposure to sunlight, which practice violates the drug handling and storage recommendations given by WHO. Conclusion: The study revealed that there is a general lack of awareness among food animal owners about the correct use of antibiotics and anthelmintics. The widespread misuse and improper drug dispensing and handling practices observed in this study can affect the drug quality and can also contribute to the development of drug resistance in central Ethiopia.