|Title||Kinase activity of SOBIR1 and BAK1 is required for immune signalling|
|Author(s)||Burgh, Aranka M. Van Der; Postma, Jelle; Robatzek, Silke; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.|
|Source||Molecular Plant Pathology 20 (2019)3. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 410 - 422.|
Laboratory of Phytopathology
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||BAK1/SERK3 - Cf-4 - immunity - phosphorylation - RLK - RLP - SOBIR1|
Leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) and LRR-receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) trigger immune signalling to promote plant resistance against pathogens. LRR-RLPs lack an intracellular kinase domain, and several of these receptors have been shown to constitutively interact with the LRR-RLK Suppressor of BIR1-1/EVERSHED (SOBIR1/EVR) to form signalling-competent receptor complexes. Ligand perception by LRR-RLPs initiates recruitment of the co-receptor BRI1-Associated Kinase 1/Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase 3 (BAK1/SERK3) to the LRR-RLP/SOBIR1 complex, thereby activating LRR-RLP-mediated immunity. We employed phosphorylation analysis of in planta-produced proteins, live cell imaging, gene silencing and co-immunoprecipitation to investigate the roles of SOBIR1 and BAK1 in immune signalling. We show that Arabidopsis thaliana (At) SOBIR1, which constitutively activates immune responses when overexpressed in planta, is highly phosphorylated. Moreover, in addition to the kinase activity of SOBIR1 itself, kinase-active BAK1 is essential for AtSOBIR1-induced constitutive immunity and for the phosphorylation of AtSOBIR1. Furthermore, the defence response triggered by the tomato LRR-RLP Cf-4 on perception of Avr4 from the extracellular pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum is dependent on kinase-active BAK1. We argue that, in addition to the trans-autophosphorylation of SOBIR1, it is likely that SOBIR1 and BAK1 transphosphorylate, and thereby activate the receptor complex. The signalling-competent cell surface receptor complex subsequently activates downstream cytoplasmic signalling partners to initiate RLP-mediated immunity.