|Title||Exceptional Water Desalination Performance with Anion-Selective Electrodes|
|Author(s)||Arulrajan, Antony C.; Ramasamy, Deepika L.; Sillanpää, Mika; Wal, Albert van der; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Porada, Slawomir; Dykstra, Jouke E.|
|Source||Advanced Materials 31 (2019)10. - ISSN 0935-9648|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||anion-selective electrodes - capacitive deionization - water desalination|
Capacitive deionization (CDI) typically uses one porous carbon electrode that is cation adsorbing and one that is anion adsorbing. In 2016, Smith and Dmello proposed an innovative CDI cell design based on two cation-selective electrodes and a single anion-selective membrane, and thereafter this design was experimentally validated by various authors. In this design, anions pass through the membrane once, and desalinated water is continuously produced. In the present work, this idea is extended, and it is experimentally shown that also a choice for anion-selective electrodes, in combination with a cation-selective membrane, leads to a functional cell design that continuously desalinates water. Anion-selective electrodes are obtained by chemical modification of the carbon electrode with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. After chemical modification, the activated carbon electrode shows a substantial reduction of the total pore volume and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, but nevertheless maintains excellent CDI performance, which is for the first time that a low-porosity carbon electrode is demonstrated as a promising material for CDI.