The One Health concept proposes that there is a connection between human, animal and environmental health. Plants and their health are not explicitly included. In this review, we broaden the One Health concept to include soil, plant, animal and ecosystemhealth.Weargue that the health conditions of all organisms in an ecosystemare interconnected through the cycling of subsets of microbial communities fromthe environment (in particular the soil) to plants, animals and humans, and back into the environment. After an introduction on health concepts,we present examples of community stability and resilience, diversity and interconnectedness as affected by pollutants, and integrity of nutrient cycles and energy flows. Next, we explain our concept of microbial cycling in relation to ecosystem health, and end with examples of plant and animal disease outbreaks in relation to microbial community composition and diversity.We conclude thatwe need a better understanding of the role of interconnected microbiomes in promoting plant and animal health and possible ways to stimulate a healthy, diverse microbiome throughout human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that it is essential to maintain ecosystem and soil health through diversification of plant communities and oligotrophication of managed ecosystems.
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