Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 548106
Title Levels of methyleugenol and eugenol in instant herbal beverages available on the Indonesian market and related risk assessment
Author(s) Suparmi, Suparmi; Ginting, Alex Junico; Mariyam, Siti; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.
Source Food and Chemical Toxicology 125 (2019). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 467 - 478.
Department(s) Toxicology
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2019
Keyword(s) BMDL - Estimated daily intake (EDI) - Instant herbal beverages - Margin of exposure (MOE) - Methyleugenol - Model averaging

The presence and accompanying risks of methyleugenol and eugenol in herbal beverages available on the Indonesian market were evaluated. Methyleugenol was detected in 49 out of 114 samples, at levels amounting to 2.6–443.7 μg/g, while 4 samples contained eugenol at 21.4–101.2 μg/g. The EDI resulting from drinking these preparations amounted to 0.1–51.2 μg/kg bw/day and 1.1–3.3 μg/kg bw/day, respectively for samples targeted at adults and children. A BMDL10 value of 22.2 mg/kg bw/day for methyleugenol was defined using literature data and model averaging. MOE values were below 10,000 for 46 samples (40.4%), indicating a priority for risk management when assuming daily lifelong consumption, while the EDI for 4 samples containing eugenol did not exceed the ADI of 2.5 mg/kg bw thus did not raise a concern for human health. Using Haber's rule to correct for less than lifetime exposure, consumption of methyleugenol via these beverages would be of low concern when consumed for less than 2 weeks/year during a lifetime. This conclusion holds for herbal beverages collected by targeted sampling, not for all herbal beverages on the Indonesian market. The study provides data that can support establishment of a maximum permitted level (MPL) for methyleugenol in herbal beverages in Indonesia.

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