|Title||Low carbon heating and cooling by combining various technologies with Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage|
|Author(s)||Pellegrini, M.; Bloemendal, M.; Hoekstra, N.; Spaak, G.; Andreu Gallego, A.; Rodriguez Comins, J.; Grotenhuis, T.; Picone, S.; Murrell, A.J.; Steeman, H.J.|
|Source||Science of the Total Environment 665 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1 - 10.|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage - Geothermal energy - Heating and cooling - Photovoltaic-thermal module - Pilot plant - Remediation - Technological innovation - Water scarcity|
A transition to a low carbon energy system is needed to respond to global challenge of climate change mitigation. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) is a technology with worldwide potential to provide sustainable space heating and cooling by (seasonal) storage and recovery of heat in the subsurface. However, adoption of ATES varies strongly across Europe, because of both technical as well as organizational barriers, e.g. differences in climatic and subsurface conditions and legislation respectively. After identification of all these barriers in a Climate-KIC research project, six ATES pilot systems have been installed in five different EU-countries aiming to show how such barriers can be overcome. This paper presents the results of the barrier analysis and of the pilot plants. The barriers are categorized in general barriers, and barriers for mature and immature markets. Two pilots show how ATES can be successfully used to re-develop contaminated sites by combining ATES with soil remediation. Two other pilots show the added value of ATES because its storage capacity enables the utilization of solar heat in combination with solar power production. Finally, two pilots are realized in countries with legal barriers where ATES systems have not previously been applied at all.