|Title||Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 as a bile-modifying and immunomodulatory microbe|
|Author(s)||Ryan, Paul M.; Stolte, Ellen H.; London, Lis E.E.; Wells, Jerry M.; Long, Sarah L.; Joyce, Susan A.; Gahan, Cormac G.M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R.P.; Caplice, Noel M.; Stanton, Catherine|
|Source||BMC Microbiology 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2180|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Bile acid - Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) - CVD - Exopolysaccharide - Hypercholesterolaemia|
Background: Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 has previously demonstrated potentially cardio-protective properties, in the form of dyslipidaemia and hypercholesterolemia correction in an apolipoprotein-E deficient mouse model. This study aims to characterise the manner in which this microbe may modulate host bile pool composition and immune response, in the context of cardiovascular disease. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was assessed for bile salt hydrolase activity and specificity. The microbe was compared against several other enteric strains of the same species, as well as a confirmed bile salt hydrolase-active strain, Lactobacillus reuteri APC 2587. Results: Quantitative bile salt hydrolase assays revealed that enzymatic extracts from Lactobacillus reuteri APC 2587 and Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 demonstrate the greatest activity in vitro. Bile acid profiling of porcine and murine bile following incubation with Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 confirmed a preference for hydrolysis of glyco-conjugated bile acids. In addition, the purified exopolysaccharide and secretome of Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 were investigated for immunomodulatory capabilities using RAW264.7 macrophages. Gene expression data revealed that both fractions stimulated increases in interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 gene transcription in the murine macrophages, while the entire secretome was necessary to increase CD206 transcription. Moreover, the exopolysaccharide elicited a dose-dependent increase in nitric oxide and interleukin-10 production from RAW264.7 macrophages, concurrent with increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion at all doses. Conclusions: This study indicates that Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 modulates both bile pool composition and immune system tone in a manner which may contribute significantly to the previously identified cardio-protective phenotype.