Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Record number 549727
Title Fungicides: An Overlooked Pesticide Class?
Author(s) Zubrod, Jochen P.; Bundschuh, Mirco; Arts, Gertie; Brühl, Carsten A.; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Knäbel, Anja; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Rohr, Jason; Scharmüller, Andreas; Smalling, Kelly; Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf; Schäfer, Ralf B.
Source Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)7. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 3347 - 3365.
DOI https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b04392
Department(s) Environmental Risk Assessment
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2019
Abstract

Fungicides are indispensable to global food security and their use is forecasted to intensify. Fungicides can reach aquatic ecosystems and occur in surface water bodies in agricultural catchments throughout the entire growing season due to their frequent, prophylactic application. However, in comparison to herbicides and insecticides, the exposure to and effects of fungicides have received less attention. We provide an overview of the risk of fungicides to aquatic ecosystems covering fungicide exposure (i.e., environmental fate, exposure modeling, and mitigation measures) as well as direct and indirect effects of fungicides on microorganisms, macrophytes, invertebrates, and vertebrates. We show that fungicides occur widely in aquatic systems, that the accuracy of predicted environmental concentrations is debatable, and that fungicide exposure can be effectively mitigated. We additionally demonstrate that fungicides can be highly toxic to a broad range of organisms and can pose a risk to aquatic biota. Finally, we outline central research gaps that currently challenge our ability to predict fungicide exposure and effects, promising research avenues, and shortcomings of the current environmental risk assessment for fungicides.

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