|Title||The concept of load ratio applied to bioelectrochemical systems for ammonia recovery|
|Author(s)||Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana; Kuntke, Philipp; Heijne, Annemiek ter; Buisman, Cees J.N.|
|Source||Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 94 (2019)6. - ISSN 0268-2575 - p. 2055 - 2061.|
Biological Recovery & Re-use Technology
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||ammonia recovery - ammonia removal - bioelectrochemical systems - urine treatment|
BACKGROUND: The load ratio is a crucial parameter to optimize the current driven recovery of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) from urine. The load ratio is the ratio between the current density and the TAN loading rate. It is currently not known if the load ratio concept applies to a bioelectrochemical system (BES) because the current density and TAN loading rate cannot be controlled independently. RESULTS: We found a clear increasing trend in TAN removal efficiency with respect to load ratio in the BES for both human and synthetic urine. The maximum TAN removal efficiency was 60.9% at a load ratio of 0.7, corresponding to a TAN transport rate of 119 gN m −2 day −1 at an electrical energy input of 1.9 kWh kgN −1 (synthetic urine). Low load ratios (<1) were obtained, indicating that the current was not enough to transport all the TAN across the membrane. CONCLUSIONS: BES and ES show the same general relationship between TAN removal efficiency and load ratio. Therefore, given a stable current density, the concept of load ratio can also predict the TAN removal efficiency in BES. Higher current densities, and insights into the factors limiting current, are needed to increase the load ratio and therefore the TAN removal efficiency.