Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 549957
Title Different genetic and morphological outcomes for phages targeted by single or multiple CRISPR-Cas spacers
Author(s) Watson, B.N.J.; Easingwood, R.A.; Tong, B.; Wolf, M.; Salmond, G.P.C.; Staals, R.H.J.; Bostina, M.; Fineran, P.C.
Source Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 374 (2019)1772. - ISSN 0962-8436
DOI https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0090
Department(s) VLAG
Microbiology
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2019
Keyword(s) Bacteriophages - CRISPR-Cas - Phage evolution - Phage morphology - Tape measure protein
Abstract

CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against genetic invaders, such as bacteriophages. The systems integrate short sequences from the phage genome into the bacterial CRISPR array. These 'spacers' provide sequence-specific immunity but drive natural selection of evolved phage mutants that escape the CRISPR-Cas defence. Spacer acquisition occurs by either naive or primed adaptation. Naive adaptation typically results in the incorporation of a single spacer. By contrast, priming is a positive feedback loop that often results in acquisition of multiple spacers, which occurs when a pre-existing spacer matches the invading phage. We predicted that single and multiple spacers, representative of naive and primed adaptation, respectively, would cause differing outcomes after phage infection. We investigated the response of two phages, fTE and fM1, to the Pectobacterium atrosepticum type I-F CRISPR-Cas system and observed that escape from single spacers typically occurred via point mutations. Alternatively, phages escaped multiple spacers through deletions, which can occur in genes encoding structural proteins. Cryo-EM analysis of the fTE structure revealed shortened tails in escape mutants with tape measure protein deletions. We conclude that CRISPR-Cas systems can drive phage genetic diversity, altering morphology and fitness, through selective pressures arising from naive and primed acquisition events. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The ecology and evolution of prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems'.

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