|Title||Pyrethric acid of natural pyrethrin insecticide: complete pathway elucidation and reconstitution in Nicotiana benthamiana|
|Author(s)||Xu, H.; Li, Wei; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Eekelen, H.D.L.M. van; Vos, C.H. de; Jongsma, M.A.; Pichersky, E.|
|Source||New Phytologist 223 (2019)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 751 - 765.|
|Department(s)||BIOS Applied Metabolic Systems|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Abstract||In the natural pesticides known as pyrethrins, which are esters produced in flowers of Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Asteraceae), the monoterpenoid acyl moiety is pyrethric acid or chrysanthemic acid.
We show here that pyrethric acid is produced from chrysanthemol in six steps catalyzed by four enzymes, the first five steps occurring in the trichomes covering the ovaries and the last one occurring inside the ovary tissues.
Three steps involve the successive oxidation of carbon 10 (C10) to a carboxylic group by TcCHH, a cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Two other steps involve the successive oxidation of the hydroxylated carbon 1 to give a carboxylic group by TcADH2 and TcALDH1, the same enzymes that catalyze these reactions in the formation of chrysanthemic acid. The ultimate result of the actions of these three enzymes is the formation of 10‐carboxychrysanthemic acid in the trichomes. Finally, the carboxyl group at C10 is methylated by TcCCMT, a member of the SABATH methyltransferase family, to give pyrethric acid. This reaction occurs mostly in the ovaries.
Expression in N. benthamiana plants of all four genes encoding aforementioned enzymes, together with TcCDS, a gene that encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of chrysanthemol, led to the production of pyrethric acid.