|Title||Occurrence and tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in sharks and rays from the eastern Mediterranean Sea|
|Author(s)||Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Gebbink, Wouter A.; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Megalofonou, Persefoni|
|Source||Environmental Pollution 252 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 379 - 387.|
|Department(s)||BU Contaminants & Toxins|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Mediterranean sea - Perfluoroalkyl substances - Sharks - Tissue distribution|
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), enter into the marine ecosystem, raising questions on possible adverse effects caused to the health of marine organisms and especially of top predators. Thus, there is an urge to assess the occurrence and the tissue distribution of PFASs in apex predators. To this end, the current study examines concentrations and distribution of 15 PFASs among 85 samples of different tissues from 9 shark and ray species collected in Greece. The results showed a similar PFAS pattern among the different tissues, with long carbon chain PFASs being the most frequently detected compounds. PFTrDA was the most predominant compound in terms of concentration and frequency of detection, followed by PFUnDA and PFOS. PFTrDA concentrations ranged between < LOQ and 27.1 ng/g ww, while PFUnDA and PFOS levels ranged from <LOQ to 16.0 and < LOQ to 21.6 ng/g ww, respectively. Regarding their frequency of detection, PFTrDA and PFUnDA were detected in 98% and 91% of the samples, respectively, while PFOS was detected in 79%. ΣPFAS concentrations in each analysed tissue ranged from 0.3 to 85 ng/g ww, with the latter being detected in the liver of angular roughshark (Oxynotus centrina). On average, PFASs were found to be accumulated in tissues in the following order: gonads > heart > liver ≈ gills > muscle. Relative contribution (%) of individual compounds to ΣPFAS concentration varied among the different shark tissues, and also among the different shark species. No correlation between PFASs levels in tissues and sharks’ gender, length and geographical origin was observed. This is the first study providing PFASs data in sharks collected from Greece and the first study comparing concentrations and patterns in 85 individual tissues from 9 different shark species.