|Title||A Systematic Parameter Study on Film Freeze Concentration|
|Author(s)||Vuist, Jan Eise; Schutyser, Maarten; Boom, Remko|
|Source||In: 29th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering. - Elsevier B.V. (Computer Aided Chemical Engineering ) - ISBN 9780128186343 - p. 1501 - 1506.|
|Event||29th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Eindhoven, 2019-06-16/2019-06-19|
Food Process Engineering
|Publication type||Contribution in proceedings|
|Keyword(s)||freeze concentration - modelling - solute inclusion|
Film freeze concentration is an alternative method to concentrate aqueous streams compared to suspension freeze concentration. Major advantage is that the equipment is less complex and thus capital costs are in principle lower. In our research we investigated especially how hydrodynamics, applied freezing temperatures and solution properties influence inclusion of solutes in ice and ice yield during film freeze concentration. For this we carried out both lab-scale experiments and CFD simulations. Model solutions of sucrose and maltodextrin were concentrated in a stirred vessel by growth of an ice layer at the bottom freezing plate. For varying stirring speeds, feed concentrations and freezing plate temperature profiles we determined the solute inclusion in the grown ice and the ice yield. When increasing stirrer speeds a decreasing amount of solute included in ice was found at constant freezing plate temperature. This can be explained because the transport of the solute molecules in the boundary layer is diffusion limited. An increase in shear above the surface reduces the thickness of this layer and therefore less solute is included in ice at high shear rates. CFD simulations were carried out to describe the hydrodynamics near the surface and to relate the shear rate to the impeller Reynolds number. Moreover, the CFD simulations could explain the increased solute inclusions for higher concentrations of sucrose as higher viscosities lead to significant reduction of shear rates close to the ice layer. The CFD simulations will facilitate easier translation of the obtained results for a differently designed film freeze concentration system. Sucrose and maltodextrin appeared to behave very similar with respect to inclusion behaviour, which may be explained from their similar diffusivities. Ice growth rate is found another important factor and is very much influence by applied freezing temperatures. Our experiments showed that there is a critical ice growth rate. If this ice growth rate is exceeded more solutes will be included in the ice layer. In this case the solute molecules will not have the chance to move away from the ice boundary. The next step in our research is modelling of the ice growth rate as function of the freezing plate temperature to optimise both ice yield and solute inclusion.