|Title||Application of transcriptomics to enhance early diagnostics of mycobacterial infections, with an emphasis on Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis|
|Author(s)||Esker, Marielle H. van den; Koets, Ad P.|
|Source||Veterinary Sciences 6 (2019)3. - ISSN 2306-7381|
|Department(s)||Bacteriology & Epidemiology|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Biomarker - Diagnostics - Host-pathogen interactions - Johne's disease - Mycobacterium - Paratuberculosis - Transcriptomics|
Mycobacteria cause a wide variety of disease in human and animals. Species that infect ruminants include M. bovis and M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP is the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants, which is a chronic granulomatous enteric infection that leads to severe economic losses worldwide. Characteristic of MAP infection is the long, latent phase in which intermittent shedding can takeplace,whilediagnostic tests areunable to reliablydetect aninfection in this stage. This leads to unnoticed dissemination within herds and the presence of many undetected, silent carriers, which makes the eradication of Johne's disease difficult. To improve the control of MAP infection, research is aimed at improving early diagnosis. Transcriptomic approaches can be applied to characterize host-pathogen interactions during infection, and to develop novel biomarkers using transcriptional profiles. Studies have focused on the identification of specific RNAs that are expressed in different infection stages, which will assist in the development and clinical implementation of early diagnostic tests.