|Title||Activated carbon mixed with marine sediment is suitable as bioanode material for Spartina anglica sediment/plant microbial fuel cell: Plant growth, electricity generation, and spatial microbial community diversity|
|Author(s)||Sudirjo, Emilius; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.|
|Source||Water 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2073-4441|
Biological Recovery & Re-use Technology
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Activated carbon - Bioanode - Constructed wetlands - Marine sediment - Microbial community - Plant-MFC - Sediment-MFC|
Wetlands cover a significant part of the world's land surface area. Wetlands are permanently or temporarily inundated with water and rich in nutrients. Therefore, wetlands equipped with Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells (Plant-MFC) can provide a new source of electricity by converting organic matter with the help of electrochemically active bacteria. In addition, sediments provide a source of electron donors to generate electricity from available (organic) matters. Eight lab-wetlands systems in the shape of flat-plate Plant-MFC were constructed. Here, four wetland compositions with activated carbon and/or marine sediment functioning as anodes were investigated for their suitability as a bioanode in a Plant-MFC system. Results show that Spartina anglica grew in all of the Plant-MFCs, although the growth was less fertile in the 100% activated carbon (AC100) Plant-MFC. Based on long-term performance (2 weeks) under 1000 ohm external load, the 33% activated carbon (AC33) Plant-MFC outperformed the other Plant-MFCs in terms of current density (16.1 mA/m2 plant growth area) and power density (1.04 mW/m2 plant growth area). Results also show a high diversity of microbial communities dominated by Proteobacteria with 42.5-69.7% relative abundance. Principal Coordinates Analysis shows clear different bacterial communities between 100% marine sediment (MS100) Plant-MFC and AC33 Plant-MFC. This result indicates that the bacterial communities were affected by the anode composition. In addition, small worms (Annelida phylum) were found to live around the plant roots within the anode of the wetland with MS100. These findings show that the mixture of activated carbon and marine sediment are suitable material for bioanodes and could be useful for the application of Plant-MFC in a real wetland. Moreover, the usage of activated carbon could provide an additional function like wetland remediation or restoration, and even coastal protection.