|Title||The effects of coarse and wet feeding on performance parameters, gastrointestinal tract and tibia traits, and digesta phytase activity in egg-type pullets, either fed a low or moderate phosphorus diet|
|Author(s)||Dijkslag, M.A.; Elling-Staats, M.L.; Yen, Y.; Marchal, L.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.|
|Source||Poultry Science 98 (2019)10. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 4729 - 4744.|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||diet moisture - diet particle size - egg production - egg-type pullet - phosphorus|
In a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) levels, 0.17% (low) and 0.33% (moderate), diet moisture (dry and wet), and diet particle size (coarse and fine), were studied on egg production, characteristics of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and tibia, digesta pH, and phytase activity in layer pullets (16 to 28 wk of age). The low NPP diet increased average daily water intake (ADWI) to ADFI ratio (4.2%) from 16 to 17 wk, but decreased this ratio (2.8%) from 23 to 27 wk. It decreased ADFI (1.5%) and egg mass production (3.8%) from 19 to 22 wk. It decreased egg weight (0.29 g) and ADWI (2.1%) from 23 to 27 wk. At 22 wk, the GIT relative empty organ weights were (g/kg BW) higher for proventriculus + gizzard (0.96), duodeneum (0.94), and jejunum + ileum (1.95) with the low vs. moderate NPP diet. The low NPP diet decreased digesta phytase activity in crop and proventriculus+gizzard at 28 wk. The wet diet increased ADFI, ADWI, and ADWI/ADFI ratio from 16 to 27 wk, egg mass production (3.0%) from 19 to 22 wk, and egg weight (0.45 g) from 23 to 27 wk. The wet diet also increased digesta phytase activity in proventriculus+gizzard. The coarse diet decreased ADFI from 19 to 22 wk (1.7%) and 23 to 27 wk (1.2%). The coarse diet caused reduced egg mass production (2.6%) from 23 to 27 wk. Egg shell breaking strength was increased on the coarse diet (0.9 Newton). The coarse diet increased ADWI/ADFI ratio from 16 to 27 wk, and increased relative gizzard weight by 1.95 and 0.81 g/kg BW at 22 and 28 wk, respectively. The coarse diet increased jejunal/ileal pH with 0.16 units at 28 wk. None of the tested parameters affected tibia characteristics. It was concluded that a low NPP diet did not clearly affect the studied parameters. The wet diet increased ADFI, ADWI, and egg production. The coarse diet increased ADWI, egg shell breaking strength, relative gizzard weight, and reduced ADFI and egg production.