Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Record number 556298
Title A living income for smallholder commodity farmers and protected forests and biodiversity: how can the private and public sectors contribute? : White Paper on sustainable commodity production
Author(s) Waarts, Y.R.; Janssen, Valerie; Ingram, V.J.; Slingerland, M.A.; Rijn, F.C. van; Beekman, G.; Dengerink, Just; Vliet, J.A. van; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Sassen, M.; Guijt, W.J. van; Vugt, S.M. van
Source Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research 2019-122) - 26 p.
Department(s) International Policy
Forest and Nature Conservation Policy
Plant Production Systems
Vegetation, Forest and Landscape Ecology
Publication type Research report
Publication year 2019
Abstract Interventions and policies in the cocoa, tea and coffee sectors have failed to ensure that all smallholder commodity farmers earn more than the $1.90 World Bank poverty line or a living income, and they have not halted deforestation. Commodity farming is strongly associated with deforestation, in spite of interventions. For more than 50% of the cocoa and tea farmers in our datasets, household income would need to double in order for them to earn a living income. For those farmers, farming will never be a primary pathway out of poverty.
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