|Title||Plant-mediated effects of ozone on herbivores depend on exposure duration and temperature|
|Author(s)||Duque, Laura; Poelman, Erik H.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf|
|Source||Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322|
Laboratory of Entomology
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
Abiotic stress by elevated tropospheric ozone and temperature can alter plants’ metabolism, growth, and nutritional value and modify the life cycle of their herbivores. We investigated how the duration of exposure of Sinapis arvensis plants to high ozone and temperature levels affect the life cycle of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae. Plants were exposed to ozone-clean (control) or ozone-enriched conditions (120 ppb) for either 1 or 5 days and were afterwards kept in a greenhouse with variable temperature conditions. When given the choice, P. brassicae butterflies laid 49% fewer eggs on ozone-exposed than on control plants when the exposure lasted for 5 days, but showed no preference when exposure lasted for 1 day. The caterpillars took longer to hatch on ozone-exposed plants and at lower ambient temperatures. The ozone treatment had a positive effect on the survival of the eggs. Ozone decreased the growth of caterpillars reared at higher temperatures on plants exposed for 5 days, but not on plants exposed for 1 day. Overall, longer exposure of the plants to ozone and higher temperatures affected the life cycle of the herbivore more strongly. With global warming, the indirect impacts of ozone on herbivores are likely to become more common.