This chapter focuses on genetic diversity in dairy cattle, meaning that it examines those domesticated cattle breeds selected for milk production. The chapter presents the relevant definitions and discusses the role of natural and artificial selection in the creation of breeds and genetic diversity. The chapter examines the importance of genetic diversity both between and within breeds and the conservation of genetic diversity in gene banks. Finally, the chapter looks ahead to future research trends in this area and provides detailed guidance for further reading on the subject.
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