|Title||Plasma and Dietary Linoleic Acid and 3-Year Risk of Type 2 Diabetes After Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Analysis in the Alpha Omega Cohort|
|Author(s)||Pertiwi, Kamalita; Wanders, Anne J.; Harbers, Marjolein C.; Küpers, Leanne K.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Goede, Janette de; Zock, Peter L.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.|
|Source||Diabetes Care 43 (2020)2. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 358 - 365.|
Nutrition and Disease
Nutritional Biology and Health
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
OBJECTIVE: To study plasma and dietary linoleic acid (LA) in relation to type 2 diabetes risk in post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 3,257 patients aged 60-80 years (80% male) with a median time since MI of 3.5 years from the Alpha Omega Cohort and who were initially free of type 2 diabetes. At baseline (2002-2006), plasma LA was measured in cholesteryl esters, and dietary LA was estimated with a 203-item food-frequency questionnaire. Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained through self-reported physician diagnosis and medication use. Hazard ratios (with 95% CIs) were calculated by Cox regressions, in which dietary LA isocalorically replaced the sum of saturated (SFA) and trans fatty acids (TFA). RESULTS: Mean ± SD circulating and dietary LA was 50.1 ± 4.9% and 5.9 ± 2.1% energy, respectively. Plasma and dietary LA were weakly correlated (Spearman r = 0.13, P < 0.001). During a median follow-up of 41 months, 171 patients developed type 2 diabetes. Plasma LA was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk (quintile [Q]5 vs. Q1: 0.44 [0.26, 0.75]; per 5%: 0.73 [0.62, 0.86]). Substitution of dietary LA for SFA+TFA showed no association with type 2 diabetes risk (Q5 vs. Q1: 0.78 [0.36, 1.72]; per 5% energy: 1.18 [0.59, 2.35]). Adjustment for markers of de novo lipogenesis attenuated plasma LA associations. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of post-MI patients, plasma LA was inversely related to type 2 diabetes risk, whereas dietary LA was not related. Further research is needed to assess whether plasma LA indicates metabolic state rather than dietary LA in these patients.