|Title||Active force-length relationship of human lower-leg muscles estimated from morphological data : a comparison of geometric muscle models.|
|Author(s)||Spoor, C.W.; Leeuwen, J.L. van; Meulen, W.J. van der; Huson, A.|
|Source||European journal of morphology 29 (1991)3. - ISSN 0924-3860 - p. 137 - 160.|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
Muscle fibre lengths, pennation angles, and sarcomere lengths were measured (the latter by a diffraction technique) for each of the muscles of three embalmed lower-leg specimens. From these data and filament lengths from Walker & Schrodt (1973), the optimum fibre lengths were determined. Relationships between length and active force (at full activation) of the lower-leg muscles were calculated by use of (i) a unipennate muscle model, (ii) a bipennate model, and (iii) bipennate models in which the cosine of the pennation angle is approximated as length independent. It is concluded that the first two models are equally useful and that the use of the last models is discouraged in case of strongly pennated muscles. Non-uniformity of fibre parameters within one muscle appears to have little effect on the force-length relationship.