Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Survey data on Dutch farmers’ perceived resilience, risk management, risk preferences, and risk perceptions
    Slijper, H.T. ; Mey, Y. de; Poortvliet, P.M. ; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M. - \ 2021
    farmers - resilience - robustness - adaptability - transformability - risk management - risk preferences - risk perceptions - risk behaviour
    This dataset contains data on Dutch farmers’ perceived resilience, risk management, risk preferences, and risk perceptions. It contains cleaned survey data from 926 Dutch farmers.
    "Hoe houden we de herontdekking van de natuur in leven?"
    Buijs, Arjen - \ 2020
    nature - experiential value - natural areas - Netherlands - leisure
    Potentie voor de recycling van aluminiumverpakkingen eind 2020 : Studie naar de mogelijkheden voor de recycling van aluminiumverpakkingen en verwante consumentenartikelen in Nederland eind 2020
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Smeding, I.W. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 2060) - ISBN 9789463954471 - 44
    Recycling Aluminium Verpakkingen Nederland (RAVN) has asked Wageningen Food & Biobased Research to investigate the recycling of aluminium packages and related consumer articles by the end of 2020 in the Netherlands. Aim is to estimate – based on best available technologies – the maximum possible recycling rate for aluminium packages and related consumer articles that can be obtained by the end of 2020. The new EU calculation method for the recycling percentage will be used. This report describes the flow of aluminium packages and related consumer articles (like for instance aluminium foil) through the Netherlands with a material flow analysis model. This model describes all relevant collection and recycling pathways. Three pathways are relevant: the recovery from bottom ashes of waste incineration plants, the separate collection of light-weight packaging waste (locally abbreviated as PMD) and the mechanical recovery of metals from mixed municipal solid waste. For every step in these recycling pathways data was collected. For lacking data substantiated assumptions were made. This model was validated with data of 2017. The model predicted the amount of recovered non-Ferro metals from the bottom ashes of Dutch waste incineration plants correctly. This model was used to predict how much aluminium could be recycled in the Netherlands in 2020 in case all incumbents would implement the best available technologies. The resulting calculated recycling rate is 83 to 85% based on the new EU calculation method. A sensitivity analysis of this model showed that, as expected, the final results are sensitive for the selection of base parameters and assumptions. A ten percent increase in oxidation loss at the incineration plant would for instance cause the recycling rate to drop with 5%. Whereas a different method for the recycling of mixed plastics (in which small shares of aluminium are present) would lower the recycling rate with 7%. Conversely, in case the Dutch government would demand that beverage cans are added to the existing deposit refund systems, the recycling rate increases to 88 to 92%. In short, this model proves that high recycling rates can be attained for aluminium in the Netherlands in case the incumbents would implement the best available technologies.
    Wat typeert de duurzame doeners?
    Buijs, Arjen - \ 2020
    Probabilistic risk assessment for watercourses exposed to spray drift in fruit growing in the Netherlands
    Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Wipfler, E.L. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2020
    In: Aspects of Applied Biology. - Brighton : Association of Applied Biologists, 2020 (Aspects of Applied Biology ) - p. 255 - 262.
    This is the pre-edited version of the following article: Holterman, H. J., van de Zande, J. C., Wipfler, E. L., Boesten, J. J. T. I., & Huijsmans, J. F. M. (2019). Probabilistic risk assessment for watercourses exposed to spray drift in fruit growing in the Netherlands. In Aspects of Applied Biology: International Advances in Pesticide Application (144 ed., pp. 255-262). (Aspects of Applied Biology; Vol. 144). Brighton: Association of Applied Biologists, 2020., which has been published in final form at https://www.aab.org.uk/aspects-of-applied-biology Deposition of spray drift onto surface waters is a major cause for the risk of exposure to pesticides for aquatic organisms. This risk is particularly high for surface waters alongside pome fruit orchards, where pesticide sprays are applied in a sideways or an upward direction. Recently a spray drift model has been developed to estimate pesticide deposits onto downwind off-target areas next to fruit orchards. Using this spray drift model, an exposure assessment model has been developed to estimate risk of exposure to pesticides for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field watercourses next to pome fruit orchards in the Netherlands. For arable crops, typically, the risk of exposure is much less, considering pesticide concentrations in the edge-of-field watercourse. However, the total area for arable crops is much higher than that for fruit orchards. This paper describes the probabilistic processes concerning the countrywide risk assessment using a exposure model for one field and one ditch. Spatial and temporal variables are distinguished. Spatial variables include regional distributions of orchards and different types of watercourses, various water levels and continuously varying growth stages during the year. Temporal variables include frequency distributions of wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. 90% risk levels of predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) in surface water can be determined for various spray application schemes including multiple spray applications during a year. In an extensive simulation study the PECs in the watercourses were computed for all possible spatial configurations. A spatio-temporal statistical analysis on these simulations resulted in a quantitative risk assessment for a representative set of spray application schemes. Various model features (including drift mitigation, crop-free zones) result in a versatile exposure assessment model with a high level of realism. The spray drift deposits onto the water surface can be used as input for models describing the fate of pesticides in the watercourses. In this way, a realistic simulation study on the exposure to and fate of pesticides in surface waters can be performed to quantify exposure risk levels for aquatic organisms. The countrywide exposure risk model supports higher-tier assessment studies for the authorization of plant protection products.
    Precisielandbouw met Corné Kempenaar
    Kempenaar, Corne - \ 2020
    Fieldlab test en ontwikkelt nieuwe landbouw
    Wolf, Pieter de; Klompe, Koen ; Apeldoorn, Dirk van - \ 2020
    Milieurisico van antibiotica in mest voor bodem en grondwater mogelijk beperkt
    Hoeksma, P. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Wipfler, E.L. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Blokland, P.W. ; Rakonjac, Nikola ; Moermond, Caroline ; Lahr, J. - \ 2020
    Tijdschrift Milieu : Vereniging van milieuprofessionals 2020 (2020)juni. - p. 46 - 52.
    The gut barrier and the fate of engineered nanomaterials : a view from comparative physiology
    Zande, Meike Van Der; Jemec Kokalj, Anita ; Spurgeon, David J. ; Loureiro, Susana ; Silva, Patrícia V. ; Khodaparast, Zahra ; Drobne, Damjana ; Clark, Nathaniel J. ; Brink, Nico W. Van Den; Baccaro, Marta ; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. Van; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Handy, Richard D. - \ 2020
    Environmental Science: Nano covers the benefits... (2020). - ISSN 2051-8153 - 25 p.
    The structure of the gut barrier and luminal chemistry in non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates has been given little attention with respect to the dietary uptake of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). This review compares the diversity of gut anatomy in selected species used for regulatory toxicity testing, especially in relation to gut lumen chemistry and the behaviour of ENMs, and the gut as a barrier to ENMs. High ionic strength, the presence of divalent ions and organic matter promote particle aggregation in the lumen. The redox chemistry of the gut offers reducing conditions for ENM transformation, and corona formation will depend on the gut contents. Areas of low pH in the gut lumen in several species will promote the dissolution of metallic ENMs. There is a protective unstirred layer over the surface of the epithelium that may concentrate ENMs. Some organisms, especially vertebrates, can slough mucus to remove this adsorbed nanomaterial and lower bioavailability. Invertebrates also have protective layers of cuticle or peritrophic membranes that will modulate ENM uptake. Paracellular uptake of ENMs is unlikely. Transcellular uptake via vesicular-dependent pathways remains the most likely route across the gut epithelium. Most species have receptor-mediated endocytosis pathways and/or macropinocytosis in the gut epithelium. Crucially, many invertebrates have another potential pathway via ‘intracellular digestion’ uptake routes leading into the gut epithelium, and with gut associated immune cells being a potential route for ENM translocation across the epithelium. The basal lamina provides another barrier prior to the internal compartments of many animals. The features of the gut lumen and epithelium can limit the uptake of ENMs across the gut barrier in vivo, although some ENMs are detected in the tissues. Invertebrates also have the ability for biogenic mineral formation at the nano scale inside tissues. In conclusion, despite the diverse structural anatomies of the gut barrier of animals, some common features in the gut lumen chemistry tend to promote particle aggregation and settling onto the gut surface. The functional anatomy ensures the gut remains a formidable barrier to ENMs, and with some potential novel uptake processes in invertebrates that are not present in vertebrate animals
    Food Secure Metropolitan Areas: The Transition Support System Approach
    Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Linderhof, Vincent ; Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Polman, N.B.P. - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)13. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Metropolitan areas are highly complex systems where a transition towards food security encompasses a systematic change in the whole food chain. Existing decision support tools that have been developed to inform policy-makers are mostly data-driven but hardly consider the activities and preferences of different stakeholders in the food system. The aim of this article is to contribute to urban food security by combining stakeholder participation with model-driven decision support. For this purpose, we developed and tested the Transition Support System (TSS) approach. In this TSS approach, decision support tools and participatory processes are mutually employed to promote urban food security in an ongoing, stakeholder-inclusive and reflexive process of governance. Our application of the TSS approach in two contrasting case studies highlights how this can contribute towards the development of new perspectives on urban food security, building a joint agenda towards the future and better (mutual) understanding of the issues at stake. We conclude that promoting a transition in the urban food system demands joint learning and reflexive evaluation in order to adapt governance, requiring researchers to play a supporting role in a broader process of change.
    Fertilizer Replacement Value : Linking Organic Residues to Mineral Fertilizers
    Schils, René ; Schröder, Jaap ; Velthof, Gerard - \ 2020
    In: Biorefinery of Inorganics / Meers, Erik, Velthof, Gerard, Michels, Evi, Rietra, René, John Wiley and Sons - ISBN 9781118921456 - p. 189 - 214.
    Organic residues of animal origin are an important nutrient source for crop production. Due to the presence of organic nutrients, manures are more difficult to manage than mineral fertilizers. The increasing diversification in available organic residues makes the need for a correct assessment of the fertilizing value. This chapter outlines the theoretical concept of the fertilizer replacement value (FRV) and explores how it is derived in science and applied in farming practices. It explains the nutrient pathways from land application of organic residues to crop uptake, identifying the different routes to nutrient losses. The chapter reviews the concept of FRVs and discusses methods of obtaining estimates, including potential pitfalls. It also describes some examples of how FRVs are applied in fertilizer plans, including mineral fertilizers and manures. Fertilizer plans or nutrient management plans aim to match nutrient supply from fertilizers, manures, and other sources to nutrient demand from crops
    Data underlying the publication: Mitigating ecosystem impacts of bottom trawl fisheries for North Sea sole Solea solea by replacing mechanical with electrical stimulation
    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan ; Depestele, J. ; Eigaard, O.R. ; Hintzen, Niels ; Ivanovic, A. ; Molenaar, Pieke ; O'Neill, F. ; Polet, H. ; Poos, Jan Jaap ; Kooten, Tobias van - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    beam trawl - Dutch fleet - habitat - North Sea - pulse trawl
    The csv data file “SAR_TBB.csv” contains data on habitat characteristics and fishing effort of the Dutch beam trawl fleet by grid cells of 1 minute longitude * 1 minute latitude in the North Sea used to study the changes in trawling impact on the benthic ecosystem due to the transition from conventional beam trawling to pulse trawling. Habitat variables include %sand, %gravel, %mud, bed shear stress (N.m-2) and level 3 EUNIS habitat type. Fishing effort, expressed as the annual swept area ratio (area swept by the gear in km2 / surface area of the grid cell (km2)), is given for the total Dutch beam trawl fleet and for a subset of vessels holding a pulse license (PLH) when fishing with the conventional beam trawl gear (PLH.T.year) or with the innovative pulse trawl (PLH.P.year).
    Mitigating ecosystem impacts of bottom trawl fisheries for North Sea sole Solea solea by replacing mechanical by electrical stimulation
    Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Depestele, J. ; Eigaard, O.R. ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Ivanovic, A. ; Molenaar, P. ; O'Neill, F. ; Polet, H. ; Poos, J.J. ; Kooten, T. van - \ 2020
    BioRxiv - 25 p.
    Ecosystem effects of bottom trawl fisheries are a major concern. We analysed whether the replacement of mechanical stimulation by electrical stimulation may reduce the adverse impacts on the benthic ecosystem in the beam trawl fishery for sole. Although the use of electricity is not allowed to catch fish in European Union waters, a number of beam trawlers got derogation and switched to pulse trawling to explore the potential to reduce impacts. We extended a recently developed assessment framework and showed that the switch to pulse trawling substantially reduced benthic impacts when exploiting the Total Allowable Catch of sole in the North Sea. We applied the framework to Dutch beam trawl logbook data from 2009 to 2017 and estimated that the trawling footprint decreased by 23%; the precautionary impact indicator of the benthic community decreased by 39%; the impact on median longevity decreased by 20%; the impact on benthic biomass decreased by 61%; the amount of sediment mobilised decreased by 39%. The decrease is due to the replacement of tickler chains by electrode arrays, a lower towing speed and higher catch efficiency for sole. The effort and benthic impact of the beam trawl fishery targeting plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the central North Sea increased with the recovery of the plaice stock. This study illustrates the usefulness of a standardized methodological framework to assess the differences in time trends and trawling impact between gears.
    Kringlooplandbouw uittesten op de Boerderij van de Toekomst
    Sukkel, Wijnand - \ 2020

    Schade aan milieu en natuur maakt de manier waarop we nu voedsel produceren moeilijk houdbaar. Op de net geopende Boerderij van de Toekomst werken Wageningse onderzoekers samen met boeren aan kringlooplandbouw. Ze testen nieuwe teeltmethoden en technologie. Met drones proberen ze bijvoorbeeld het gebruik van kunstmest en bestrijdingsmiddelen te minimaliseren en de natuur ondersteunen. Zo dragen boeren bij aan duurzame voedselproductie én verbeteren ze de leefomgeving.

    Food safety assessment of crops engineered with RNA interference and other methods to modulate expression of endogenous and plant pest genes
    Kleter, Gijs A. - \ 2020
    Pest Management Science (2020). - ISSN 1526-498X - 7 p.
    Genetically modified crops have been grown commercially for more than two decades. Some of these crops have been modified with genetic constructs that induce gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi). The targets for this silencing action are genes, either specific endogenous ones of the host plant or those of particular pests or pathogens infesting these plants.Recently emerging new genetic tools enable precise DNA edits with the same silencing effect and have also increased our knowledge and insights into the mechanisms of RNAi. For the assessment of the safety of foodstuffs from crops modified with RNAi, internationally harmonized principles for risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops can be fol-lowed. Special considerations may apply to the newly expressed silencing RNA molecules, such as their possible uptake by consumers and interference with expression of host genes, which, however, would need to overcome many barriers. Bioinformatics tools aid the prediction of possible interference by a given RNA molecule with the expression of genes with homologous sequences in the host crop and in other organisms, or possible off-target edits in gene-edited crops.
    Onkruidbrander in de ban na brand, hoe krijg je het dan weg?
    Dijk, Chris van - \ 2020
    Determinanten der Standortattraktivität Deutschlands für die Ernährungswirtschaft - Ergebnisse einer Expertenbefragung
    Höhler, Julia ; Mohr, S. ; Piper, Anne - \ 2020
    German Journal of Agricultural Economics 69 (2020)1. - ISSN 0002-1121 - p. 19 - 30.
    The choice of location is a complex decision-making problem. Particularly in the food industry, other factors, such as the public perception of the sector, are playing an increasingly important role in addition to the known location factors. As part of an expert survey, 70 experts from four areas of the food industry were asked to assess various location factors. The survey results were used in a structural equation model to determine the relevance of the various influencing factors for the perceived attractiveness of the location. The perception of (or in) the public proves to be a particularly important determinant.
    The role of spatial and temporal model resolution in a flood event storyline approach in western Norway
    Schaller, Nathalie ; Sillmann, Jana ; Müller, Malte ; Haarsma, Reindert ; Hazeleger, Wilco ; Hegdahl, Trine Jahr ; Kelder, Timo ; Oord, Gijs van den; Weerts, Albrecht ; Whan, Kirien - \ 2020
    Weather and Climate Extremes 29 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0947
    AROME - Atmospheric river - Climate change - Dynamical downscaling - EC-Earth - Extreme precipitation - Flood - Storyline approach - Western Norway

    We apply a physical climate storyline approach to an autumn flood event in the West Coast of Norway caused by an atmospheric river to demonstrate the value and challenges of higher spatial and temporal resolution in simulating flood impacts. We use a modelling chain whose outputs are familiar and used operationally, for example to issue flood warnings. With two different versions of a hydrological model, we show that (1) the higher spatial resolution between the global and regional climate model is necessary to realistically simulate the high spatial variability of precipitation in this mountainous region and (2) only with hourly data are we able to capture the fast flood-generating processes leading to the peak streamflow. The higher resolution regional atmospheric model captures the fact that with the passage of an atmospheric river, some valleys receive high amounts of precipitation and others not, while the coarser resolution global model shows uniform precipitation in the whole region. Translating the event into the future leads to similar results: while in some catchments, a future flood might be much larger than a present one, in others no event occurs as the atmospheric river simply does not hit that catchment. The use of an operational flood warning system for future events is expected to facilitate stakeholder engagement.

    Endogenous regime change : Lessons from transition pathways in Dutch dairy farming
    Runhaar, Hens ; Fünfschilling, Lea ; Pol-Van Dasselaar, Agnes van den; Moors, Ellen H.M. ; Temmink, Rani ; Hekkert, Marko - \ 2020
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 36 (2020). - ISSN 2210-4224 - p. 137 - 150.
    Governance - Grazing - Institutional logics - Productivist agriculture - The Netherlands - Transformation

    Sustainability transitions are commonly considered impossible without regime change. Theoretical work on regime change has mainly focused on niches and landscapes and less on change ‘from within’. Empirical analysis helps theorising endogenous regime change. Conceptualising regimes as semi-coherent entities composed of multiple ‘institutional logics’, we analyse the endogenous regime change in Dutch dairy farming. Practices in this sector have become more and more market-driven. This dominant logic however was increasingly challenged by institutional logics centring round cultural identity and sustainability. Tensions particularly centred round the increased indoor housing of cows. The contestation of this practice eventually led to a first ‘crack’ in the regime, as it weakened the dominance of the market logic and enabled opportunities for more sustainability. Our case study shows that the presence of alternative institutional logics is necessary to crack the regime, but opportunities to patch it back together are similarly crucial to enable sustainability transitions.

    Bioconversion efficiencies, greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during black soldier fly rearing – A mass balance approach
    Parodi, Alejandro ; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Gerrits, Walter J.J. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Heetkamp, Marcel J.W. ; Schelt, Jeroen van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Zanten, Hannah H.E. van - \ 2020
    Journal of Cleaner Production 271 (2020). - ISSN 0959-6526
    Ammonia - Bioconversion - Emissions - GHG - Hermetia illucens - Nitrogen

    Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are acknowledged for their potential to upcycle waste biomass into animal feed, human food or biofuels. To ensure sustainable BSFL rearing, insight into nutrient bioconversion efficiencies and nutrient losses via gaseous emissions is key. This study used a mass balance approach to quantify nutrient bioconversion efficiencies (i.e., carbon, energy, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) and gaseous emissions (i.e., greenhouse gasses and ammonia) of BSFL reared on a substrate used in industrial production. On this substrate, bioconversion efficiencies ranged from 14% (potassium) to 38% (nitrogen). The proportion of dietary inputs found in the residues ranged from 55% (energy) to 86% (potassium), while the proportion of dietary inputs lost via gaseous emissions ranged from 1% (nitrogen) to 24% (carbon). Direct emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during rearing were 16.8 ± 8.6 g CO2-equivalents per kg of dry BSFL biomass. Even though ammonia emissions were minimal, these could have been avoided if larvae would have been harvested before the CO2 peak was reached. Our results provide the first complete mass balance and comprehensive quantification of BSF larval metabolism and GHG emissions, required to assess and improve the environmental sustainability of BSFL production systems.

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