Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Influence of fermentation temperature on microbial community composition and physicochemical properties of mabisi, a traditionally fermented milk
    Moonga, Himoonga Bernard ; Schoustra, Sijmen E. ; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Heuvel, Joost van den; Shindano, John ; Smid, Eddy J. - \ 2021
    Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 136 (2021)Part 2. - ISSN 0023-6438
    Aroma compounds - Lactococcus - Microbial communities - Spontaneous fermentation - Tonga

    Fermentation temperature is a crucial factor in the production of fermented dairy products. This study investigated the influence of fermentation temperature on physiochemical properties and the composition of the microbial communities of two types of mabisi: tonga and barotse mabisi. Mabisi is a traditionally fermented milk product made in Zambia by spontaneous fermentation of raw milk at ambient temperature. The two types of mabisi were produced with tonga mabisi fermented at 20, 22, 25 and 30 °C, and barotse mabisi at 25 and 30 °C. The pH, titratable acidity, syneresis, consistency, microbial community composition and aroma compounds were determined. We found that fermentation at 20 and 22 °C was slower than at 25 °C but they all produced tonga mabisi with medium acidity (pH 4.2) and ‘medium’ consistency within 48 h. Fermentation was most rapid at 30 °C but resulted in a product with a ‘thin’ consistency. Fermentation temperature did not affect the microbial community composition of tonga mabisi, which remained diverse and complex with Lactococcus as the dominant fermenting genus. However, in barotse mabisi, at 25 °C, the product had ‘thick’ consistency and the microbial community composition was dominated by Lactococcus whereas at 30 °C the product was thicker, more acidic and dominated by Lactobacillus.

    Improved prediction of tablet properties with near-infrared spectroscopy by a fusion of scatter correction techniques
    Mishra, Puneet ; Nordon, Alison ; Roger, Jean Michel - \ 2021
    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 192 (2021). - ISSN 0731-7085
    Fusion - Multiblock - Multivariate - Pre-processing - Spectroscopy

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of pharmaceutical tablets get affected by light scattering phenomena, which mask the underlying peaks related to chemical components. Often the best performing scatter correction technique is selected from a pool of pre-selected techniques. However, the data corrected with different techniques may carry complementary information, hence, use of a single scatter correction technique is sub-optimal. In this study, the aim is to prove that NIR models related to pharmaceuticals can directly benefit from the fusion of complementary information extracted from multiple scatter correction techniques. To perform the fusion, sequential and parallel pre-processing fusion approaches were used. Two different open source NIR data sets were used for the demonstration where the assay uniformity and active ingredient (AI) content prediction was the aim. As a baseline, the fusion approach was compared to partial least-squares regression (PLSR) performed on standard normal variate (SNV) corrected data, which is a commonly used scatter correction technique. The results suggest that multiple scatter correction techniques extract complementary information and their complementary fusion is essential to obtain high-performance predictive models. In this study, the prediction error and bias were reduced by up to 15 % and 57 % respectively, compared to PLSR performed on SNV corrected data.

    Guide to Creative Commons for Scholarly Publications and Educational Resources
    Braak, Pascal ; Jonge, Hans de; Trentacosti, Giulia ; Verhagen, I.C. ; Woutersen-Windhouwer, S. - \ 2021
    NWO - 24 p.
    Quantifying methionine requirement of juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
    Elesho, F.E. ; Sutter, D.A.H. ; Swinkels, M.A.C. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Kröckel, S. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2021
    Aquaculture 532 (2021). - ISSN 0044-8486
    African catfish - Amino acid - Digestible methionine - Digestible protein - Requirement
    This study was conducted to estimate the methionine (Met) requirement of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). A basal diet was formulated to contain 32% crude protein, 12% lipids, and 0.44% cysteine using only protein from legume ingredients as intact protein. This diet was supplemented with graded levels of crystalline DL- methionine (0, 0.12, 0.24, 0.36, 0.48, 0.60, and 0.84%), which resulted in seven dietary methionine levels ranging from 12.2 to 36.0 g kg−1 crude protein. Triplicate groups of 40 fish (78 g) were restrictively fed one of the seven diets for six weeks. Dietary methionine level significantly affected growth rate, feed conversion ratio, retained nitrogen, methionine efficiency and body composition. All parameters were fitted to dietary digestible methionine content expressed per unit of digestible protein (dMetDP) to estimate the Met requirement using; the linear plateau model (LP), broken line model (BL), or quadratic regression model (QR). LP and BL recorded similar values for requirement estimates while QR evidently recorded a 57% higher requirement estimates across different parameters. The digestible methionine requirement of African catfish for growth (using LP) ranges between 18.7 and 21.4 g kg−1 per unit of digestible protein. This equates to a minimum dietary methionine level of 6.3 g kg−1 diet (19.2 g kg−1 Crude protein), which is lower than was has been previously reported for this species.
    Towards superior plant-based foods using metabolomics
    Jacobs, Doris Maria ; Berg, Marco A. Van Den; Hall, R.D. - \ 2021
    Current Opinion in Biotechnology 70 (2021). - ISSN 0958-1669 - p. 23 - 28.
    Metabolomics is proving a useful approach for many of the
    main future goals in agronomy and food production such as
    sustainability/crop resilience, food quality, safety, storage, and
    nutrition. Targeted and/or untargeted small-molecule analysis,
    coupled to chemometric analysis, has already unveiled a great
    deal of the complexity of plant-based foods, but there is still
    ‘dark matter’ to be discovered. Moreover, state-of-the-art food
    metabolomics offers insights into the molecular mechanisms
    underlying sensorial and nutritional characteristics of foods and
    thus enables higher precision and speed. This review describes
    recent applications of food metabolomics from fork to farm and
    focuses on the opportunities these bring to continue food
    innovation and support the shift to plant-based foods.
    In which natural environments are people happiest? Large-scale experience sampling in the Netherlands
    Vries, Sjerp De; Nieuwenhuizen, Wim ; Farjon, Hans ; Hinsberg, Arjen Van; Dirkx, Joep - \ 2021
    Landscape and Urban Planning 205 (2021). - ISSN 0169-2046
    Previous studies have shown that people feel happier in more natural environments than in predominantly built-up environments; however, it is less clear whether the type of natural environment matters. In a large-scale experience sampling study in the Netherlands, we explored whether happiness differs by the type of natural environment experienced. We also investigated to what extent scenic beauty, peacefulness or fascinatingness are associated with momentary happiness. Smartphone apps were developed for both iOS and Android smartphones, and made freely available in both app stores. The app, named HappyHier, sent requests to fill in a short questionnaire, starting with how happy the participant feels. The requests were programmed to oversample experiences in natural environments. Location data were provided by the GPS of the smartphone, and the type of environment was determined based on a land-use map incorporated in the app. HappyHier was launched with a media campaign starting on 1st May 2016. In the following few months, over 4000 people participated, generating over 100,000 experience samples. Multi-level analyses were conducted, controlling for, among other things, being inside or outside, type of activity, type of company and weather conditions. The participants generally felt happier in natural environments, especially at the coast and in areas with low-lying natural vegetation, such as heathlands. Whether the environment is thought to be peaceful and fascinating appears to be more important for happiness than its scenic beauty. The representativeness of the data gathered by this relatively new method was explored from several angles: people, time and location
    Nested circularity in food systems: A Nordic case study on connecting biomass, nutrient and energy flows from field scale to continent
    Koppelmäki, Kari ; Helenius, Juha ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. - \ 2021
    Resources, Conservation and Recycling 164 (2021). - ISSN 0921-3449
    Bioenergy - Circularity - Food production - Livestock - Nutrients - Waste streams

    Although a circular economy promotes economic and environmental benefits, knowledge gaps remain surrounding the application of these concepts to food systems. A better understanding of the connection between different flows of biomass and energy at different spatial scales is needed to facilitate effective transitions towards circular bioeconomies. This study provides a framework for assessing the circularity of food systems, which we exemplify by identifying key steps towards circularity for three contrasting farming regions in Finland. For each of the regions, we quantified the flows of biomass, nutrients and energy. We found large differences in circularity, depending on the chosen indicator. Most biomass and nutrient flows were related to livestock production, which implies that it plays a key role in circular food systems. Current livestock production was found to be connected to national and global food systems through the international feed trade. This trade generates imbalanced nutrient flows between regions and countries, resulting in excess accumulations of nutrients in regions with net imports. In terms of circularity in energy systems, we found that substantial amounts of energy could be produced from manure and plant-based biomasses without causing food-fuel competition in land use. We also observed that, the inclusion of human excreta would further improve recycling but this was significant only in the region with a high population density. Thus, in his study, we propose a concept of nested circularity in which nutrient, biomass and energy cycles are connected and closed across multiple spatial scales.

    Impact of agroecological management on plant diversity and soil-based ecosystem services in pasture and coffee systems in the Atlantic forest of Brazil
    Mancini Teixeira, H. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Cardoso, Irene Maria ; Pena Claros, M. - \ 2021
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 305 (2021). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 1 - 13.
    Brazil - Agroecosystems - Functional diversity - Ecosystem services - Agroecology
    The development of agroecosystems that can provide multiple ecosystem services with a reduced need of external inputs, requires management practices that foster ecological processes to enhance soil quality and crop productivity. We assessed the direct and indirect impacts of farmers’ management practices on plant diversity, soil quality and crop productivity in coffee and pasture fields belonging to different types of farms: agroecological, conventional, and large-scale. The study was carried out in twelve farms in the Zona da Mata, Brazil. For each of the total of 24 fields (twelve pastures and twelve coffee) we recorded 41 variables associated with management practices, indicators of plant diversity (taxonomical, structural and functional diversity) and soil quality (biological, chemical and physical properties). The direct and indirect effects of management on plant diversity, soil quality and in the case of coffee, crop productivity, were assessed using structural equation models. In the case of pastures, we found that increased plant diversity due to agroecological management resulted in higher soil quality, probably due to higher soil litter cover and plant structural heterogeneity. Yet, practices presented in the agroecological farms also had a direct negative effect on soil quality, which indicates that increased plant diversity in pastures needs to be combined with other agroecological management practices than currently adopted. In the case of coffee, we show that despite the higher weeding intensity and higher use of external inputs in large-scale and conventional coffee farming systems, these practices did not result in increased soil quality or coffee productivity as compared to agroecological systems. In contrast, agroecological coffee management was associated with increased plant diversity, which, in turn, was positively associated with soil microbial biomass carbon. Our results highlight a causal pathway of agroecological management leading to increased plant diversity and, in turn, maintenance or increase in soil quality. While no causal link between agroecological coffee management and coffee productivity could be demonstrated, the biodiversity-mediated pathway resulted in similar coffee productivity in agroecological farms as compared to conventionally managed farms, which relied on pesticides and higher inputs of chemical fertilizers. We conclude that agroecological practices can be efficient to maintain satisfactory crop yields and soil fertility without the need of intensive use of external inputs and weeding.
    Examining the effects of green revolution led agricultural expansion on net ecosystem service values in India using multiple valuation approaches
    Sannigrahi, Srikanta ; Pilla, Francesco ; Zhang, Qi ; Chakraborti, Suman ; Wang, Ying ; Basu, Bidroha ; Basu, Arunima Sarkar ; Joshi, P.K. ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Roy, P.S. ; Sutton, Paul C. ; Bhatt, Sandeep ; Rahmat, Shahid ; Jha, Shouvik ; Singh, Laishram Kanta - \ 2021
    Journal of Environmental Management 277 (2021). - ISSN 0301-4797
    Ecology - Ecosystem service value - Green revolution - India - Land use change - Value transfer
    Ecosystem Services (ESs) are bundles of natural processes and functions that are essential for human well-being, subsistence, and livelihoods. The ‘Green Revolution’ (GR) has substantial impact on the agricultural landscape and ESs in India. However, the effects of GR on ESs have not been adequately documented and analyzed. This leads to the main hypothesis of this work – ‘the incremental trend of ESs in India is mainly prompted by GR led agricultural innovations that took place during 1960 - 1970’. The analysis was carried out through five successive steps. First, the spatiotemporal Ecosystem Service Values (ESVs) in Billion US$ for 1985, 1995, and 2005 were estimated using several value transfer approaches. Second, the sensitivity and elasticity of different ESs to land conversion were carried out using coefficient of sensitivity and coefficient of elasticity. Third, the Geographically Weighted Regression model was performed using five explanatory factors, i.e., total crop area, crop production, crop yield, net irrigated area, and cropping intensity, to explore the cumulative and individual effects of these driving factors on ESVs. Fourth, Multi-Layer Perceptron based Artificial Neural Network was employed to estimate the normalized importance of these explanatory factors. Fifth, simple and multiple linear regression modeling was done to assess the linear associations between the driving factors and the ESs. During the observation periods, cropland, forestland and water bodies contributed to 80%–90% of ESVs, followed by grassland, mangrove, wetland and urban built-up. In all three evaluation years, the highest estimated ESVs among the nine ES categories was provided by water regulation, followed by soil formation and soil-water retention, biodiversity maintenance, waste treatment, climate regulation, and greenhouse gas regulation. Among the five explanatory factors, total crop area, crop production, and net irrigated area showed strong positive associations with ESVs, while cropping intensity exhibited a negative association. Therefore, the study reveals a strong association between GR led agricultural expansion and ESVs in India. This study suggests that there should be an urgent need for formulation of rigorous ecosystem management strategies and policies to preserve ecological integrity and flow of uninterrupted ESs and to sustain human well-being.
    Organisational institutionalisation of responsible innovation
    Owen, Richard ; Pansera, Mario ; Macnaghten, Phil ; Randles, Sally - \ 2021
    Research Policy 50 (2021)1. - ISSN 0048-7333
    Organisational institutionalism - Policy - Practice - Responsible Innovation
    We describe the institutionalisation of responsible innovation (RI) over the last decade at the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and universities funded by it as a focal point for RI in the UK. Drawing on organisational theory we identify factors influencing the dynamics of RI institutionalisation, including forces of legitimation, entrepreneurship and decoupling. We report significant institutionalisation at the EPSRC prior to 2013, when it published its RI policy. Notwithstanding instances of experimentation and assimilation since, we report limited institutionalisation within research communities in universities as RI has encountered competing institutional logics, responsibility norms and epistemic practices. Our findings suggest an ongoing and dynamic process of translation that reflects RI's status as a performative and contested discourse ‘in the making’.
    Are the planning targets of liquid biofuel development achievable in China under climate change?
    Yan, Dan ; Liu, Litao ; Li, Jinkai ; Wu, Jiaqian ; Qin, Wei ; Werners, Saskia E. - \ 2021
    Agricultural Systems 186 (2021). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Climate change - Liquid biofuels - Marginal land - Non-grain energy crops
    Liquid biofuels from non-grain energy crops on marginal land could become an important substitute of gasoline in the transport sector, and offer the possibility to reduce competition with food crops for land resources. However, the cultivation of energy crops is facing profound challenges due to changing temperature and precipitation in the future. To assess the impact of climate change on the potential of liquid biofuels on marginal land in China, this study used a geographic information system-based approach combined with multiple factor analysis to identify the spatial distribution of marginal land suitable for nine major energy crops in China. Climate scenarios were generated based on bias-corrected results of five different climate models under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and 8.5). Results show that climate change is projected to have a substantial impact on the land availability for biofuel production in the 2050s under both RCPs. The total amount of marginal land suitable for energy crops was 170.2 million hectares for the period of 2010–2019, and would increase in the 2050s under both RCPs. The changing pattern of area are similar under both RCP 2.6 and 8.5, only the magnitude is different. All the species are projected to have a northward spread in China. The amount of marginal land suitable for all the energy crops is projected to increase in the 2050s, except for Miscanthus floridulus, and Miscanthus lutarioriparius under RCP 8.5. However, the potential productivity of the energy crops is projected to have a substantial decrease in the 2050s. The average yields of the energy crops are only about one fourth of their yields in the 2010s due to climate change. Combined with high costs of producing biofuels and numerous ecological tradeoffs, it is likely that liquid biofuels development using 1.5 and 2-generation energy crops does not have an optimistic perspective in China.
    Bee abundance and soil nitrogen availability interactively modulate apple quality and quantity in intensive agricultural landscapes of China
    Wu, Panlong ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Westphal, Catrin ; Wang, Meina ; Olhnuud, Aruhan ; Xu, Huanli ; Yu, Zhenrong ; Werf, Wopke van der; Liu, Yunhui - \ 2021
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 305 (2021). - ISSN 0167-8809
    Ecological intensification - Landscape composition - Pollinator - Robinia forests
    Bees provide important pollination services for crops, but pollination limitation is a common problem in agricultural landscapes worldwide. To promote ecological intensification in fruit production, more knowledge is needed concerning the interacting effects of insect pollination services and soil fertility on crop quality and quantity. We investigated the effects of three pollination treatments (open, self and hand pollination) on apple quantity and quality parameters. We also analyzed the effects of bee abundance (wild bees and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera)) and soil nitrogen on fruit quantity and quality, and the responses of bee abundance and species richness to landscape metrics. Apple fruit set and yield of open pollinated flowers increased by 57 % and 25 t/ha (compared to bagged controls), respectively. Hand pollination further enhanced yields by 7 t/ha (compared to open pollination; i.e. to 39 t/ha), indicating pollination limitation in the orchards. Seed number was highest in open pollinated fruits, and increased with bee abundance if soil nitrogen was low, but decreased with bee abundance at high nitrogen levels, possibly due to higher flower density resulting in pollinator dilution effects. Higher seed numbers reduced the proportion of deformed apples and thus increased fruit quality. The percent of surrounding semi-natural habitats positively affected species richness of wild bees in apple orchards. We conclude that yield and quality of apples may benefit from ecological intensification comprising the augmentation of wild bees by semi-natural habitat and lowering of fertilizer inputs.
    Deciphering the modes of action of Golubevia sp., an antagonist against the causal agent of powdery mildew in wheat, using an mRNA-based systems approach
    Russ, Lina ; Lombaers-van der Plas, Carin ; Castillo-Russi, Juan David ; Zijlstra, Carolien ; Köhl, Jürgen - \ 2021
    Biological Control 152 (2021). - ISSN 1049-9644
    Antagonist - Biocontrol - Blumeria graminis - Mode of action - powdery mildew - RNASeq - Tilletiopsis pallescens
    Biocontrol agents are living organisms with the potential to suppress populations of plant pathogens or pests in a cropping system. The complex interplay between the different players and the changing environment, results in a combination of different modes of action. Here, we applied an mRNA-based systems approach to gain insight into the antagonist-pathogen-host interaction of Golubevia sp. isolates BC0812 and BC0850 with the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, in planta over time. Bioassays were performed on potted wheat plants (water-treated control, antagonist, pathogen, antagonist+pathogen) under controlled conditions. A significantly higher percentage of mildew conidia were parasitized after treatment with Golubevia sp. BC0812 with 26% and BC0850 with 16% compared to the water control with 1%. Differential gene expression analysis of antagonists, pathogen and host 5, 6, 7, and 11 days after inoculation (dai) with the antagonist pointed to a combination of different modes of action: An interplay of modulating plant defense responses, impairing conidiogenesis of the pathogen by scavenging H2O2, facultative hyperparasitism and nitrogen competition. Microscopic observations supported the suggested hyperparasitism as thin mycelium could be observed on Bgt conidia at 6 dai and later. Taken together the results allowed the formulation of new hypothesis regarding modes of action and the interplay between antagonist, pathogen and host. It showed that a solid molecular understanding of the antagonist-pathogen relationship over time is essential for less biased mode of action studies. Understanding this complex interplay is the basis for targeted optimization strategies and allows discovery of new potential targets and markers for future biocontrol development.
    Improved prediction of fuel properties with near-infrared spectroscopy using a complementary sequential fusion of scatter correction techniques
    Mishra, Puneet ; Marini, Federico ; Biancolillo, Alessandra ; Roger, Jean Michel - \ 2021
    Talanta 223 (2021)Part 1. - ISSN 0039-9140
    Data fusion - Fuel - Multi-block data analysis - Multivariate analysis - Preprocessing - Spectroscopy
    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of fuels can suffer from scattering effects which may mask the signals corresponding to key analytes in the spectra. Therefore, scatter correction techniques are often used prior to any modelling so to remove scattering and improve predictive performances. However, different scatter correction techniques may carry complementary information so that, if jointly used, both model stability and performances could be improved. A solution to that is the fusion of complementary information from differently scatter corrected data. In the present work, the use of a preprocessing fusion approach called sequential preprocessing through orthogonalization (SPORT) is demonstrated for predicting key quality parameters in diesel fuels. In particular, the possibility of predicting four different key properties, i.e., boiling point (°C), density (g/mL), aromatic mass (%) and viscosity (cSt), was considered. As a comparison, standard partial least-squares (PLS) regression modelling was performed on data pretreated by SNV and 2nd derivative (which is a widely used preprocessing combination). The results showed that the SPORT models, based on the fusion of scatter correction techniques, outperformed the standard PLS models in the prediction of all the four properties, suggesting that selection and use of a single scatter correction technique is often not sufficient. Up to complete bias removal with 50% reduction in prediction error was obtained. The R2P was increased by up to 8%. The sequential scatter fusion approach (SPORT) is not limited to NIR data but can be applied to any other spectral data where a preprocessing optimization step is required.
    Adsorption of rapeseed proteins at oil/water interfaces. Janus-like napins dominate the interface
    Ntone, Eleni ; Wesel, Tessa van; Sagis, Leonard M.C. ; Meinders, Marcel ; Bitter, Johannes H. ; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V. - \ 2021
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 583 (2021). - ISSN 0021-9797 - p. 459 - 469.
    Cruciferins - Emulsions - Interfacial rheology - Janus-particles - Napins - Oil bodies - Oleosomes - Plant proteins

    Plants offer a vast variety of protein extracts, typically containing multiple species of proteins that can serve as building blocks of soft materials, like emulsions. However, the role of each protein species concerning the formation of emulsions and interfaces with diverse rheological properties is still unknown. Therefore, deciphering the role of the individual proteins in an extract is highly relevant, since it determines the optimal level of purification, and hence the sustainability aspects of the extract. Here, we will show that when oil/water emulsions were prepared with a rapeseed protein extract containing napins and cruciferins (in a mass ratio of 1:1), only napins adsorbed at the interface exhibiting a soft solid-like rheological behavior. The dominance of napins at the interface was ascribed to their small size (radius r = 1.7 nm) and its unique Janus-like structure, as 45% of the amino acids are hydrophobic and primarily located at one side of the protein. Cruciferins with a bigger size (r = 4.4 nm) and a more homogeneous distribution of the hydrophobic domains couldn't reach the interface, but they appear to just weakly interact with the adsorbed layer of napins.

    Multiresponse kinetic modelling of the formation, release, and degradation of allyl isothiocyanate from ground mustard seeds to improve active packaging
    Bahmid, Nur Alim ; Heising, Jenneke ; Dekker, Matthijs - \ 2021
    Journal of Food Engineering 292 (2021). - ISSN 0260-8774
    Allyl isothiocyanate - Antimicrobial packaging - Mass transfer - Mechanistic modelling - Multiresponse kinetic - Mustard seeds

    This study aims to describe allyl isothiocyanates (AITC) formation from enzymatic sinigrin hydrolysis in ground mustard seeds and its release and degradation in the headspace using multiresponse kinetics modelling. The mechanistic modelling of the steps involved in the packaging system consists of a set of ordinary differential equations established from bio (chemical) reaction models combined with mass transfer models. The estimated parameters consist of the accessible sinigrin fraction, rate constants of sinigrin hydrolysis, AITC degradation in the particles and headspace, and its mass transfer coefficient. The model provides a good fit to experimental results and confirms the proposed mechanism of the AITC formation, degradation, and release inside the packaging system. Fat content has significant effects on AITC formation and release rate constants, while particle sizes significantly affect accessible sinigrin in the particles. These results give an understanding of AITC's controlled release by manipulating the mustard properties to optimize antimicrobial packaging designs.

    Coffee induces AHR- and Nrf2-mediated transcription in intestinal epithelial cells
    Toydemir, Gamze ; Loonen, Linda M.P. ; Venkatasubramanian, Prashanna Balaji ; Mes, Jurriaan J. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Wit, Nicole de - \ 2021
    Food Chemistry 341 (2021)2. - ISSN 0308-8146
    AHR - Caco-2 - Coffee - DR CALUX® - Nrf2 - Real-time qPCR

    Coffee induces a health-promoting adaptive response of cells in the body. Here, we investigated enterocyte responses to AHR agonists in coffee and measured their transport across a polarized intestinal epithelium. AHR-activating potencies of Turkish, filter, and instant coffee were determined using DR CALUX® bioassay, before and after intestinal metabolization by Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, effects of coffee on induction of AHR- and Nrf2-pathway genes in Caco-2 cells were evaluated by real-time qPCR. Coffee samples showed considerable AHR-activating potencies in DR CALUX® bioassay (up to 79% of positive control activity). After incubation with Caco-2 cells, AHR activity of different coffees was between 35 and 64% of their initial value, suggesting rapid uptake and metabolization by epithelial cells. Expression of AHR-regulated gene CYP1A1 increased up to 41-fold and most Nrf2-pathway genes were up-regulated by coffee. This in vitro study may support the notion that coffee bioactives contribute to antioxidant defense and detoxification processes in vivo.

    Linking oral processing behavior to bolus properties and dynamic sensory perception of processed cheeses with bell pepper pieces
    Aguayo-mendoza, Monica G. ; Chatonidi, Georgia ; Piqueras-fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2021
    Food Quality and Preference 88 (2021). - ISSN 0950-3293
    The addition of food particles to food matrices is a convenient approach that allows to steer oral behavior, sensory perception and satiation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical-chemical properties of heterogenous foods on oral processing behavior, bolus properties and dynamic sensory perception. Bell pepper gel pieces varying in fracture stress and concentration were added to processed cream cheese matrices differing in texture. Addition of bell pepper gel pieces to processed cheeses increased consumption time, decreased eating rate and led to harder and less adhesive bolus with more saliva incorporated. Addition of bell pepper gel pieces to processed cheeses decreased dominance rate and duration of creaminess, smoothness, melting and dairy flavor and increased graininess and bell pepper flavor. Increasing fracture stress of bell pepper gel pieces from 100 to 300 kPa resulted in longer consumption time and lower eating rate. For hard/non-adhesive processed cheese matrices increasing gel pieces fracture stress lead to a boli with larger particles and more saliva. These changes were accompanied by decreased dominance perception of creaminess and bell pepper flavor and increased dominance of graininess. Increasing the concentration of bell pepper gel pieces from 15 to 30% did not affect oral behavior but led to the formation of harder and less adhesive bolus with larger particles and less saliva that were perceived with reduced dominance of creaminess, meltiness and dairy flavor while dominance of graininess and bell pepper flavor increased. Changing the texture of the cheese matrix from soft/adhesive to hard/non-adhesive decreased consumption time, increased eating rate, did not influence bolus properties and decreased dominance rate of creaminess, smoothness and melting sensations. Number of chews and total consumption time were positively correlated with saliva content of the bolus, number of bolus particles, bolus hardness, dominance of firmness, chewiness and graininess. We conclude that the modification of physical-chemical properties of processed cheeses and embedded bell pepper gel pieces can be a strategy to steer oral behavior and bolus properties which consequently determine dynamic sensory perception.
    Soil mass and grind size used for sample homogenization strongly affect permanganate-oxidizable carbon (POXC) values, with implications for its use as a national soil health indicator
    Pulleman, M.M. ; Wills, Skye ; Creamer, Rachel ; Dick, Richard ; Ferguson, Rich ; Hooper, Diane ; Williams, Candiss ; Margenot, Andrew J. - \ 2021
    Geoderma 383 (2021). - ISSN 0016-7061
    • We quantified methodological effects on POXC values for a diverse set of soils across the USA.
    • No single soil mass × grind size combination provided POXC results within the method’s quantitation limits for all soils studied.
    • Soil mass and mesh size had a marked effect on POXC values.
    • The POXC method falls short as an analytical method for measuring a well-defined C pool.
    • Implications for the use of POXC as a national soil health monitoring are discussed.
    Estimating quality of life dimensions from urban spatial pattern metrics
    Sapena, Marta ; Wurm, Michael ; Taubenböck, Hannes ; Tuia, Devis ; Ruiz, Luis A. - \ 2021
    Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 85 (2021). - ISSN 0198-9715
    The spatial structure of urban areas plays a major role in the daily life of dwellers. The current policy framework to ensure the quality of life of inhabitants leaving no one behind, leads decision-makers to seek better-informed choices for the sustainable planning of urban areas. Thus, a better understanding between the spatial structure of cities and their socio-economic level is of crucial relevance. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to quantify this two-way relationship. Therefore, we measured spatial patterns of 31 cities in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. We rely on spatial pattern metrics derived from a Local Climate Zone classification obtained by fusing remote sensing and open GIS data with a machine learning approach. Based upon the data, we quantified the relationship between spatial pattern metrics and socio-economic variables related to ‘education’, ‘health’, ‘living conditions’, ‘labor’, and ‘transport’ by means of multiple linear regression models, explaining the variability of the socio-economic variables from 43% up to 82%. Additionally, we grouped cities according to their level of ‘quality of life’ using the socio-economic variables, and found that the spatial pattern of low-dense built-up types was different among socio-economic groups. The proposed methodology described in this paper is transferable to other datasets, levels, and regions. This is of great potential, due to the growing availability of open statistical and satellite data and derived products. Moreover, we discuss the limitations and needed considerations when conducting such studies.
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