Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The environmental potential of the conversion of organic resources by black soldier fly larvae
Zanten, H.H.E. van; Zamprogna, A. ; Veenenbos, M.E. ; Meijer, Nathan ; Fels, I. van der; Loon, J.J.A. van; Bosch, G. - \ 2019
In: Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP books of abstracts ) - ISBN 9789086863396 - p. 157 - 157.
Conversion of organic resources by black soldier fly larvae: Legislation, efficiency and environmental impact
Bosch, G. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Zamprogna, A. ; Veenenbos, M. ; Meijer, N.P. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 222 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 355 - 363.
Hermetia illucens - Insects - Life cycle assessment - Resource use efficiency

To meet the projected substantial growth in the global demand for meat, we are challenged to develop additional protein-rich feed ingredients while minimizing the use of natural resources. The larvae of the black soldier fly (BSF) have the capacity to convert low-value organic resources into a high quality protein source for pigs, chickens and fish and as such may increase both the productivity and the efficiency of the food chain. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental opportunities of BSF larvae reared on different sources using up to date literature data on the efficiency of BSF larvae in converting such resources into biomass. The current EU legislative framework was used to classify the various resources for rearing insects. Data of forty articles published until 1 September 2017 were used, reporting on in total 78 (mixtures of) resources used for growing BSF larvae. Data on the resource conversion efficiency on dry matter (DM) and N basis was presented in 11 and 5 studies, evaluating 21 and 13 resources, respectively. Resources studied included food and feed materials (A, n = 8 resources), foods not intended (anymore) for human consumption (B1, n = 4), and residual streams such as food waste (D, n = 2), and animal manure (E, n = 7). Conversion efficiency varied from 1.3 to 32.8% for DM and from 7.4 to 74.8% for N. Using life cycle assessment, our environmental results showed that resources within the legal groups (i.e. A and B1) that are, at the moment, not allowed in EU as animal feed have in general a lower impact in terms of global warming potential, energy use, and land use. On a per kg protein basis, BSF larvae reared on a resource that contains food (e.g. sorghum) and feed (e.g. dried distillers grains with solubles) products generally have higher environmental impacts than conventional feed protein sources (fishmeal and soybean meal). Using insects as feed, therefore, has potential to lower the environmental impact of food production but a careful examination of the resource is needed in terms of environmental impact, safety and economics.

Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids
Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. ; Laurent, Sophie ; Veenenbos, Margot E. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2019
Insect Science (2019). - ISSN 1672-9609
Acheta domesticus - Alphitobius diaperinus - diet - fatty acids - Hermetia illucens

Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.

Insects as sources of iron and zinc in human nutrition
Mwangi, Martin N. ; Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. ; Stouten, Tim ; Veenenbos, Margot ; Melse-Boonstra, Alida ; Dicke, Marcel ; Loon, Joop J.A. Van - \ 2018
Nutrition Research Reviews 31 (2018)2. - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 248 - 255.
Anaemia - Anti-nutritional factors - Bioavailability - Food preparation methods - Insects - Iron - Zinc

Dietary deficiencies in Fe and Zn are globally widespread, causing serious health problems such as anaemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, increased risk of morbidity and mortality, stunted growth and impaired physical and cognitive development. Edible insects, of which a diversity of over 2000 species is available, are dietary components for about 2 billion individuals and are a valuable source of animal protein. In the present paper, we review the available information on Fe and Zn in edible insects and their potential as a source of these micronutrients for the rapidly growing human population. The levels of Fe and Zn present in eleven edible insect species that are mass-reared and six species that are collected from nature are similar to or higher than in other animal-based food sources. High protein levels in edible insect species are associated with high Fe and Zn levels. Fe and Zn levels are significantly positively correlated. Biochemically, Fe and Zn in insects occur predominantly in non-haem forms, bound to the proteins ferritin, transferrin and other transport and storage proteins. Knowledge gaps exist for bioavailability in the human alimentary tract, the effect of anti-nutritional factors in other dietary components such as grains on Fe and Zn absorption and the effect of food preparation methods. We conclude that edible insects present unique opportunities for improving the micronutrient status of both resource-poor and Western populations.

Efficiency of organic stream conversion by black soldier fly larvae: a review of the scientific literature
Bosch, G. ; Veenenbos, M.E. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Meijer, N.P. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2018
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 4 (2018)supplement 1. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. S44 - S44.
Black soldier fly larvae to upcycle organic streams: a review of the scientific literature
Bosch, G. ; Veenenbos, M.E. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Meijer, N.P. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2018
The residual biomass landscape for insect production
Meijer, N.P. ; Bosch, G. ; Veenenbos, M.E. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Fels, H.J. van der - \ 2017
In: Insecta Conference 2017 Book of Abstracts. - Potsdam : Leibniz-Institüt für Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim (Bornimer Agrartechnische Berichte ) - p. 54 - 54.
Carrot supplementation does not affect house cricket performance (Acheta domesticus)
Veenenbos, M.E. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2017
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 3 (2017)3. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 217 - 221.
Diet - Edible insects - Feed - Rearing - Water content

The demand for house crickets as a source of food or feed is increasing. Meeting this demand will require efficient production systems. House crickets are often fed a combination of dry feed and fresh plant material. Supplying fresh plant material could improve growth and development, but also increases labour and costs. Two experiments were conducted to verify that provision of fresh plant materials has a beneficial effect on house cricket performance. In the first experiment, house crickets were provided with an ad libitum supply of chicken feed, a water dispenser, and with carrots at different frequencies: (1) daily; (2) three times a week; (3) first week daily then three times a week; (4) two weeks daily then three times a week; and (5) no carrots. When the first cricket in a container reached adulthood, all crickets in that container were harvested. Survival, development time and body weight were determined. In a second experiment feed conversion efficiency of house crickets, either provided with carrots daily or not at all, was compared. No effects of carrot provision on survival, development time, body weight or feed conversion efficiency were found. The outcomes of these parameters were similar to other studies in which crickets were provided with chicken feed. The results indicate that supplying carrots in addition to a suitable dry feed and water does not improve house cricket survival, development time, body weight and feed conversion efficiency.

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