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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens
Stotz, H.U. ; Mitrousia, G.K. ; Wit, P.J.G.M. de; Fitt, B.D.L. - \ 2014
Trends in Plant Science 19 (2014)8. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 491 - 500.
programmed cell-death - plant immune-system - cf-2-dependent disease resistance - leptosphaeria-maculans - cladosporium-fulvum - brassica-napus - mycosphaerella-graminicola - avirulence gene - rhynchosporium-secalis - oilseed rape
R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed 'effector-triggered defence' (ETD). Unlike PTI and ETI, ETD is mediated by R genes encoding cell surface-localised receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that engage the receptor-like kinase SOBIR1. In contrast to this extracellular recognition, ETI is initiated by intracellular detection of pathogen effectors. ETI is usually associated with fast, hypersensitive host cell death, whereas ETD often triggers host cell death only after an elapsed period of endophytic pathogen growth. In this opinion, we focus on ETD responses against foliar fungal pathogens of crops.
Functional analysis of the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (CaFAD2) gene family of the oil seed crop Crambe abyssinica using RNAi-mediated gene silencing
Cheng, J. ; Zhu, L. ; Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Huang, B. ; Gruber, J. ; Dechesne, A.C. ; Krens, F.A. ; Qi, W. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Loo, E.N. van - \ 2013
BMC Plant Biology 13 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2229
high oleic-acid - erucic-acid - brassica-napus - fad2 gene - fae1 gene - carrier protein - expression - suppression - metabolism - mutations
Background Crambe abyssinica produces high erucic acid (C22:1, 55-60 %) in the seed oil, which can be further increased by reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. The omega-6 fatty acid desaturase enzyme (FAD2) is known to be involved in PUFA biosynthesis. In crambe, three CaFAD2 genes, CaFAD2-C1, CaFAD2-C2 and CaFAD2-C3 are expressed. Results The individual effect of each CaFAD2 gene on oil composition was investigated through studying transgenic lines (CaFAD2-RNAi) for differential expression levels in relation to the composition of seed-oil. Six first generation transgenic plants (T1) showed C18:1 increase (by 6% to 10.5 %) and PUFA reduction (by 8.6% to 10.2 %). The silencing effect in these T1-plants ranged from the moderate silencing (40% to 50% reduction) of all three CaFAD2 genes to strong silencing (95% reduction) of CaFAD2-C3 alone. The progeny of two T1-plants (WG4-4 and WG19-6) was further analysed. Four or five transgene insertions are characterized in the progeny (T2) of WG19-6 in contrast to a single insertion in the T2 progeny of WG4-4. For the individual T2-plants of both families (WG19-6 and WG4-4), seed-specific silencing of CaFAD2-C1 and CaFAD2-C2 was observed in several individual T2-plants but, on average in both families, the level of silencing of these genes was not significant. A significant reduction in expression level (P <0.01) in both families was only observed for CaFAD2-C3 together with significantly different C18:1 and PUFA levels in oil. Conclusions CaFAD2-C3 expression is highly correlated to levels of C18:1 (r = -0.78) and PUFA (r = 0.75), which suggests that CaFAD2-C3 is the most important one for changing the oil composition of crambe.
Development of ultra-high erucic acid oil in the industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica
Li, Xueyuan ; Loo, E.N. van; Gruber, J. ; Fan, Jing ; Guan, Rui ; Frentzen, F. ; Stymne, S. ; Zhu, Li-Hua - \ 2012
Plant Biotechnology Journal 10 (2012)7. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 862 - 870.
developing seeds - fatty-acids - lysophosphatidate acyltransferase - triacylglycerol synthesis - limnanthes-douglasii - brassica-napus - maturing seeds - sn-2 position - fad2 gene - arabidopsis
Erucic acid (22 : 1) is a major feedstock for the oleochemical industry. In this study, a gene stacking strategy was employed to develop transgenic Crambe abyssinica lines with increased 22 : 1 levels. Through integration of the LdLPAAT, BnFAE1 and CaFAD2-RNAi genes into the crambe genome, confirmed by Southern blot and qRT-PCR, the average levels of 18 : 1, 18 : 2 and 18 : 3 were markedly decreased and that of 22 : 1 was increased from 60% in the wild type to 73% in the best transgenic line of T4 generation. In single seeds of the same line, the 22 : 1 level could reach 76.9%, an increase of 28.0% over the wild type. The trierucin amount was positively correlated to 22 : 1 in the transgenic lines. Unlike high erucic rapeseed, the wild-type crambe contains 22 : 1 in the seed phosphatidylcholine and in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (5% and 8%, respectively). The transgenic line with high 22 : 1 had decreased 22 : 1 level in phosphatidylcholine, and this was negatively correlated with the 22 : 1 level at the sn-2 position of TAG. The significances of this study include (i) achieving an unprecedented level of 22 : 1 in an oil crop; (ii) disclosing mechanisms in the channelling of a triacylglycerol-specific unusual fatty acid in oil seeds; (iii) indicating potential limiting factors involved in the erucic acid biosynthesis and paving the way for further increase of this acid and (iv) development of an added value genetically modified oil crop having no risk of gene flow into feed and food crops.
Tackling drought stress: receptor-like kinases present new approaches
Marshall, A. ; Aalen, R.B. ; Audenaert, D. ; Beeckman, T. ; Broadley, M.R. ; Butenko, M.A. ; Caño-Delgado, A.I. ; Vries, S.C. de; Dresselhaus, T. ; Felix, G. ; Graham, N.S. ; Foulkes, J. ; Granier, C. ; Greb, T. ; Grossniklaus, U. ; Hammond, J.P. ; Heidstra, R. ; Hodgman, C. ; Hothorn, M. ; Inzé, D. ; Østergaard, L. ; Russinova, E.T. ; Simon, R. ; Skirycz, A. ; Stahl, Y. ; Zipfel, C. ; Smet, I. De - \ 2012
The Plant Cell 24 (2012)6. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 2262 - 2278.
brassinosteroid signal-transduction - molecular interaction database - lateral root development - water-limited conditions - length cdna microarray - arabidopsis-thaliana - abiotic stress - gene-expression - brassica-napus - improves drought
Global climate change and a growing population require tackling the reduction in arable land and improving biomass production and seed yield per area under varying conditions. One of these conditions is suboptimal water availability. Here, we review some of the classical approaches to dealing with plant response to drought stress and we evaluate how research on RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES (RLKs) can contribute to improving plant performance under drought stress. RLKs are considered as key regulators of plant architecture and growth behavior, but they also function in defense and stress responses. The available literature and analyses of available transcript profiling data indeed suggest that RLKs can play an important role in optimizing plant responses to drought stress. In addition, RLK pathways are ideal targets for nontransgenic approaches, such as synthetic molecules, providing a novel strategy to manipulate their activity and supporting translational studies from model species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, to economically useful crops.
Assessing climate change effects on European crop yields using the Crop Growth
Supit, I. ; Diepen, C.A. van; Wit, A.J.W. de; Wolf, J. ; Kabat, P. ; Baruth, B. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2012
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 164 (2012). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 96 - 111.
gewasproductie - akkerbouw - groeimodellen - kooldioxide - bedrijfssystemen - klimaatverandering - crop production - arable farming - growth models - carbon dioxide - farming systems - climatic change - atmospheric co2 concentration - daily precipitation models - solanum-tuberosum l. - wind-speed analysis - change scenarios - daily rainfall - carbon-dioxide - brassica-napus - part ii - simulation
Climate change impacts on potential and rainfed crop yields on the European continent were studied using output of three General Circulation Models and the Crop Growth Monitoring System in combination with a weather generator. Climate change impacts differ per crop type and per CO2 emission scenario. Crops planted in autumn and winter (winter wheat) may benefit from the increasing CO2 concentration. Rainfall is sufficient and if the CO2 concentration increase is high, yields may increase up to 2090. If the CO2 increase is less, increasing temperatures result in declining or stagnating yields after 2050. Crops planted in spring (potato, sugar beet) initially benefit from the CO2 increase, however as time progresses the increasing temperatures reduce these positive effects. By the end of the century yields decline in southern Europe and production may only be possible if enough irrigation water is available. In northern Europe depending on the temperature and CO2 concentration increase, yields either stagnate or decline. However in some of the cooler regions yield increase is still possible. Crops planted in late spring and summer (maize) may suffer from droughts and high temperature in summer. By the end of the century, depending on the temperature rise, crop yields decline almost everywhere. If the temperature increase is less only in north western Europe yields remain stable.
Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions
Uwimana, B. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Hooftman, D.A.P. ; Hartman, Y. ; Tienderen, P.H. van; Jansen, J. ; McHale, L.K. ; Michelmore, R.W. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2012
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 125 (2012)6. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 1097 - 1111.
quantitative trait loci - genetically-engineered organisms - lactuca-sativa l. - gene flow - helianthus-paradoxus - sunflower hybrids - vegetative growth - transgenic plants - field conditions - brassica-napus
With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F2:3 families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F2:3 families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na+, Cl- and K+) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop–wild hybridization takes place
The impact of altered herbicide residues in transgenic herbicide-resistant crops on standard setting for herbicide residues
Kleter, G.A. ; Unsworth, J.B. ; Harris, C.A. - \ 2011
Pest Management Science 67 (2011)10. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 1193 - 1210.
glyphosate-resistant - metabolite ampa - aminomethylphosphonic acid - preharvest applications - brassica-napus - glufosinate-resistant - nontransgenic cotton - tolerant crops - bromoxynil - translocation
The global area covered with transgenic (genetically modified) crops has rapidly increased since their introduction in the mid-1990s. Most of these crops have been rendered herbicide resistant, for which it can be envisaged that the modification has an impact on the profile and level of herbicide residues within these crops. In this article, the four main categories of herbicide resistance, including resistance to acetolactate-synthase inhibitors, bromoxynil, glufosinate and glyphosate, are reviewed. The topics considered are the molecular mechanism underlying the herbicide resistance, the nature and levels of the residues formed and their impact on the residue definition and maximum residue limits (MRLs) defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and national authorities. No general conclusions can be drawn concerning the nature and level of residues, which has to be done on a case-by-case basis. International residue definitions and MRLs are still lacking for some herbicide–crop combinations, and harmonisation is therefore recommended
Effector diversification within compartments of the Leptosphaeria maculans genome affected by repeat induced point mutations
Rouxel, T. ; Grandaubert, J. ; Hane, J.K. ; Hoede, C. ; Wouw, A. ; Couloux, A. ; Dominguez, V. ; Anthouard, V. ; Bally, P. ; Bourras, S. ; Cozijnsen, A.J. ; Ciuffetti, L.M. ; Degrave, A. ; Dilmaghani, A. ; Duret, L. ; Fudal, L. ; Goodwin, S.B. ; Gout, L. ; Glaser, N. ; Linglin, J. ; Kema, G.H.J. ; Lapalu, N. ; Lawrence, C.B. ; May, K. ; Meyer, M. ; Ollivier, B. ; Poulain, J. ; Schoch, C.L. ; Simon, A. ; Spatafora, J.W. ; Stachowiak, A. ; Turgeon, B.G. ; Tyler, B.M. ; Vincent, D. ; Weissenbach, J. ; Amselem, J. ; Quesneville, H. ; Oliver, R.P. ; Wincker, P. ; Balesdent, M.H. ; Howlett, B.J. - \ 2011
Nature Communications 2 (2011). - ISSN 2041-1723 - p. 202 - 202.
transposable elements - molecular evolution - pathogen effectors - brassica-napus - gene-transfer - oilseed rape - stem canker - avirulence - plant - fungal
Fungi are of primary ecological, biotechnological and economic importance. Many fundamental biological processes that are shared by animals and fungi are studied in fungi due to their experimental tractability. Many fungi are pathogens or mutualists and are model systems to analyse effector genes and their mechanisms of diversification. In this study, we report the genome sequence of the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans and characterize its repertoire of protein effectors. The L. maculans genome has an unusual bipartite structure with alternating distinct guanine and cytosine-equilibrated and adenine and thymine (AT)-rich blocks of homogenous nucleotide composition. The AT-rich blocks comprise one-third of the genome and contain effector genes and families of transposable elements, both of which are affected by repeat-induced point mutation, a fungal-specific genome defence mechanism. This genomic environment for effectors promotes rapid sequence diversification and underpins the evolutionary potential of the fungus to adapt rapidly to novel host-derived constraints
An assessment of chromosomal rearrangements in neopolyploids of Lilium hybrids
Xie, S.L. ; Khan, N. ; Ramanna, M.S. ; Niu, L.X. ; Marasek Ciolakowska, A.R. ; Arens, P. ; Tuyl, J.M. van - \ 2010
Genome 53 (2010)6. - ISSN 0831-2796 - p. 439 - 446.
in-situ hybridization - x asiatic hybrids - brassica-napus - intergenomic recombination - homeologous recombination - flowering plants - gish analysis - genome - longiflorum - polyploids
Two types of newly induced polyploids (neopolyploids) of Lilium hybrids were monitored for the occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. One of the populations was obtained through crossing an allotriploid Longiflorum x Oriental hybrid (LLO) with an allotetraploid Longiflorum x Trumpet hybrid (LLTT), both of which were derived from somatic chromosome doubling. The other type of allopolyploid population was derived from meiotic chromosome doubling in which numerically unreduced (2n) gametes from two different interspecific hybrids. namely. Longiflorum x Asiatic (LA) and Oriental x Asiatic (OA). were used to get backcross progeny with the Asiatic parents. GISH clearly discriminated the three constituent genomes (L, T, and O) in the complements of the progeny obtained from mitotic chromosome doubling. A total of 26 individuals were analyzed from this population and there was no evidence of chromosomal rearrangements. However, in the case of meiotically doubled allopolyploid progeny, considerable frequencies of chromosomal rearrangements were observed through GISH. The so-called chromosomal rearrangements in meiotic polyploids are the result of homoeologous recombination rather than translocations. Furthermore, evidence for the occurrence of meiotic recombination in the LA hybrids has been confirmed with GISH on meiotic chromosomes. Thus, there was evidence that neopolyploids of Lilium hybrids did not possess any noticeable chromosome rearrangements
Recent changes in the climate yield forecasting of various crops in Europe
Supit, I. ; Diepen, C.A. van; Wit, A.J.W. de; Kabat, P. ; Baruth, B. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2010
Agricultural Systems 103 (2010)9. - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 683 - 694.
air co2 enrichment - land-use - brassica-napus - temperature - wheat - growth - agriculture - scenarios - trends - food
Recent changes in the simulated potential crop yield and biomass production caused by changes in the temperature and global radiation patterns are examined, using the Crop Growth Monitoring System. The investigated crops are winter wheat, spring barley, maize, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet, pulses and sunflower. The period considered is 1976-2005. The research was executed at NUTS2 level. Maize and sugar beet were the crops least affected by changing temperature and global radiation patterns. For the other crops the simulated potential yield remained stable in the majority of regions, while decreasing trends in simulated potential yields prevailed in the remaining regions. The changes appear in a geographical pattern. In Italy and southern central Europe, temperature and radiation change effects are more severe than elsewhere, in these areas potential crop yields of more than three crops significantly decreased. In the UK and some regions in northern Europe the yield potential of various crops increased. In a next step the national yield statistics were analyzed. For a large majority of the countries the yield increases of wheat, barley and to a lesser extent rapeseed are leveling off. Several explanations could be given, however, as the simulated yield potential for these crops decreased in various regions, the changing temperature and radiation patterns may also contribute to the diminishing yield increases or to the stagnation. In more than 50% of the investigated countries the maize, potato and sugar beet yields continue to increase. This can be attributed to improving production techniques, new crop varieties, sometimes in combination with an improving climatic potential. In some regions in northern Europe, yields continue to increase. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm
Singh, R. ; Tan, S.G. ; Panandam, L.M. ; Rahman, R.A. ; Ooi, L.C.L. ; Low, E.T.L. ; Sharma, M. ; Jansen, J. ; Cheah, S.C. - \ 2009
BMC Plant Biology 9 (2009). - ISSN 1471-2229
elaeis-guineensis jacq. - genetic-linkage map - marker-assisted selection - brassica-napus - rapd markers - eucalyptus-grandis - pseudo-testcross - seed oil - microsatellite - identification
Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Result: A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E.guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL for C18:2 was detected on Group 2. CONCLUSION: This study describes the first successful detection of QTLs for fatty acid composition in oil palm. These QTLs constitute useful tools for application in breeding programmes
Role of glucosinolates in insect-plant relationships and multitrophic interactions
Hopkins, R.J. ; Dam, N.M. van; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2009
Annual Review of Entomology 54 (2009). - ISSN 0066-4170 - p. 57 - 83.
cabbage root fly - beetle psylliodes-chrysocephala - parasitoid diaeretiella-rapae - sawfly athalia-rosae - mustard oil bomb - oilseed rape - brassica-napus - arabidopsis-thaliana - plutella-xylostella - pieris-rapae
Glucosinolates present classical examples of plant compounds affecting insect-plant interactions. They are found mainly in the family Brassicaceae, which includes several important crops. More than 120 different glucosinolates are known. The enzyme myrosinase, which is stored in specialized plant cells, converts glucosinolates to the toxic isothiocyanates. Insect herbivores may reduce the toxicity of glucosinolates and their products by excretion, detoxification, or behavioral adaptations. Glucosinolates also affect higher trophic levels, via reduced host or prey quality or because specialist herbivores may sequester glucosinolates for their own defense. There is substantial quantitative and qualitative variation between plant genotypes, tissues, and ontogenetic stages, which poses specific challenges to insect herbivores. Even though glucosinolates are constitutive defenses, their levels are influenced by abiotic and biotic factors including insect damage. Plant breeders may use knowledge on glucosinolates to increase insect resistance in Brassica crops. State-of-the-art techniques, such as mutant analysis and metabolomics, are necessary to identify the exact role of glucosinolates. Acronyms and Definitions Constitutive defense: defense characteristics that are always expressed in the plant Induced defense: induced responses that reduce the negative fitness consequences of an attack by a pest or pathogen Induced response: change in chemical compound levels after damage by herbivores Multitrophic interactions: interactions that involve more than two trophic levels in a food web Sequestration: the active accumulation of material as a means of protection against organisms from a higher trophic level Synomone: an allelochemical that elicits a response from which both the originator and receiver benefit Token (or sign) stimulus: a stimulus by which an animal distinguishes an important object
Formation of simple nitriles upon glucosinolate hydrolysis affects direct and indirect defense against the specialist herbivore, Pieris rapae
Mumm, R. ; Burow, M. ; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G. ; Kazantzidou, E. ; Wittstock, U. ; Dicke, M. ; Gershenzon, J. - \ 2008
Journal of Chemical Ecology 34 (2008)10. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 1311 - 1321.
parasitoid diaeretiella-rapae - p-napi-oleracea - field trapping experiments - natural enemy association - mustard oil bomb - cotesia-rubecula - arabidopsis-thaliana - brassica-napus - epithiospecifier protein - oviposition stimulants
The glucosinolate-myrosinase system, found in plants of the order Brassicales, has long been considered an effective defense system against herbivores. The defensive potential of glucosinolates is mainly due to the products formed after myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis upon tissue damage. The most prominent hydrolysis products, the isothiocyanates, are toxic to a wide range of organisms, including herbivorous lepidopterans. In contrast, little is known about the biological activities of alternative hydrolysis products such as simple nitriles and epithionitriles that are formed at the expense of isothiocyanates in the presence of epithiospecifier proteins (ESPs). Here, we used transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) plants overexpressing ESP (35S:ESP plants) to investigate the effects of simple nitriles on direct and indirect defense against the specialist cabbage white butterfly Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). In the 35S:ESP plants, glucosinolates are hydrolyzed mainly to simple nitriles upon tissue disruption, while isothiocyanates are the predominant hydrolysis products in Columbia-0 (Col-0) wild-type plants. The parasitoid Cotesia rubecula (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a specialist on P. rapae larvae, was significantly more attracted to P. rapae-infested 35S:ESP plants than to P. rapae-infested Col-0 wild-type plants in a wind tunnel setup. Furthermore, female P. rapae butterflies laid more eggs on Col-0 wild-type plants than on 35S:ESP plants when the plants had been damaged previously. However, when given a choice to feed on 35S:ESP or Col-0 plants, caterpillars did not discriminate between the two genotypes. Growth rate and developmental time were not significantly different between caterpillars that were reared on 35S:ESP or Col-0 plants. Thus, the production of simple nitriles instead of isothiocyanates, as catalyzed by ESP, can promote both direct and indirect defense against the specialist herbivore P. rapae.
Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)-mediated improvement in cultured embryo quality in vitro entails changes in ascorbate metabolism, meristem development and embryo maturation
Stasolla, C. ; Belmonte, M.F. ; Tahir, M. ; Elhiti, M. ; Joosen, R.V.L. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Sharpe, A. ; Gjetvaj, B. ; Boutilier, K.A. - \ 2008
Planta 228 (2008)2. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 255 - 272.
spruce picea-glauca - plant-tissue culture - hordeum-vulgare l - somatic embryos - gene-expression - brassica-napus - molecular characterization - microspore embryogenesis - glutathione synthesis - argonaute family
Applications of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH (reduced glutathione), which switches the cellular glutathione pool towards the oxidized form GSSG, positively influences embryo quality by improving the structure of the shoot apical meristem and promoting embryo maturation, both of which improve the post-embryonic performance of the embryos. To investigate the mechanisms underlying BSO-mediated improvement in embryo quality the transcript profiles of developing Brassica napus microspore-derived embryos cultured in the absence (control) or presence of BSO were analyzed using a 15,000-element B. napus oligo microarray. BSO applications induced major changes in transcript accumulation patterns, especially during the late phases of embryogenesis. BSO affected the transcription and activities of key enzymes involved in ascorbate metabolism, which resulted in major fluctuations in cellular ascorbate levels. These changes were related to morphological characteristics of the embryos and their post-embryonic performance. BSO applications also activated many genes controlling meristem formation and function, including ZWILLE, SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, and ARGONAUTE 1. Increased expression of these genes may contribute to the improved structural quality of the shoot poles observed in the presence of BSO. Compared to their control counterparts, middle- and late-stage BSO-treated embryos also showed increased accumulation of transcripts associated with the maturation phase of zygotic embryo development, including genes encoding ABA-responsive proteins and storage- and late-embryogenic abundant (LEA) proteins. Overall these transcriptional changes support the observation that the BSO-induced oxidized glutathione redox state allows cultured embryos to reach both morphological and physiological maturity, which in turn guarantees successful regeneration and enhanced post-embryonic growth
Use of QTL analysis in physiological research
Vreugdenhil, D. ; Koornneef, M. ; Sergeeva, L.I. - \ 2007
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 54 (2007)1. - ISSN 1021-4437 - p. 10 - 15.
quantitative trait loci - arabidopsis-thaliana - brassica-napus - flowering time - genome - gene - polymorphisms - vernalization - recombinant - metabolism
Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis is a powerful approach to map and subsequently identify genes involved in complex traits. Here we describe the basic principles and recent achievements of this method, and its application in physiological research in plants. The rapidly increasing amount of molecular and ¿omics¿ data and genetic resources and tools, in model species (Arabidopsis) and crops, will greatly support and stimulate the use of this approach in the near future.
A high-density, integrated genetic linkage map of lettuce (Lactuca spp.)
Truco, M.J. ; Antonise, R. ; Lavelle, D. ; Ochoa, O. ; Kozik, A. ; Witsenboer, H. ; Fort, S.B. ; Jeuken, M.J.W. ; Kesseli, R.V. ; Lindhout, P. ; Michelmore, R. ; Peleman, J. - \ 2007
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 115 (2007)6. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 735 - 746.
brassica-napus - aflp markers - recombination - sativa - populations - construction - genome - rflp - identification - exploitation
An integrated map for lettuce comprising of 2,744 markers was developed from seven intra- and inter-specific mapping populations. A total of 560 markers that segregated in two or more populations were used to align the individual maps. 2,073 AFLP, 152 RFLP, 130 SSR, and 360 RAPD as well as 29 other markers were assigned to nine chromosomal linkage groups that spanned a total of 1,505 cM and ranged from 136 to 238 cM. The maximum interval between markers in the integrated map is 43 cM and the mean interval is 0.7 cM. The majority of markers segregated close to Mendelian expectations in the intra-specific crosses. In the two L. saligna × L. sativa inter-specific crosses, a total of 155 and 116 markers in 13 regions exhibited significant segregation distortion. Data visualization tools were developed to curate, display and query the data. The integrated map provides a framework for mapping ESTs in one core mapping population relative to phenotypes that segregate in other populations. It also provides large numbers of markers for marker assisted selection, candidate gene identification, and studies of genome evolution in the Compositae
Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Supena, E.D.J. ; Suharsono, S. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Custers, J.B.M. - \ 2006
Plant Cell Reports 25 (2006)1. - ISSN 0721-7714 - p. 1 - 10.
direct somatic embryogenesis - anther-culture - plant-regeneration - different genotypes - brassica-napus - androgenesis - invitro - tobacco - lines - resistance
Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in pepper. The critical factors of the protocol are: selection of flower buds with more than 50% late unicellular microspores, a 1 day 4°C pretreatment of the buds, followed by culture of the anthers in double-layer medium system for 1 week at 9°C and thereafter at 28°C in continuous darkness. The medium contained Nitsch components and 2% maltose, with 1% activated charcoal in the solid under layer and 2.5 ¿M zeatin and 5 ¿M indole-3-acetic acid in the liquid upper layer. All the ten genotypes of hot pepper tested, responded to this protocol. The best genotypes produced four to seven plants per original flower bud. This protocol can be used as a potential tool for producing doubled haploid plants for hot pepper breeding.
Altered photosynthetic performance of a natural Arabidopsis accession is associated with atrazine resistance
El-Lithy, M.E.M. ; Rodrigues, G.C. ; Rensen, J.J.S. van; Snel, J.F.H. ; Dassen, J.H.A. ; Koornneef, M. ; Jansen, M.A.K. ; Aarts, M.G.M. ; Vreugdenhil, D. - \ 2005
Journal of Experimental Botany 56 (2005)416. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 1625 - 1634.
uv-b radiation - triazine-resistant - photosystem-ii - herbicide resistance - susceptible biotypes - electron-transport - isolated-chloroplasts - brassica-napus - fluorescence - temperature
Natural variation for photosynthetic traits was studied by determining chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in a collection of Arabidopsis accessions. This screen revealed only one single accession (Ely), exhibiting photosynthetic characteristics markedly different from all others, while a few lines showed small but significant variation. Detailed genetic and physiological analyses showed reduced fitness for Ely compared with the standard laboratory strain Ler for various growth parameters. At low temperature (15°C), Ely had a higher electron transport rate than Ler, indicating increased photosystem II efficiency under this condition, while at high temperature (30°C) the opposite was observed. Ely had a high sensitivity to UV-B radiation compared with Ler and was atrazine resistant. This atrazine-resistance and related chlorophyll fluorescence traits were maternally inherited, pointing towards chloroplast-located gene(s). Definite proof that Ely is atrazine-resistant was obtained by sequencing the psbA gene, encoding the D1 protein of photosystem II, revealing a point mutation causing the same amino acid change as found in other atrazine-resistant species. Additional nuclear encoded genetic variation was also present, as was concluded from the small but significant differences in phenotype between Ely and its reciprocal crosses with Ler. It was concluded that the photosynthetic yield is highly conserved and that only severe selection pressure results in marked variations in photosynthetic performance
Physicochemical properties of 2S Albumins and the corresponding protein isolate from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
Gonzalez-Perez, S. ; Vereijken, J.M. ; Koningsveld, G.A. van; Gruppen, H. ; Voragen, A.G.J. - \ 2005
Journal of Food Science 70 (2005)1. - ISSN 0022-1147 - p. C98 - C103.
low-molecular-weight - methionine-rich - storage protein - functional-properties - chlorogenic acid - brassica-napus - seed proteins - napin - heat - solubility
Sunflower albumins (SFAs) are a diverse group of proteins present in sunflower isolates, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 2S. This research presents a detailed study of the influence of pH on the structure and solubility of SFAs. The effect of temperature on the structure of SFAs was also studied. Furthermore, the solubility of a sunflower isolate (SI) was studied and discussed in terms of its main protein components (SFAs and helianthinin). The native structure of SFAs revealed to be very stable against pH changes (pH 3.0 to 9.0) and heat treatment (>100 °C), and their solubility was only marginally affected by pH and ionic strength. The solubility of the sunflower isolate as a function of pH seems to be dominated by that of helianthinin: SI (I = 30 mM) showed a U-shaped solubility curve with a minimum between pH 4.0 and pH 6.0.
Seed-expressed fluorescent proteins as versatile tools for easy (co)transformation and high-throughput funtional genomics in Arabidopsis
Stuitje, A.R. ; Verbree, E.C. ; Linden, K.H. van der; Mietkiewska, E.M. ; Nap, J.P.H. ; Kneppers, T.J.A. - \ 2003
Plant Biotechnology Journal 1 (2003)4. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 301 - 309.
agrobacterium-mediated transformation - t-dna integration - vacuum infiltration - transgenic plants - brassica-napus - thaliana - recombination - tumefaciens - gene
We demonstrate that fluorescent proteins can be used as visual selection markers for the transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana by the floral dip method. Seed-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) variants, as well as DsRed, permits the identification of mature transformed seeds in a large background of untransformed seeds by fluorescence microscopy. In planta visualization of transformed seeds in siliques shows that susceptibility to floral dip transformation is limited to a small, defined window in flower development. In the competent stage, the random transformation of up to 25% of the seeds within a single silique may occur. The use of fluorescent proteins with different spectral characteristics allows a rapid identification and genetic analysis of seeds that have received multiple genes-of-interest in co-transformation experiments. The data reveal that co-transformation does not occur at random, since the co-transformed genes are integrated at a single genetic locus in ¿ 70% of the cases. This genetic linkage of the co-transformed genes greatly simplifies metabolic pathway engineering by reverse genetics in Arabidopsis. Additional advantages of using visual selection instead of antibiotic resistance include a rapid identification of the effect of the T-DNA insertion or the transgene on seed development and/or germination. This technology, of tagging and identifying transformed seeds by fluorescence provides a novel high-throughput screening system with many potential applications in plant biotechnology.
Evidence of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyoctanoate accumulation in transgenic potato lines expressing the Pseudomonas oleovorans Pha-C1 polymerase in the cytoplasm
Romano, A. ; Vreugdenhil, D. ; Jamar, D.C.L. ; Plas, L.H.W. van der; Roo, G. de; Witholt, B. ; Eggink, G. ; Mooibroek, A. - \ 2003
Biochemical Engineering Journal 16 (2003). - ISSN 1369-703X - p. 135 - 143.
recombinant escherichia-coli - beta-oxidation - fluorescent pseudomonads - molecular-basis - brassica-napus - plants - gene - polyhydroxyalkanoates - poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) - aeruginosa
The phaC1 gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans, coding for the Pha-C1 polymerase, was introduced into the potato genome. Transgenic callus and plant lines which transcribed and translated the transgene were selected and cell suspension cultures from the wild type and transgenic lines were established. The substrate for the Pha-C1 polymerase, 3-(R)-hydroxyoctanoate, was provided to the growth medium. In the transgenic lines, but not in the wild type or in transgenic cell suspension cultures without Pha-C1 expression, evidence of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulation ranging from 0.02 to 9.7 mg of polymer per gram of dry weight was observed after feeding in the growth medium the substrate. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Interactions over four trophic levels: foodplant quality affects development of a hyperparasitoid as mediated through a herbivore and its primary parasitoid
Harvey, J.A. ; Dam, N.M. van; Gols, G.J.Z. - \ 2003
Journal of Animal Ecology 72 (2003). - ISSN 0021-8790 - p. 520 - 531.
host quality - phytophagous insects - repellent defenses - natural enemies - brassica-napus - manduca-sexta - plant - growth - glucosinolate - hymenoptera
1. Related plant species with different spatial and/or temporal life-history characteristics often possess differences in secondary chemistry and thus direct defensive capability. These differences are often attributed to a range of divergent selection pressures from herbivores and pathogens. Most studies of insect-plant interactions have examined the effects of plant defence on herbivore performance, with less attention being paid to higher trophic levels, such as parasitoid wasps. Moreover, to date it is not known whether secondary plant compounds may affect organisms in the fourth trophic level. 2. Here, we study interactions in a four-trophic-level system. The development of a solitary secondary hyperparasitoid, Lysibia nana , and its primary endoparasitoid host, Cotesia glomerata , are compared when reared from a primary herbivore host, Pieris brassicae, which was itself reared on two cruciferous plants with contrasting life histories. Whereas L. nana is known to attack the pupae of a number of primary parasitoids in the genus Cotesia , both C. glomerata and P. brassicae are intimately associated with plants in the family Brassicaceae. 3. Insects were reared from a feral population of the spring perennial, Brassica oleracea , and a naturally occurring population of a summer annual, B. nigra . Like other cruciferous plants, both species are known to produce glycoside toxins (= glucosinolates) after they are attacked by foliar herbivores. However, concentrations of glucosinolates were more than 3.5 times higher in young shoots of B. nigra than in corresponding shoots of B. oleracea . 4. Cocoon weight in C. glomerata was unaffected by the foodplant on which P. brassicae was reared, whereas in 24-h-old host cocoons emerging adult hyperparasitoid body mass increased significantly with cocoon size and wasps were significantly larger, and survived better on B. oleracea than on B. nigra. Moreover, body mass in L. nana was typically larger in young (c. 24 h), than in older (c. 72 h) cocoons of C. glomerata. Egg-to-adult development time in L. nana generally increased with host size and age, and wasps on younger hosts completed their development more rapidly on B. nigra. 5. Our results clearly demonstrate that qualitative differences in herbivore diet can differently affect the performance of interacting organisms across several trophic levels, and suggest that bottom-up forces may also play a role in mediating interactions involving plants-herbivores-parasitoids and hyperparasitoids.
Interactions between aboveground and belowground induced responses against phytophages
Dam, N.M. van; Harvey, J.A. ; Waeckers, F.L. ; Bezemer, T.M. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2003
Basic and Applied Ecology 4 (2003)1. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 63 - 77.
herbivore manduca-sexta - host nicotiana-attenuata - extrafloral nectar production - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - jasmonate-induced responses - plant-mediated interactions - induced gene-expression - wound-induced changes - brassica-napus - salicylic-acid
Since their discovery about thirty years ago, induced plant responses have mainly been studied in interactions of plants with aboveground (AG) pathogens, herbivores and their natural enemies. Many induced responses, however, are known to be systemic and thus it is likely that responses induced by AG phytophages affect belowground (BG) phytophages feeding on the same plant, and vice versa. The awareness that interactions between AG and BG phytophages may be an important aspect in the evolution of induced responses came only recently and little research has been done to date. In this review we first summarise ecological studies that show how AG phytophages may affect BG phytophages, and vice versa. Then we focus on mechanisms governing interactions between AG and BG induced responses, such as cross-talk between signals. We chose the genus Nicotiana and the family Brassicaceae as two examples of plant groups that have been well studied for their induced responses both AG and BG ¿ but not in concert ¿ and explore how interactions between AG and BG induced compounds may link multitrophic interactions associated with these plants. We propose that future research on AG and BG interactions should focus on: 1). Identification of compounds and signalling pathways involved in AG and BG induced responses and analysis of their interaction mechanisms, 2). Evaluation of how induced responses affect interactions between BG and AG phytophages and their natural enemies, 3). Evaluation of the effects of AG and BG phytophages -in combination with their natural enemies- on plant fitness to identify keystone interactions that are driving the natural selection for induced responses in plants.
Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure
Helsper, J.P.F.G. ; Vos, C.H. de; Maas, F.M. ; Jonker, H.H. ; Broeck, H.C. van den; Jordi, W. ; Pot, C.S. ; Keizer, L.C.P. ; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M. - \ 2003
Physiologia Plantarum 117 (2003)2. - ISSN 0031-9317 - p. 171 - 178.
ultraviolet-b-radiation - photosynthetic pigments - biochemical responses - photosystem-ii - brassica-napus - growth - plants - leaves - ozone - field
The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves, petals and sepals of Fuchsia hybrida, cv. Dollarprinzessin. Supplemental UV-A did not result in visible changes in plant morphology of either species. In leaves it induced small increases in levels of chlorophylls a and b, the carotenoids antheraxanthin, lutein and -carotene, and high increases in the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol. Petals hardly responded, while the coloured sepals of fuchsia showed an increase in quercetin derivatives. HPLC of unhydrolysed flavonoids showed that individual quercetin derivatives in leaves of both species and kaempferol derivatives in rose leaves increased 2-fold. Some kaempferol derivatives in fuchsia leaves were more than 2-fold enhanced or were newly induced by supplemental UV-A. Increases in l-ascorbic acid levels in fuchsia leaves, and decreases in rose leaves as result of supplemental UV-A were observed, but differences appeared statistically not significant, while l-ascorbate levels remained unchanged in the other tissues investigated. Anthocyanins and reduced glutathione levels were unaffected in all tissues. The combined UV-A induced increases in concentrations of these antioxidant species, did not lead to significant increases in antioxidant capacity of tissues, measured as Trolox equivalents in 50¿zthanol extracts. Light absorption at 355 nm of leaf extracts was significantly increased upon UV-A exposure. Our results indicate that the major protection towards UV-A exposure, in particular in the leaves, will originate from absorption of irradiation, and not from scavenging reactive oxygen species.
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