Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Aflatoxin B1 Conversion by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larval Enzyme Extracts
    Meijer, Nathan ; Stoopen, Geert ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Carney, John ; Bosch, Guido - \ 2019
    Toxins 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6651
    aflatoxin - black soldier fly - BSFL - cytochrome P450 - enzyme induction - Hermetia illucens - metabolic conversion - mycotoxin - S9 fraction

    The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20% when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the conversion of AFB1 by S9 extracts of BSFL reared on substrates with or without AFB1. Liver S9 of Aroclor-induced rats was used as a reference. To investigate whether cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the conversion of AFB1, the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was tested in a number of treatments. The results showed that approximately 60% of AFB1 was converted to aflatoxicol and aflatoxin P1. The remaining 40% of AFB1 was not converted. Cytochrome P450s were indeed responsible for metabolic conversion of AFB1 into AFP1, and a cytoplasmic reductase was most likely responsible for conversion of AFB1 into aflatoxicol.

    Conversion of organic resources by black soldier fly larvae: Legislation, efficiency and environmental impact
    Bosch, G. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Zamprogna, A. ; Veenenbos, M. ; Meijer, N.P. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2019
    Journal of Cleaner Production 222 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 355 - 363.
    Hermetia illucens - Insects - Life cycle assessment - Resource use efficiency

    To meet the projected substantial growth in the global demand for meat, we are challenged to develop additional protein-rich feed ingredients while minimizing the use of natural resources. The larvae of the black soldier fly (BSF) have the capacity to convert low-value organic resources into a high quality protein source for pigs, chickens and fish and as such may increase both the productivity and the efficiency of the food chain. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental opportunities of BSF larvae reared on different sources using up to date literature data on the efficiency of BSF larvae in converting such resources into biomass. The current EU legislative framework was used to classify the various resources for rearing insects. Data of forty articles published until 1 September 2017 were used, reporting on in total 78 (mixtures of) resources used for growing BSF larvae. Data on the resource conversion efficiency on dry matter (DM) and N basis was presented in 11 and 5 studies, evaluating 21 and 13 resources, respectively. Resources studied included food and feed materials (A, n = 8 resources), foods not intended (anymore) for human consumption (B1, n = 4), and residual streams such as food waste (D, n = 2), and animal manure (E, n = 7). Conversion efficiency varied from 1.3 to 32.8% for DM and from 7.4 to 74.8% for N. Using life cycle assessment, our environmental results showed that resources within the legal groups (i.e. A and B1) that are, at the moment, not allowed in EU as animal feed have in general a lower impact in terms of global warming potential, energy use, and land use. On a per kg protein basis, BSF larvae reared on a resource that contains food (e.g. sorghum) and feed (e.g. dried distillers grains with solubles) products generally have higher environmental impacts than conventional feed protein sources (fishmeal and soybean meal). Using insects as feed, therefore, has potential to lower the environmental impact of food production but a careful examination of the resource is needed in terms of environmental impact, safety and economics.

    Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids
    Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. ; Laurent, Sophie ; Veenenbos, Margot E. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2019
    Insect Science (2019). - ISSN 1672-9609
    Acheta domesticus - Alphitobius diaperinus - diet - fatty acids - Hermetia illucens

    Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.

    Effects of waste stream combinations from brewing industry on performance of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
    Chia, Shaphan Y. ; Tanga, Chrysantus M. ; Osuga, Isaac M. ; Mohamed, Samira A. ; Khamis, Fathiya M. ; Salifu, Daisy ; Sevgan, Subramanian ; Fiaboe, Komi K.M. ; Niassy, Saliou ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel ; Ekesi, Sunday - \ 2018
    PeerJ 2018 (2018)11. - ISSN 2167-8359
    Agro-industrial by-products - Hermetia illucens - Mass rearing - Net energy - Protein quality - Quality control parameters

    Background: In recent years, there has been a rapidly growing demand for readily accessible substrates for mass production of Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens Linnaeus. Beer production results in various by-products that typically end up in uncontrolled dumpsites constituting pollution problems, which merits urgent attention. The present study investigated whether the 12 formulated diets composed of brewers’ spent grains (BSGs), brewers’ yeast and cane molasses can serve as substrate for H. illucens production. Methods: Four different BSGs were selected and formulated into 12 diets, aiming at varying protein and net energy levels. The diets were offered to newly hatched (∼1 h old) H. illucens larvae and the influence on developmental duration, survival, wet weight, pre-oviposition time, fecundity, and longevity were compared. Results: Developmental duration of the larvae (16–21 days) and pre-pupae (8–11 days) differed significantly across the different diets. The developmental duration of the pupae (8.7–9.1 days) was not affected by diet. The larval (86–99.2%), pre-pupal (71–95%), and pupal (65–91%) survival rates varied significantly between flies reared on the different diets. The pre-oviposition time was similar for flies provided with water (7–11 days) and 10% sugar solution (8–14 days) or across the different diets. The mean fecundity per female ranged from 324–787 eggs and did not differ between females provided with water or sugar solution. However, the number of eggs laid per female varied significantly across the different diets when provided with water. The longevity of starved H. illucens adults was significantly lower (5 days) compared to those provided with water (11–14 days) or sugar solution (14–15 days). Discussion: The implications of these findings as part of a quality control procedure for commercial production of high-quality H. illucens larvae as an alternative protein ingredient in livestock and aquaculture feed are discussed.

    Tolerance and excretion of the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A by alphitobius diaperinus and hermetia illucens from contaminated substrates
    Camenzuli, Louise ; Dam, Ruud van; Rijk, Theo de; Andriessen, Rob ; Schelt, Jeroen van; Fels-Klerx, H.J.I. van der - \ 2018
    Toxins 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 2072-6651
    Alphitobius diaperinus - Bioaccumulation - Black soldier fly - Contaminants - Excretion - Feed safety - Food safety - Hermetia illucens - Insects - Lesser mealworm
    This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required.
    Nutritional value of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) and its suitability as animal feed - a review
    Barragan-Fonseca, K.B. ; Dicke, M. ; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2017
    Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 3 (2017)2. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 105 - 120.
    Animal feed - Black soldier fly - Hermetia illucens - Nutritional value - 017-4024

    The black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.; Diptera: Stratiomyidae) has been studied for its capability to convert organic waste to high quality protein, control certain harmful bacteria and insect pests, provide potential chemical precursors to produce biodiesel and for its use as feed for a variety of animals. Nutritional value of BSF larvae is discussed, as well as the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on both larval body composition and performance. Although BSF larvae contain high protein levels (from 37 to 63% dry matter; DM), and other macro- and micronutrients important for animal feed, the available studies on including BSF larvae in feed rations for poultry, pigs and fish suggest that it could only partially replace traditional feedstuff, because high or complete replacement resulted in reduced performance. This is due to factors such as high fat content (from 7 to 39% DM), ash (from 9 to 28% DM), and consequences of processing. Therefore, further studies are needed on nutrient composition, digestibility and availability for target species and on improved methods to process larvae, among other aspects. Additionally, it is clear that factors including quantity and quality of food, temperature, substrate moisture and/or larval crowding can affect BSF performance. However, the biology of BSF, in particular of the adult stage, has not been studied in detail. This review provides background information on the nutritional value of BSF larvae, its suitability as animal feed, biotic and abiotic conditions that affect its performance, and identifies which knowledge is required to ensure more dependable yields of BSF-mass rearing and development of economically feasible methods to take advantage of this species as animal feed.

    Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)
    Bosch, G. ; Fels, Ine van der; Rijk, T.C. de; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2017
    Toxins 9 (2017)6. - ISSN 2072-6651 - 10 p.
    aflatoxins - Hermetia illucens - food waste mitigation - livestock feed - novel protein source - Tenebrio molitor
    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens, BSF) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, and up to 0.5 mg/kg dry feed. Poultry feed without any additions and feed with only the solvent added served as controls. The AFB1 in the feed did not affect survival and body weight in the BSF and YMW larvae (p > 0.10), indicating a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 in both species. Furthermore, AFB1 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were below the detection limit (0.10 µg/kg) in BSF larvae, whereas the YMW had AFB1 levels that were approximately 10% of the European Union’s legal limit for feed materials and excreted AFM1. It is concluded that both BSF larvae and YMW have a high AFB1 tolerance and do not accumulate AFB1.
    Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factors for Three Edible Insects : Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, and Hermetia illucens
    Janssen, Renske H. ; Vincken, Jean Paul ; Broek, Lambertus A.M. van den; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Lakemond, Catriona M.M. - \ 2017
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65 (2017)11. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 2275 - 2278.
    Alphitobius diaperinus - amino acids - black soldier fly - edible insects - Hermetia illucens - lesser mealworm - nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor (Kp) - protein extraction - Tenebrio molitor - yellow mealworm

    Insects are considered a nutritionally valuable source of alternative proteins, and their efficient protein extraction is a prerequisite for large-scale use. The protein content is usually calculated from total nitrogen using the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor (Kp) of 6.25. This factor overestimates the protein content, due to the presence of nonprotein nitrogen in insects. In this paper, a specific Kp of 4.76 ± 0.09 was calculated for larvae from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, and Hermetia illucens, using amino acid analysis. After protein extraction and purification, a Kp factor of 5.60 ± 0.39 was found for the larvae of three insect species studied. We propose to adopt these Kp values for determining protein content of insects to avoid overestimation of the protein content.

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