Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==avirulence
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Effector diversification within compartments of the Leptosphaeria maculans genome affected by repeat induced point mutations
Rouxel, T. ; Grandaubert, J. ; Hane, J.K. ; Hoede, C. ; Wouw, A. ; Couloux, A. ; Dominguez, V. ; Anthouard, V. ; Bally, P. ; Bourras, S. ; Cozijnsen, A.J. ; Ciuffetti, L.M. ; Degrave, A. ; Dilmaghani, A. ; Duret, L. ; Fudal, L. ; Goodwin, S.B. ; Gout, L. ; Glaser, N. ; Linglin, J. ; Kema, G.H.J. ; Lapalu, N. ; Lawrence, C.B. ; May, K. ; Meyer, M. ; Ollivier, B. ; Poulain, J. ; Schoch, C.L. ; Simon, A. ; Spatafora, J.W. ; Stachowiak, A. ; Turgeon, B.G. ; Tyler, B.M. ; Vincent, D. ; Weissenbach, J. ; Amselem, J. ; Quesneville, H. ; Oliver, R.P. ; Wincker, P. ; Balesdent, M.H. ; Howlett, B.J. - \ 2011
Nature Communications 2 (2011). - ISSN 2041-1723 - p. 202 - 202.
transposable elements - molecular evolution - pathogen effectors - brassica-napus - gene-transfer - oilseed rape - stem canker - avirulence - plant - fungal
Fungi are of primary ecological, biotechnological and economic importance. Many fundamental biological processes that are shared by animals and fungi are studied in fungi due to their experimental tractability. Many fungi are pathogens or mutualists and are model systems to analyse effector genes and their mechanisms of diversification. In this study, we report the genome sequence of the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans and characterize its repertoire of protein effectors. The L. maculans genome has an unusual bipartite structure with alternating distinct guanine and cytosine-equilibrated and adenine and thymine (AT)-rich blocks of homogenous nucleotide composition. The AT-rich blocks comprise one-third of the genome and contain effector genes and families of transposable elements, both of which are affected by repeat-induced point mutation, a fungal-specific genome defence mechanism. This genomic environment for effectors promotes rapid sequence diversification and underpins the evolutionary potential of the fungus to adapt rapidly to novel host-derived constraints
Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on diots and monocots
Stergiopoulos, I. ; Burg, H.A. van den; Ökmen, B. ; Beenen, H.G. ; Liere, S. van; Kema, G.H.J. ; Wit, P.J.G.M. de - \ 2010
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (2010)16. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 7610 - 7615.
cladosporium-fulvum - virulence factor - rhynchosporium-secalis - disease resistance - selective toxin - gene - specificity - avr4 - arabidopsis - avirulence
Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-triggered immunity in their presence. Here we show that homologs of the C. fulvum Avr4 and Ecp2 effectors are present in other pathogenic fungi of the Dothideomycete class, including Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana. We demonstrate that the Avr4 homolog of M. fijiensis is a functional ortholog of C. fulvum Avr4 that protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases through binding to chitin and, despite the low overall sequence homology, triggers a Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. Furthermore, three homologs of C. fulvum Ecp2 are found in M. fijiensis, one of which induces different levels of necrosis or HR in tomato lines that lack or contain a putative cognate Cf-Ecp2 protein, respectively. In contrast to Avr4, which acts as a defensive virulence factor, M. fijiensis Ecp2 likely promotes virulence by interacting with a putative host target causing host cell necrosis, whereas Cf-Ecp2 could possibly guard the virulence target of Ecp2 and trigger a Cf-Ecp2-mediated HR. Overall our data suggest that Avr4 and Ecp2 represent core effectors that are collectively recognized by single cognate Cf-proteins. Transfer of these Cf genes to plant species that are attacked by fungi containing these cognate core effectors provides unique ways for breeding disease-resistant crops
Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans
Haas, B.J. ; Kamoun, S. ; Zody, M.C. ; Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Handsaker, R.E. ; Cano, L.M. ; Grabherr, M. ; Kodira, C.D. ; Raffaele, S. ; Torto-Alalibo, T. ; Bozkurt, T.O. ; Ah-Fong, A.M.V. ; Alvarado, L. ; Anderson, V.L. ; Armstrong, M.R. ; Avrova, A. ; Baxter, L. ; Beynon, J. ; Boevink, P.C. ; Bollmann, S.R. ; Bos, J.I.B. ; Bulone, V. ; Cai, G. ; Cakir, C. ; Carrington, J.C. ; Chawner, M. ; Conti, L. ; Costanzo, S. ; Ewan, R. ; Fahlgren, N. ; Fischbach, M.A. ; Fugelstad, J. ; Gilroy, E.M. ; Gnerre, S. ; Green, P.J. ; Grenville-Briggs, L.J. ; Griffith, J. ; Grunwald, N.J. ; Horn, K. ; Horner, N.R. ; Hu, C.H. ; Huitema, E. ; Jeong, D.H. ; Jones, A.M.E. ; Jones, J.D.G. ; Jones, R.W. ; Karlsson, E.K. ; Kunjeti, S.G. ; Lamour, K. ; Liu, Z. ; Ma, L. ; Maclean, D. ; Chibucos, M.C. ; McDonald, H. ; McWalters, J. ; Meijer, H.J.G. ; Morgan, W. ; Morris, P.F. ; Munro, C.A. ; O'Neill, K. ; Ospina-Giraldo, M. ; Pinzon, A. ; Pritchard, L. ; Ramsahoye, B. ; Ren, Q. ; Restrepo, S. ; Roy, S. ; Sadanandom, A. ; Savidor, A. ; Schornack, S. ; Schwartz, D.C. ; Schumann, U.D. ; Schwessinger, B. ; Seyer, L. ; Sharpe, T. ; Silvar, C. ; Song, J. ; Studholme, D.J. ; Sykes, S. ; Thines, M. ; Vondervoort, P.J.I. van de; Phuntumart, V. ; Wawra, S. ; Weide, R. ; Win, J. ; Young, C. ; Zhou, S. ; Fry, W. ; Meyers, B.C. ; West, P. van; Ristaino, J. ; Govers, F. ; Birch, P.R.J. ; Whisson, S.C. ; Judelson, H.S. ; Nusbaum, C. - \ 2009
Nature 461 (2009). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 393 - 398.
effector proteins - rxlr effectors - cell-death - plant - avirulence - avr3a - resistance - infection - genes
Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in famine and population displacement(1). To this day, it affects world agriculture by causing the most destructive disease of potato, the fourth largest food crop and a critical alternative to the major cereal crops for feeding the world's population(1). Current annual worldwide potato crop losses due to late blight are conservatively estimated at $6.7 billion(2). Management of this devastating pathogen is challenged by its remarkable speed of adaptation to control strategies such as genetically resistant cultivars(3,4). Here we report the sequence of the P. infestans genome, which at similar to 240 megabases (Mb) is by far the largest and most complex genome sequenced so far in the chromalveolates. Its expansion results from a proliferation of repetitive DNA accounting for similar to 74% of the genome. Comparison with two other Phytophthora genomes showed rapid turnover and extensive expansion of specific families of secreted disease effector proteins, including many genes that are induced during infection or are predicted to have activities that alter host physiology. These fast-evolving effector genes are localized to highly dynamic and expanded regions of the P. infestans genome. This probably plays a crucial part in the rapid adaptability of the pathogen to host plants and underpins its evolutionary potential.
Effector trafficking: RXLR-dEER as extra gear for delivery into plant cells
Govers, F. ; Bouwmeester, K. - \ 2008
The Plant Cell 20 (2008)7. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 1728 - 1730.
avirulence - proteins - avr1b
When driving a car with automatic transmission, one hardly notices that extra gears give more power to the car. But in a car with manual transmission, one is constantly aware that even one gear shift helps to reach your goal much more efficiently. For Phytophthora pathogens, a domain characterized by the amino acid motifs RXLR and dEER seems to function as a special gear. In this issue of The Plant Cell, Dou et al. (2008b; pages 1930¿1947) report that an RXLR-dEER domain embodies the complete machinery that the pathogen needs to deliver effectors into host cells. This is in contrast with the bacterial type III secretion system, which requires a multitude of proteins to accomplish this task (see figure panels A and B).
RXLR effector reservoir in two Phytophthora species is dominated by a single rapidly evolving superfamily with more than 700 members
Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Tripathy, S. ; Govers, F. ; Tyler, B.M. - \ 2008
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (2008)12. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 4874 - 4879.
amino-acid sites - proteins reveals - downy mildew - avirulence - selection - genes - recognition - arabidopsis - virulence - secretome
Pathogens secrete effector molecules that facilitate the infection of their hosts. A number of effectors identified in plant pathogenic Phytophthora species possess N-terminal motifs (RXLR-dEER) required for targeting these effectors into host cells. Here, we bioinformatically identify >370 candidate effector genes in each of the genomes of P. sojae and P. ramorum. A single superfamily, termed avirulence homolog (Avh) genes, accounts for most of the effectors. The Avh proteins show extensive sequence divergence but are all related and likely evolved from a common ancestor by rapid duplication and divergence. More than half of the Avh proteins contain conserved C-terminal motifs (termed W, Y, and L) that are usually arranged as a module that can be repeated up to eight times. The Avh genes belong to the most rapidly evolving part of the genome, and they are nearly always located at synteny breakpoints. The superfamily includes all experimentally identified oomycete effector and avirulence genes, and its rapid pace of evolution is consistent with a role for Avh proteins in interaction with plant hosts
Phytophthora genomics: the plant destroyers' genome decoded
Govers, F. ; Gijzen, M. - \ 2006
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 19 (2006)12. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 1295 - 1301.
pathogen phytophthora - oomycete pathogen - saprolegnia-parasitica - microsatellite markers - expressed sequences - downy mildew - infestans - sojae - avirulence - ramorum
The year 2004 was an exciting one for the Phytophthora research community. The United States Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) completed the draft genome sequence of two Phytophthora species, Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum. In August of that year over 50 people gathered at JGI in Walnut Creek, California, for an annotation jamboree and searched for the secrets and surprises that the two genomes have in petto. This culminated in a paper in Science in September of this year describing the highlights of the sequencing project and emphasizing the power of having the genome sequences of two closely related organisms. This MPMI Focus issue on Phytophthora genomics contains a number of more specialized manuscripts centered on gene annotation and genome organization, and complemented with manuscripts that rely on genomics resources
Comparative analysis of Phytophthora genes encoding secreted proteins reveals conserved synteny and lineage-specific gene duplications and deletions
Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Tyler, B.M. ; Govers, F. - \ 2006
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 19 (2006)12. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 1311 - 1321.
pathogen phytophthora - comparative genomics - cladosporium-fulvum - magnaporthe-grisea - effector proteins - downy mildew - resistance - avirulence - elicitor - locus
Comparative analysis of two Phytophthora genomes revealed overall colinearity in four genomic regions consisting of a 1.5-Mb sequence of Phytophthora sojae and a 0.9-Mb sequence of R ramorum. In these regions with conserved synteny, the gene order is largely similar; however, genome rearrangements also have occurred. Deletions and duplications often were found in association with genes encoding secreted proteins, including effectors that are important for interaction with host plants. Among secreted protein genes, different evolutionary patterns were found. Elicitin genes that code for a complex family of highly conserved Phytophthora-specific elicitors show conservation in gene number and order, and often are clustered. In contrast, the race-specific elicitor gene Avr1b-1 appeared to be missing from the region with conserved synteny, as were its five homologs that are scattered over the four genomic regions. Some gene families encoding secreted proteins were found to be expanded in one species compared with the other. This could be the result of either repeated gene duplications in one species or specific deletions in the other. These different evolutionary patterns may shed light on the functions of these secreted proteins in the biology and pathology of the two Phytophthora spp.
Developing institutional collaboration between Wageningen university and the Chinese academy of agricultural sciences
Bonnema, A.B. ; Lin, Z. ; Qu, L. ; Jacobsen, E. - \ 2006
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 53 (2006)3/4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 369 - 386.
landbouwkundig onderzoek - landbouwwetenschappen - internationale samenwerking - netwerken (activiteit) - china - nederland - agricultural research - agricultural sciences - international cooperation - networking - china - netherlands - phytophthora-infestans - potato - avirulence - resistance - gene
Scientific co-operation between the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and Wageningen University (WU) has been underway since 1990, especially in the field of plant sciences. In 2001, CAAS and WU initiated a formal joint PhD training programme to further structure their co-operation. The goals of this co-operation are to: (1) initiate long-term institutional collaboration through capacity building; (2) jointly establish a modern laboratory; (3) jointly develop a cross-cultural scientific culture, and (4) set up collaboration in specific fields. Proper selection of PhD research themes was very important in the starting phase, since it would be a basis for good future collaboration. Both the culture and the educational system in the Netherlands and China are very different and this is reflected in their respective PhD educational systems. This article describes the joint PhD programme against the background of these different cultural settings and the different mandates for research of both WU and CAAS. It provides an overview of the requirements and discusses ways to develop a successful co-operation between WU and CAAS.
Phytophthora genome sequences uncover evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis
Tyler, B.M. ; Tripathy, S. ; Zhang, X. ; Dehal, P. ; Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Aerts, A. ; Arredondo, F.D. ; Baxter, L. ; Bensasson, D. ; Beynon, J.L. ; Chapman, J. ; Damasceno, C.M.B. ; Dorrance, A.E. ; Dou, D. ; Dickerman, A.W. ; Dubchak, I.L. ; Garbelotto, M. ; Gijzen, M. ; Gordon, S.G. ; Govers, F. ; Grunwald, N.J. ; Huang, W. ; Ivors, K.L. ; Jones, R.W. ; Kamoun, S. ; Krampis, K. ; Lamour, K.H. ; Lee, M.K. ; McDonald, W.H. ; Medina, M. ; Meijer, H.J.G. ; Nordberg, E.K. ; Maclean, D.J. ; Ospina-Giraldo, M.D. ; Morris, P.F. ; Phuntumart, V. ; Putnam, N.H. ; Rash, S. ; Rose, J.K.C. ; Sakihama, Y. ; Salamov, A.A. ; Savidor, A. ; Scheuring, C.F. ; Smith, B.M. ; Sobral, B.W.S. ; Terry, A. ; Torto-Alalibo, T.A. ; Win, J. ; Xu, Z. ; Zhang, H. ; Grigoriev, I.V. ; Rokhsar, D.S. ; Boore, J.L. - \ 2006
Science 313 (2006)5791. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1261 - 1266.
effector proteins - downy mildew - resistance - arabidopsis - avirulence - genes - locus - sojae - expression - virulence
Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Oömycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known oömycete avirulence genes
A Gene-for-Gene Relationship Between Wheat and Mycosphaerella graminicola, the Septoria Tritici Blotch Pathogen
Brading, P.A. ; Kema, G.H.J. ; Verstappen, E.C.P. ; Brown, J.K.M. - \ 2002
Phytopathology 92 (2002)4. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 439 - 445.
disease resistance genes - cladosporium-fulvum - host cultivars - pathosystem - avirulence - virulence - histology - infection - cf-9
Specific resistances to isolates of the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, which causes Septoria tritici blotch of wheat, have been detected in many cultivars. Cvs, Flame and Hereward, which have specific resistance to the isolate IPO323, were crossed with the susceptible cv. Longbow. The results of tests on F1 and F2 progeny indicated that a single semidominant gene controls resistance to IPO323 in each of the resistant cultivars. This was confirmed in F3 families of Flame x Longbow, which were either homozygous resistant, homozygous susceptible, or segregating in tests with IPO323 but were uniformly susceptible to another isolate, IPO94269. None of 100 F2 progeny of Flame x Hereward were susceptible to IPO323, indicating that the resistance genes in these two cultivars are the same, closely linked, or allelic. The resistance gene in cv. Flame was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 3A using microsatellite markers and was named Stb6. Fifty-nine progeny of a cross between IPO323 and IPO94269 were used in complementary genetic analysis of the pathogen to test a gene-for-gene relationship between Stb6 and the avirulence gene in IPO323. Avirulence to cvs. Flame, Hereward, Shafir, Bezostaya 1, and Vivant and the breeding line NSL92-5719 cosegregated, and the ratio of virulent to avirulent was close to 1: 1, suggesting that these wheat lines may all recognize the same avirulence gene and may all have Stb6. Together, these data provide the first demonstration that isolate-specific resistance of wheat to Septoria tritici blotch follows a gene-for-gene relationship.
A combined amplified fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphism DNA genetic linkage map of Mycosphaerella graminicola, the Septoria tritici leaf blotch pathogen of wheat
Kema, G.H.J. ; Goodwin, S.B. ; Hamza, S. ; Verstappen, E.C.P. ; Cavaletto, J.R. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Weerdt, M. de; Bonants, P.J.M. ; Waalwijk, C. - \ 2002
Genetics 161 (2002)4. - ISSN 0016-6731 - p. 1497 - 1505.
electrophoretic karyotype - aflp markers - resistance - rflp - construction - pathosystem - populations - avirulence - cultivars - virulence
An F-1 mapping population of the septoria tritici blotch pathogen of wheat, Mycosphaerella graminicola, was generated by crossing the two Dutch field isolates IPO323 and IPO94269. AFLP and RAPD marker data sets were combined to produce a high-density genetic linkage map. The final map contained 223 AFLP and 57 RAPD markers, plus the biological traits mating type and avirulence, in 23 linkage groups spanning 1216 cM. Many AFLPs and some RAPD markers were clustered. When markers were reduced to 1 per cluster, 229 unique positions were mapped, with an average distance of 5.3 cM between markers. Because M. graminicola probably has 17 or 18 chromosomes, at least 5 of the 23 linkage groups probably will need to be combined with others once additional markers are added to the map. This was confirmed by pulsed-field gel analysis; probes derived from 2 of the smallest linkage groups hybridized to two of the largest chromosome-sized bands, revealing a discrepancy between physical and genetic distance. The utility of the map was demonstrated by identifying molecular markers tightly linked to two genes of biological interest, mating type and avirulence. Bulked segregant analysis was used to identify additional molecular markers closely linked to these traits. This is the first genetic linkage map for any species in the genus Mycosphaerella or the family Mycosphaerellaceae.
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