Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Paprikateelt in de hooggeïsoleerde VenLow Energy kas
    Zwart, H.F. de; Gelder, A. de; Hofland-Zijlstra, J. ; Noordam, M. - \ 2017
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1435) - 34
    paprika's - capsicum annuum - kassen - kasgewassen - glasgroenten - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - isolatie (insulation) - broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - sweet peppers - greenhouses - greenhouse crops - greenhouse vegetables - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving - energy consumption - insulation - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide
    In order to realise a horticultural sector that operates without the combustion of fossil fuel, the first step is to reduce the demand for heating by improving the insultation of greenhouses. This holds especially for crops that are grown at high temperatures, like sweet pepper. The Venlow Energy greenhouse with its double glass cladding and energy screen is a good example of such a highly insulated greenhouse. This report presents the results of a one year cultivation and serves as a bench mark for the state of the art in energy conserving production of Sweet Pepper in the Netherlands. It shows the greenhouse climate conditions required, and the possibilities to meet these requirements with a low energy consumption and options to realise this from sustainable sources. The application of sustainable energy sources was not tested in practice, but since the exact resources (heat and CO2) required from hour to hour were measured, it is easy to do the math on the amounts and capacities needed. The application of pure CO2 or CO2 from another sustainable source is essential when aiming at a fossil energy free horticulture. Without external CO2 the production will drop substantially, especially because an energy conserving greenhouse has typically a strongly reduced air exchange. But, for the same reason, the amount of CO2 needed to increase the CO2 concentration is quite limited, 25 kg/m² per year in this experiment. With a production of 32.5 kg class I of red Sweet Pepper per m², the experiment has shown that halving the energy consumption compared to the general practice did’nt reduced the production.
    Vergelijking tussen gangbaar en emissieloos teeltsysteem : waterefficiënte Emissieloze Kas
    Os, Erik van; Ruijven, Jim van; Janse, Jan ; Beerling, Ellen ; Staaij, Marieke van der; Kaarsemaker, Ruud - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1406) - 62
    paprika's - capsicum annuum - teelt onder bescherming - kasgewassen - glasgroenten - glastuinbouw - emissiereductie - emissie - stikstof - fosfaat - voedingsstoffen - pesticiden - sweet peppers - protected cultivation - greenhouse crops - greenhouse vegetables - greenhouse horticulture - emission reduction - emission - nitrogen - phosphate - nutrients - pesticides
    Stricter legislation forces growers to decrease discharge of water with nitrogen, phosphate and plant protection products. A demonstration was set-up to compare emission free cultivation with a traditional growing method. Goal was to achieve a comparable yield and quality. Essential differences were disinfection of rainwater, ring pipes for drip irrigation, no discharge of first drain in cultivation, a filter without rinsing and weekly analysis of the nutrient solution. It appeared that production and quality were similar as were other climate parameters. Water use was higher in emission free crop, discharge was 4% in traditional crop realizing 152 kg N discharge per ha per year, which was more than the allowed 133 kg. Specific end cultivation strategy is useful to decrease nitrogen and phosphate stored in slabs and stock containers.
    Applied and fundamental aspects of BABY BOOM-mediated regeneration
    Heidmann, I.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerco Angenent, co-promotor(en): Kim Boutilier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574663 - 180
    nicotiana tabacum - capsicum annuum - verjonging - transcriptiefactoren - somatische embryogenese - auxinen - moleculaire biologie - nicotiana tabacum - capsicum annuum - regeneration - transcription factors - somatic embryogenesis - auxins - molecular biology

    Keywords: Somatic embryogenesis, Transcription factor, AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE, BABY BOOM, BBM, Sweet Pepper Transformation

    Title: Applied and Fundamental Aspects of BBM-mediated Regeneration

    Author: Iris Heidmann

    Catergories: Plant regeneration, Plant transformation, transcription factor, somatic embryogenesis

    Plant regeneration from tissues or single cells is essential for plant propagation. Efficient regeneration can be archieved through somatic embryogenesis using the plant growth regulator auxin or overexpression of specific transcription factors, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The potency of the BABY BOOM (BBM) AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE transcription factor to induce somatic embryogenesis in crop (sweet pepper) and model species (tobacco) was investigated. It was found that the introduction of BBM into sweet pepper, which is recalcitrant for transformation, enhanced the regeneration of transgenic plants. Exogenous cytokinin was necessary to induce somatic embryogenesis in both tobacco and sweet pepper. The mechanism underlying BBM-mediated somatic embryogenesis was studied in Arabidopsis by identifying BBM target genes (ChIPSeq). Genes controlling zygotic embryo identity and maturation (LAFL), as well as auxin biosynthesis (TAA1, YUCCA) and transport (PIN) are BBM targets. Mutant analysis and chemical inhibition studies showed that these genes play positive roles in BBM-induced somatic embryogenesis.

    Breeding for pepper fruit quality: a genitical metabolomics approach
    Wahyuni, Y. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Raoul Bino, co-promotor(en): Arnaud Bovy; E. Sudarmonowati; A.R. Ballester. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739582 - 193
    capsicum annuum - capsicum frutescens - capsicum chinense - capsicum baccatum - plantenveredeling - metabolomica - gewaskwaliteit - secundaire metabolieten - gezondheid - genetische kartering - rijp worden - capsicum annuum - capsicum frutescens - capsicum chinense - capsicum baccatum - plant breeding - metabolomics - crop quality - secondary metabolites - health - genetic mapping - ripening

    A diverse collection of 32 pepper accessions was analysed for variation in health-related metabolites, such as carotenoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids and vitamins C and E. For each of the metabolites analysed, there was a lot of variation among the accessions and it was possible to identify accessions with high amounts of specific metabolites. While all accessions contained high levels of vitamin C, accession C. chinenseAC2212 was found to be an excellent source of vitamin E, whereas C. annuumLong Sweet accumulated high levels of the flavonoid quercetin. A genetical metabolomics approach was used to study the genetic basis of metabolic traits in a segregating F2 population based on a cross between two contrasting pepper genotypes. This led to the identification of several metabolites QTL hotspots. The genetic basis for the accumulation of several flavonoids in pepper fruit was further investigated, by combining metabolic, gene expression and candidate gene-based marker data. This provided valuable insight into the key genes important for flavonoid accumulation in pepper fruit. The results of this study will help breeders to assist future breeding programs aimed at optimizing the levels of nutritional compounds in pepper fruit.

    Resistance to thrips in pepper
    Maharijaya, A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Roeland Voorrips; Ben Vosman. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737397 - 110
    capsicum - capsicum annuum - capsicum chinense - paprika's - spaanse pepers - insectenplagen - vectoren, ziekten - frankliniella occidentalis - thrips - plaagresistentie - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - soortkruising - plantenveredeling - capsicum - capsicum annuum - capsicum chinense - sweet peppers - chillies - insect pests - disease vectors - frankliniella occidentalis - thrips - pest resistance - quantitative trait loci - interspecific hybridization - plant breeding

    Pepper (Capsicum) production is constrained by heavy infestations of thrips, causing direct and indirect (by transmitting viruses) damage. Thrips control using chemical insecticides, biological agents, culture practices and integrated pest management has limited success. The availability of thrips-resistant varieties would increase the effectiveness of thrips control and may also delay and reduce the transmission of viruses. This thesis is aimed at obtaining more knowledge regarding thrips resistance in pepper, including the identification of new sources of resistance, the elucidation of resistance mechanisms, identification of factors contributing to resistance and a QTL analysis.

    We developed several test methods to evaluate plant resistance to thrips and showed that in vitro tests correlate well with greenhouse tests. We used these methods to test a collection of Capsicum accessions of widely different origin and crop types. This resulted in the identification of a few accessions (mostly C. annuum) with high levels of resistance to two thrips species: Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips parvispinus. Since C. annuum is the most widely cultivated species, the finding of resistance in C. annuum is means that the resistance can be easily introgressed through conventional crossing and selection.

    The effect of resistance in pepper on thrips reproduction and development was studied using three highly resistant, three medium resistant and three susceptible accessions selected based on damage ratings. Adult and pre-adult survival, developmental time and reproduction rate were assessed in a detached leaf system. Resistance factors in leaves of resistant pepper accessions were shown to have significant effects on oviposition rate, larval mortality and life-cycle period, indicating that this resistance is based on antibiosis.

    In order to map QTL for resistance we developed an F2 population from the cross between a susceptible C. chinense accession and the resistant C. annuum AC 1979. A genetic linkage map for this population was based on AFLP and SSR markers, where the SSR markers served to assign and orient most linkage groups to pepper chromosomes. As larval stages were highly affected by resistance in pepper leaves, damage caused by larvae and larval survival were used as parameters to detect QTLs conferring resistance to thrips. Interval mapping detected one QTL for each of these parameters, all co-localizing near the same marker on chromosome 6. This QTL explained about 50% of the genetic variation, and the resistance allele of this QTL was inherited from the resistant parent. No other resistance QTLs were detected in this population.

    Since resistance to thrips was clearly expressed in pepper leaves we proceeded to study leaf traits that may contribute to resistance. Morphological leaf characters and metabolites have frequently been linked with resistance to thrips in other plant species. However, we found no convincing evidence that any of these traits played a role in thrips resistance in pepper. In the F2 mapping population we found no correlation and no QTL co-localization of resistance with leaf morphological characters previously linked to resistance in pepper against insect pest and in other plant species against thrips e.g. color, toughness, trichome density, and cuticula thickness. GC-MS (Gass Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry) analysis of the three resistant, three intermediate and three susceptible accessions mentioned above showed that seven metabolites were correlated with resistance to thrips and six compounds with susceptibility. However, when we applied GC-MS and LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry) to leaves of the F2 mapping population, we found no strong correlation between resistance and any detected metabolites. Two metabolite QTLs co-localized with the resistance QTL. However, these QTLs explained only a small proportion of the variance and the co-localization was not supported by strong correlations of the metabolites with resistance. This suggests that the major resistance factor(s) in pepper against thrips may not or only partially be determined by the presence or absence of specific metabolites.

    This thesis provides a strong basis for the development of thrips resistant pepper varieties through introgression of the resistance QTL region on chromosome 6 originating from resistant C. annuum accessions. However, the effect of resistance QTL on chromosome 6 should be confirmed in another population such as a population of F3 lines. In vitro leaf assay can be used as evaluation methods in pepper breeding program. This has the advantages of minimizing the risk of contamination and of controlled environmental conditions. Elucidation of factors contributing to resistance should be continued by giving attention to other possibilities such as proteins, specifically proteinase inhibitors, or other leaf anatomical and morphological traits. Also other extraction and detection methods may be used to discover other metabolites that might be related to resistance. Finally, for practical applications it is necessary study how to use the antibiosis based mechanism against thrips found in this thesis in thrips control and/or management practices.

    Analysis of Tomato spotted wilt virus effector-triggered immunity
    Ronde, D. de - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Just Vlak, co-promotor(en): Richard Kormelink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737212 - 190
    tomatenbronsvlekkenvirus - plantenvirussen - ziekteresistentie - immuniteit - virulentie - genkartering - genetische merkers - genetische analyse - capsicum annuum - paprika's - tomato spotted wilt virus - plant viruses - disease resistance - immunity - virulence - gene mapping - genetic markers - genetic analysis - capsicum annuum - sweet peppers

    ResistanceinCapsicumagainsttheTomatospottedwiltvirus(TSWV),typespeciesof the Tospovirusgenuswithinthe Bunyaviridaefamily,employsthe singledominant resistancegeneTsw.Thisresistance hasmeanwhilebeenbrokenbyresistance breaking (RB) TSWV isolates and is causing increasing problems in many different (Capsicumcultivating)countries.Theresearchdescribedhereaimedtoidentify andcharacterise theviralproteintriggeringTswresistanceandprovidefurther insightintothemechanismofTsw-mediatedresistance.Knowledgegainedfrom thegeneticandphenotypiccharacterisationofTsw-resistancebreakingisolateswas usedtodevelopdiagnosticmarkersfordetectionofTsw-breakingpathotypesin fieldcultivations.

    TheNSsRNAsilencingsuppressor(RSS)proteinwasidentifiedastheavirulence determinant ofTsw-mediatedresistance(Chapter2).WhiletheNSsproteinfrom theTSWVresistanceinducer(RI)isolatewasactiveasRNAsilencingsuppressorand avirulencedeterminant,theNSsproteinfromtwodifferentTSWVRBisolateslacked bothfunctionsasevidencedfromtransientassays.Surprisingly,thecorresponding resistancebreakingvirusisolatesstillexhibitedRNAisuppressoractivity. Noneof the other viral proteins were able to aid in the transient recovery of RSS activity. Electrophoreticmobilityshift assays(EMSAs)usingplantextractscontaining transientlyexpressedNSsproteinsshowedashift ofsiRNAswithNSsRI,indicative forbinding,butnotwithNSsRB.InagreementwiththelocalleafRSSassaysusinga virusinfection,plantextractsofvirusinfectedleaveswereabletoshiftthesiRNAs, showing recovery of the RSS activityduring virus infection.

    The linkage of RNAi suppression and avirulence in NSs was further investigated bymutationalanalysis(Chapter3).AlargesetofNSsmutantswasgeneratedusing alaninesubstitutions ofauthenticTSWVNSsaminoacidsandwastestedfortheir abilitytotriggerTsw-mediatedHRandabilitytosuppressRNAi.Theseassaysshowed thatthe N-terminaldomainofNSscarried mostimportantresiduesinvolvedwith bothactivities. However,singlemutationscouldbeintroducedthatdisruptedone function,whilemaintainingtheotheroneandviceversaindicatingthatRSSactivity andavirulencewerenotfunctionally linked.SwappingofdomainsbetweenNSsRI andNSsRB notonlyconfirmedtheimportanceoftheN-terminaldomainbutalso thespecificitywithintheTSWVspecies,sincedomainswapsbetweenNSsRIandNSs fromGRSV,arelatedbutdistinct Tospovirus,couldnottransfertheAvrphenotype toGRSV.MutationofaGW/WG-motifintheNterminalregionofNSsRI leadtoa lossofbothfunctionsandindicatedthatthismotif, knowntobeinvolvedinAGO1 interactionof other viral RSS, was of biological relevance for TSWV NSs.

    Theputativeinteraction ofAGO1andNSswasinvestigatedbyusingdifferent approaches to co-immunoprecipitate (Co-IP) on transiently co-expressed tagged- AGO1and(His-)NSs(Chapter4).Initialindicationsforsuchinteraction were obtained,howeverfurthersupportforthisputativeinteraction willhavetocome fromcomplementaryexperiments,e.g. Yeast-2-hybrid (Y2H), FRET-FLIM or BiFC.

    Severaladditional TSWVisolateswereanalysedthatbesidestheknownresistance inducing-and resistance breaking-phenotype showed a temperature-dependent phenotype(Chapter5).IsolatesclassifiedtothistypeexhibitedanRIphenotypeat standardgreenhouseconditions (~22°C)whileatelevatedtemperatures(≥28°C), butstillbelowtemperaturesthatinactivatedtheR-geneproduct(≥31°C),wereable tobreaktheresistance.Viruschallengingassaysatvariousconditionsindicatedthat inductionofTswresistanceatalower temperaturebythesesocalledtemperature dependentresistancebreakingisolates(TempRB)involveddenovosynthesisofthe avirulenceprotein,i.e.NSs,andthat proteinfoldingmight play arole. NSsproteins clonedandexpressedfromthisadditional newsetofTSWVresistanceinducing, resistancebreakingandtemperature dependentresistancebreakingisolates revealedvariableresultsregardless oftheircorrespondingvirusphenotype,when tested for their abilitytoinduceTsw-mediated HR andsuppress RNAi at normal greenhouseconditions(22°C).However,similarassaystoanalysetheiractivity attheelevatedtemperature(28°C)failedwhenusingAgrobacteriummediated transientassays.Sofar,themechanismoftemperature dependencyhasnotbeen clarified yetandneedsfurtherinvestigation.Usingtheinformationobtained,a diagnostictoolwasdevelopedtoscreenforthepotential presenceofresistance breakingisolatesofTSWVusingreversetranscription-polymerasechainreaction amplification(RT-PCR).Aprimersetwasdesignedtargetinganimportantcodon ataaposition79andshowedtobeabletodistinguishRB-isolatesfromRI-isolates. However,afewRB-isolatesstillescapedfromdetection indicatingthelimitedand conditionaluse of this tool.

    In summary, NSs has been identified as Avr-determinant of Tsw-mediated resistance,butthisfunctionisnottightlylinkedtoitsRNAisuppressor-activity. Preliminarydataindicateaputativeinteraction betweenAGO1andNSs.Besides the typicalRIandRBphenotypes,athirdphenotypicclassofTSWVisolates has beenidentified thatexhibitsatemperaturedependencyontriggeringTsw- mediatedresistance andpossiblyinvolvesanalteredproteinfoldingofNSs.A diagnostic toolhasbeendevelopedtodetectresistancebreakingisolatesinthe fieldbasedonRT-PCR,butthistoolstillallowsforescapesofRBisolates.Theresults onNSsarediscussedinlightofitsroleaseffectorwithinthe‘Zig-zag-model’of planthostdefenceresponses.Finally,TSWVNSsisbriefly discussedandcompared totheanimal-infecting(NSs)paralogsoftheBunyaviridaefamily,alsoinlightof functional andstructuralhomologiesbetweenthesensorsofinnateimmunityin plant(R-genes)and animal (NLRs/TLRs) cell systems.

    A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor
    Eggink, P.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Arnaud Bovy; Chris Maliepaard; J.P.W. Haanstra. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737243 - 159
    capsicum annuum - paprika's - wilde verwanten - genotypen - chemische samenstelling - smaak - geur en smaak - capsicum baccatum - introgressie - plantenveredeling - capsicum annuum - sweet peppers - wild relatives - genotypes - chemical composition - taste - flavour - capsicum baccatum - introgression - plant breeding

    This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were expected to have extraordinary flavors. The complete set consisted of 35 genotypes of which 24 genotypes were non-pungent. Volatile and non-volatile compounds as well as some breeding parameters were measured in mature fruits of all genotypes throughout the growing season. In addition, from three harvests the non-pungent genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory panel.

    The biochemical profiling with use of SPME-GC-MS allowed visualization of between- and within-species volatile compound variation. Principal components analysis (PCA) on the intensity patterns of 391 putative volatile compounds revealed individual grouping of C. chinense, C. baccatum var. pendulum and C. annuum, indicating potentially interesting volatile variation present in the former two groups. A large group of saturated and unsaturated esters were mainly responsible for the individual grouping of the C. chinense accessions. Due to the elevated acid concentrations and aberrant volatile profiles of the C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions PEN45 and PEN79, the two BIL populations derived from these accessions were identified as interesting candidates for further study. Compared to e.g. Mazurka the citrate concentration of the C. baccatum accessions was 2.5-3 times higher and the malate concentrations were even up to 12 times higher (Chapter 2).

    Based on the non-pungent genotypes, we found highly correlated clusters of volatiles and non-volatiles, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors (Chapter 3). Contrasts between genotypes were caused by both qualitative and quantitative differences in these metabolic clusters, with the phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles forming the major determinants. For the description of the non-pungent genotypes the panelists used fourteen attributes to describe the flavor sensation in the mouth/throat, which were the texture attributes crunchiness, stickiness of the skin, toughness and juiciness, the basic taste attributes sweetness and sourness and the retronasal flavor attributes aroma intensity, grassiness, green bean, carrot, fruity/apple, perfume, petrochemical and musty. The variation in flavor could be reduced into two major sensory contrasts, which were a texture related contrast and the basic sweet-sour contrast. The structure of the PCA plots resulting from the analysis with one harvest (Chapter 3) and the analysis with the combined three harvests (Chapter 4) remained almost identical, indicating the stability of these contrasts. To relate the sensory attributes to the metabolite data and to determine the importance of the individual compounds we used Random Forest regression on the individual harvests and on the three harvests together. Several predictors for the attributes aroma, fruity/apple, sourness and sweetness were found in common between harvests, which we proposed as key-metabolites involved in flavor determination of sweet pepper (Chapter 4). This list contains compounds with known relations to attributes, like sweetness and sugars, but also several compounds with new relations. In this respect we have demonstrated for the first time, that the metabolites p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, and 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene are related to fruity/apple taste and/or sweetness of pepper. For sourness the only compound with a consistent significant contribution was an unknown C6H8O2 compound. We postulated therefore the hypothesis that in pepper the effect of sourness related metabolites is masked by other volatile and non-volatile compounds or texture differences (Chapter 3). Subsequently in Chapter 4 we described a clear sweetness-sourness interaction and demonstrated that the masking effect of fructose and other sugars explained why we did not find organic acids contributing to the prediction of sourness. The major sensory attributes were also predicted between harvests. The Random Forest predictions of the texture related attributes (juiciness, toughness, crunchiness and stickiness of the skin) and sweetness were very good. The predictions of the attributes aroma intensity, sourness and fruity/apple were somewhat lower and more variable between harvests, especially in the second harvest. In general, we concluded that prediction of attributes with higher heritabilities works better and is more consistent over harvests (Chapter 4).

    Based on the results of the initial experiments (Chapter 2) the species C. baccatum was chosen for further study. To exploit the potential flavor wealth of C. baccatum PEN45 we combined interspecific crossing with embryo rescue, resulting in a multi-parent BC2S1 population, that was characterized for sensory and biochemical variation (Chapter 5). We developed a population specific genetic linkage map for QTL mapping of characterized traits. Because of the complex structure of our BC2S1 mapping population we encountered several limitations, such as accidental co-segregation, underrepresentation of color linked markers and pre-selection leading to skewness, which might have resulted in false positive or missed QTLs. Despite these limitations, we were still fairly well able to map several biochemical, physical and sensory traits, as demonstrated at first for the (monogenic) control traits red color and pungency in the BC2S1 mapping population and in second instance by validation of genetic effects via an experiment with near-isogenic lines (NILs).This two-step approach turned out to be very powerful, since it led to the identification of the main results from this thesis: (i) Asmall C. baccatum LG3 introgression causing an extraordinary effect on flavor, which resulted in significantly higher scores for the attributes aroma, flowers, spices, celery and chives. In an attempt to identify the responsible biochemical compounds few consistently up- and down-regulated metabolites were detected, including the well-known pepper compound 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (down) and 6-methyl-4-oxo-5-heptenal (up); (ii) Two introgressions (LG10.1 and LG1) had major effects on terpenoid content of mature fruits, affecting at least fifteen different monoterpenes; (iii) A second LG3 fragment resulted in a strong increase in Brix (total soluble solids) without negative effects on fruit size (Chapter 5).

    In Chapter 6 some extra sensory results of the pungent genotypes are given and a comparison between the two C. baccatum pendulum BILs (PEN45 and PEN79 derived) is made in light of the overall results. Finally the perspectives for breeding are discussed and presented in the form of a flowchart for flavor improvement.

    Beheersing van Erwinia vruchtrot in paprika
    Vries, R.S.M. de; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Ludeking, D.J.W. - \ 2013
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten WUR GTB 1250) - 38
    capsicum annuum - erwinia - vruchtrot - plantenziekten - gewasbescherming - bedrijfshygiëne - fytosanitaire maatregelen - antagonisten - proeven - relatieve vochtigheid - bestrijdingsmethoden - nederland - fruit rots - plant diseases - plant protection - industrial hygiene - phytosanitary measures - antagonists - trials - relative humidity - control methods - netherlands
    Doel van dit onderzoek was om infectiebronnen en verspreidingsrisico’s van Erwinia vruchtrot op te sporen, praktijkervaringen te inventariseren en biologische bestrijdingsmethoden te toetsen. Uit de literatuurstudie blijkt dat een hoge RV (> 90%) noodzakelijk is voor het infectieproces. Op een besmet bedrijf werd Erwinia aangetroffen in grond, drain- en condenswater, plantenstengels, wortelresten in de druppelaar, fruitvliegen en teruggevonden in de sorteerlijn. De praktijkinventarisatie gaf ook een relatie aan met veel vocht in het kasklimaat. Effectieve maatregelen waren gericht op vermindering van vocht, versterking van de plantweerstand, ontsmetting van uitgangswater en navolging van het hygiëneprotocol. Twee experimentele antagonisten die in het vaatweefsel meegroeien met jonge planten, bleken in een kasproef nog niet in staat om infectie te kunnen voorkomen bij een hoge ziektedruk. Ook uit de klimaatkasttesten met losse vruchten blijkt dat een hoge RV belangrijker is voor een infectie dan de aanwezigheid van besmette fruitvliegjes of wondvlakken. De hygiënemaatregelen die uit dit onderzoek naar voren zijn gekomen, zijn verwerkt in het Hygiëneprotocol en in 2012 naar alle telers doorgestuurd.
    Verkenning van mogelijkheden voor plantweerbaarheid tegen bladluis in paprika
    Messelink, G.J. ; Bloemhard, C.M.J. ; Kok, L.W. - \ 2013
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten WUR GTB 1242) - 22
    biologische bestrijding - myzus persicae - reductie - paprika's - capsicum annuum - onderdrukking - insectenplagen - populatiegroei - immuniteitsreactie - glastuinbouw - nederland - biological control - myzus persicae - reduction - sweet peppers - capsicum annuum - suppression - insect pests - population growth - immune response - greenhouse horticulture - netherlands
    Het doel van dit onderzoek was om maatregelen te vinden waarmee bladluis in paprika via de plant geremd kan worden. Hoewel er in de literatuur duidelijke aanwijzingen zijn dat de plantweerbaarheid verhoogd kan worden, is dit niet naar voren gekomen in dit onderzoek. Een verhoogde kaliumgift, wormenhumus en plantversterkers op basis van huminezuren of salicylzuur konden géén significante remming geven van bladluis. Wel is het omgekeerde gevonden: wanneer veen voor 20 procent werd gemengd met wormenhumus resulteerde dit in 35 procent meer populatiegroei van rode perzikluis ten opzichte van onbehandelde planten op alleen veen. Dit onderzoek heeft verder laten zien dat de reactie van bladluis op de plantbehandeling zelfs binnen een soort kan variëren. Het groene fenotype van perzikluis reageerde anders dan het rode fenotype, waarschijnlijk omdat de positie die deze bladluizen innemen op de plant ook anders is.
    Olifantspoten in paprika: Telersinventarisatie, symptoombestrijding en hypotheses
    Ludeking, D.J.W. ; Kersten, M. ; Vries, R.S.M. de - \ 2013
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten WUR GTB 1237) - 74
    paprika's - capsicum annuum - rassen (planten) - stengels - afwijkingen, planten - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - plantenziektebestrijding - symptomen - glastuinbouw - nederland - sweet peppers - varieties - stems - plant disorders - plant pathogenic fungi - plant disease control - symptoms - greenhouse horticulture - netherlands
    Bij de teelt van paprika kan flinke uitval optreden door het ontstaan een opgezwollen, zachte (rotte) plantvoet met een verkurkt oppervlak. Deze symptomen worden ‘dikke poten’ of ‘olifantspoten’ genoemd. Bij planten met deze symptomen worden schimmels zoals Pythium spp. , Fusarium solani en Phytophthora capsici waargenomen. In het project is een kennisinventarisatie onder telers en plantenkwekers gehouden, is een beschrijving van de symptomen en microscopische studie gemaakt en zijn in de kassen metingen uitgevoerd aan stengel en klimaat. Naar aanleiding van dit project zijn een aantal hypotheses opgesteld.
    Weerbare plant
    Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke - \ 2013
    cropping systems - capsicum annuum - sweet peppers - cultural control - methodology - plant protection - propagation materials
    Identification of whitefly resistance in tomato and hot pepper
    Firdaus, S. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Sjaak van Heusden; Ben Vosman. - [S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733603 - 167
    solanum lycopersicum - insectenplagen - bemisia tabaci - genetisch bepaalde resistentie - capsicum annuum - insect-plant relaties - resistentieveredeling - plantenveredeling - plaagresistentie - solanum lycopersicum - insect pests - bemisia tabaci - genetic resistance - capsicum annuum - insect plant relations - resistance breeding - plant breeding - pest resistance

    Key words: Capsicum, Bemisia tabaci, trichome density, cuticle thickness
    Whitefly is economically one of the most threatening pests of pepper worldwide, which is mainly caused by its ability to transmit many different viruses. In this research, we characterized pepper germplasm to identify whitefly-resistant accessions that will form the basis for future resistance breeding. Forty-four pepper accessions representing four species (Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. baccatum) were screened for resistance to whiteflies. Screening parameters were adult survival (AS) and oviposition rate (OR) in a no-choice test and whitefly, egg and nymphal density in free-choice tests. To combine parameters in free-choice tests, a plant resistance value was calculated. The results show that AS and OR were significantly different among accessions and were positively correlated, which was also the case for the parameters in the free-choice tests. Accessions identified as highly resistant in no-choice and free-choice tests generally were C. annuum. Whitefly density and OR correlated positively with trichome density and negatively with cuticle thickness of leaves.

    Biologische bestrijding van bladluis in paprika: Evaluatie van nieuwe sluipwespen en gaasvliegen
    Messelink, G.J. ; Kok, L.W. ; Bloemhard, C.M.J. ; Hoogerbrugge, H. ; Schelt, J. van - \ 2012
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1143) - 54
    biologische bestrijding - myzus persicae - aulacorthum solani - sluipwespen - nieuwe soorten - kasproeven - neuroptera - paprika's - capsicum annuum - glastuinbouw - nederland - biological control - myzus persicae - aulacorthum solani - parasitoid wasps - new species - greenhouse experiments - neuroptera - sweet peppers - capsicum annuum - greenhouse horticulture - netherlands
    Referaat Biologische bestrijding van bladluis in paprika is zeer lastig en kostbaar, waardoor de bestrijding in de gangbare teelt nog sterk leunt op inzet van insecticiden. De wens is om minder afhankelijk te zijn van deze middelen, omdat ze een risico vormen voor vervuiling van het oppervlaktewater en overschrijding van residu-eisen van supermarktketens. In paprika zijn de perzikluis Myzus persicae (groene en rode varianten) en boterbloemluis Aulacorthum solani de meest schadelijke bladluissoorten. In dit onderzoek zijn nieuwe sluipwespen en gaasvliegen beoordeeld als bestrijders van deze bladluissoorten. De bestrijding van rode perzikluis kon aanzienlijk verbeterd worden met de sluipwesp Aphidius matricariae. Het lijkt erop dat deze wespen actiever zijn in dichte bladluiskolonies. Inmiddels is deze soort op de markt gebracht en wordt hij volop ingezet bij paprikatelers. Voor boterbloemluis is deze wesp niet geschikt. Aphidius ervi is en blijft een effectieve sluipwesp voor de bestrijding van boterbloemluis. Voor de bestrijding van zowel boterbloemluis en perzikluis lijkt Aphidius gifuensis interessant. De waarde van deze sluipwesp moet nog verder beoordeeld worden op praktijkschaal. Bij de gaasvliegen bleken verschillende soorten zeer effectief bladluis te bestrijden in kooien, vooral soorten waarvan de volwassenen ook bladluis eten. Echter, bij loslatingen in kassen blijken de gaasvliegen zich maar nauwelijks of helemaal niet te vestigen. Voor de bestrijding van bladluishaarden met gaasvlieglarven lijkt de soort Chrysoperla lucasina een goede keuze te zijn. Abstract Biological control of aphids is one of the major challenges in sweet pepper. Most conventional growers still use insecticides to control aphids, but the market demands less residues. Also the risks of surface water pollution will force growers to switch to alternative control measures. The most damaging aphid species in sweet pepper are the peach aphid Myzus persicae and the foxglove aphid Aulacorthum solani. The aim of this research was to evaluate new parasitoids and lacewings, in order to enhance the biological control system of aphids in sweet pepper. In greenhouse trials we showed that Aphidius matricariae was more effective in controlling the peach aphid than the commonly used species Aphidius colemani. Control of the foxglove aphid was still most effectively done by the common species Aphidius ervi. The parasitoid Aphidius gifuensis is a promising candidate for biological control of both foxglove aphids and green peach aphids in sweet pepper, especially when these aphids occur together, but this species needs further evaluation in practice. Several lacewing species were very successful in controlling both aphid species in cage experiments, but none of them was able to establish in a larger crop. The control of aphids by lacewing larvae was most effectively done by the species Chrysoperla lucasina.
    "Het Nieuwe Telen" Paprika
    Gelder, A. de; Warmenhoven, M.G. ; Grootscholten, M. ; Zwinkels, J. - \ 2011
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1103) - 560
    capsicum annuum - paprika's - vruchtgroenten - groenteteelt - glastuinbouw - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - innovaties - sweet peppers - fruit vegetables - vegetable growing - greenhouse horticulture - energy consumption - energy saving - innovations
    In het Nieuwe Telen Paprika met drie schermen en gecontroleerde ventilatie is geteeld met een energie inzet voor warmte van 22.2 m3/m2 en is 30.6 kg/m2 gele paprika’s geoogst. Netto verkocht is er 30 kg/m2 waarvan 26.5 kg/m2 klasse I. De energiebesparing ten opzichte van twee excursie groepen was over het hele jaar steeds ca 0.3 m3/(m2.week). Vooral in de zomer is dit opmerkelijk
    Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum
    Tiwari, A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Olaf van Kooten, co-promotor(en): Ep Heuvelink; R. Offinga. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858713 - 109
    capsicum annuum - paprika - plantenontwikkeling - vruchtdragend - parthenocarpie - vruchtzetten - capsicum annuum - sweet peppers - plant development - fruiting - parthenocarpy - fruit set

    Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion,

    auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype

    Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper

    (Capsicum annuum) production as it minimizes yield irregularity, enhances total

    yieldandmakes theproduction possible under suboptimal environmental conditions. Beside

    this, parthenocarpyimproves the commercial value of the fruitsince parthenocarpic fruits

    are convenient for consumption, much wanted for minimal-processed food, and possess

    long shelf-life.Parthenocarpy has been widely studied for tomato and Arabidopsis but not for

    C. annuum.Physiological and morphological characterization of parthenocarpy in C.

    annuum is the main focus of this thesis with emphasis on finding evidence thattomato and

    Arabidopsis can be used as model plants to study fruit development in C. annuum.The

    series of physiological and morphological changes (i.e. pollen tube growth, vascular

    connection between ovule and carpel, cell division and cell expansion in carpel) that occurs

    in a post-fertilized ovary ofC. annuumwas similar to that reported in tomato and

    Arabidopsis. Similar to these two species, C. annuum showed a hierarchy between auxin

    and gibberellinwhere auxin acts upstream of gibberellin in fruit set, most likely by inducing

    gibberellin biosynthesis.These findings indicate that fruit set mechanisms in C. annuum are

    similar to that reported in tomato and Arabidopsis.Parthenocarpy was evident in most of the

    studied genotypes of C. annuum(n=24) suggesting that somedegree of intrinsic

    parthenocarpy is already present in C. annuum. External application of auxin and

    gibberellin on the stigma of emasculated flowers enhanced parthenocarpic fruit

    production.GA3 did not significantly contribute to the final fruit size. GA3 seems to play an

    important role in preventing flower and fruit abscission while auxin seems to be important

    for both fruit set and fruit development.

    Almost all seedless fruits obtained either by only emasculation or emasculation followed by

    hormone application showed stronger growth of carpel like structures (CLS) compared to

    seeded fruits. Structural analogy of CLS with bel1 mutant of Arabidopsis suggests that CLS

    are transformed from abnormal ovules.Capsicum genotypes with high parthenocarpic

    potential showed a stronger CLS development suggesting a relation between female

    sterility and parthenocarpy. The parthenocarpic potential appeared to be controlled by a

    single recessive gene. The CLS phenotype and parthenocarpy could not be linked to a

    single locus, suggesting that absence of fertilization induces parthenocarpic fruit

    development and allows CLS growth, which substitutes developing seeds in promoting fruit

    development.This thesis provides insight in the physiology and morphology and genetic

    basis of parthenocarpy in C. annuum.

    Beheersing van besmetting met tomatenbronsvlekkenvirus in paprika, Thema: Doorontwikkelen duurzame gewasbescherming BO-12.03-003.01-002.02
    Grosman, A.H. ; Bloemhard, C.M.J. ; Hamelink, R. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der; Raaij, H.M.G. van; Stijger, I. ; Ramakers, P.M.J. - \ 2011
    capsicum annuum - tomatenbronsvlekkenvirus - plantenvirussen - ziektebestrijding - gewasbescherming - thrips - tomato spotted wilt virus - plant viruses - disease control - plant protection
    Onderzoek naar de verspreiding van TSWV te beperken is na een eerste besmetting? Dit werd in demopraktijkproeven met paprikagewas onderzocht.
    Effect of plant balancing on the growth and yield of two sweet pepper varieties harvested yellow, green and red
    Gunadi, N. ; Maaswinkel, R.H.M. ; Rodenburg, R. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (HORTIN-II research report nr. 24) - 42
    capsicum annuum - vegetatieve groeiperiode - groeiperiode - gewasopbrengst - capsicum annuum - vegetative period - growth period - crop yield
    Evaluation of sweet pepper pilot supply chain for export
    Gunadi, N. ; Adiyoga, W. ; Doorneweert, R.B. ; Zulkarnain, I. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (HORTIN-II research report nr. 21) - 57
    capsicum annuum - marketing voor de detailhandel - export - handel - voedselketens - capsicum annuum - retail marketing - exports - trade - food chains
    Towards stochastic simulation of crop yield: a case study of fruit set in sweet pepper
    Wubs, A.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Marcelis, co-promotor(en): Ep Heuvelink; Lia Hemerik. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856993 - 149
    capsicum annuum - paprikapoeder - simulatiemodellen - stochastische modellen - vruchtzetten - abortie (planten) - overleving - source-sink relaties - capsicum annuum - paprika - simulation models - stochastic models - fruit set - abortion (plants) - survival - source sink relations
    Crop growth simulation models are widely used in research and education, and their use in commercial practice is increasing. Usually these models are deterministic: one set of input values always gives the same output of the model. In reality, however, variation exists between plants of the same crop. A simulation model taking this variation into account is therefore more realistic. The aim of this thesis is to introduce a stochastic component into a dynamic crop simulation model. As case study, fruit set in sweet pepper was used, because large variation in fruit set between the plants exists. Competition with fast growing fruits causes abortion of flowers and young fruits, which results in periods with high and low fruit set, and consequently periods of high and low fruit yield. A literature review showed that most factors influencing fruit abortion can be expressed in the terms source and sink strength. Source strength is the supply of assimilates; a higher source strength increases fruit set. Source strength takes into account leaf area, radiation, and CO2 level and temperature. Sink strength is the demand for assimilates of the fruits and vegetative parts. It is quantified by the potential growth rate, i.e. the growth rate under non-limiting assimilate supply. Assimilate demand of the fruits depends on their number, age, and cultivar. If the total fruit sink strength of a plant is low, fruit set is high. Vulnerable for abortion were very small buds, buds close to anthesis and flowers and young fruits up to 14 days after anthesis. An experiment with six Capsicum cultivars with fruit sizes ranging between 20 and 205g fresh weight showed that variation in weekly fruit yield is highly correlated with variation in weekly fruit set. Fruit yield patterns resembled fruit set patterns, with a lag time being equal to the average fruit growth duration. Further investigation showed that the cultivars not only differed in sink strength of the individual fruits, but also that the source-sink ratio above which fruit set occurred was higher in cultivars with larger fruits. In the second half of the thesis, flower and fruit abortion was modelled. Survival analysis was used as the method to derive the abortion function. Source and sink strength were used as the factors influencing abortion. Their effect on the probability of abortion per day was non-linear: at high values of source and sink strength an increase did not further decrease or increase the probability of abortion, respectively. Flowers on the side shoots turned out to have a higher probability of abortion than flowers on the main shoot. Most flowers and young fruits aborted around 100°Cd after anthesis. The obtained function was used in a crop simulation model for sweet pepper. After calibration the model was able to simulate the observed fruit set pattern, although fruit abortion was not properly simulated when low source strength was combined with high sink strength. Validation with three independent data sets gave reasonable to good results. Survival analysis proved to be a good method for introducing stochasticity in crop simulation models. A case study with constant source strength showed asynchronisation of fruit set between the plants, indicating that fluctuations in source strength are an important factor causing synchronisation between individual plants.

    Effecten van stikstofoxiden en etheen op paprika
    Dijk, C.J. van; Meinen, E. ; Dueck, T.A. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw 317) - 40
    capsicum annuum - ethyleen - stikstofoxide - kassen - groei - gewasproductie - glastuinbouw - warmtekrachtkoppeling - paprika's - rookgassen - glasgroenten - ethylene - nitric oxide - greenhouses - growth - crop production - greenhouse horticulture - cogeneration - sweet peppers - flue gases - greenhouse vegetables
    In dit rapport staat een beschrijving van een onderzoek naar de gevoeligheid van paprikaplanten voor rookgassen (stikstofoxiden en etheen).
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