On the scaling of activity in tropical forest mammals
Cid, Bruno ; Carbone, Chris ; Fernandez, Fernando A.S. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Rowcliffe, J.M. ; O'Brien, Timothy ; Akampurira, Emmanuel ; Bitariho, Robert ; Espinosa, Santiago ; Gajapersad, Krishna ; Santos, Thiago M.R. ; Gonçalves, André L.S. ; Kinnaird, Margaret F. ; Lima, Marcela G.M. ; Martin, Emanuel ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Rovero, Francesco ; Salvador, Julia ; Santos, Fernanda ; Spironello, Wilson R. ; Wijntuin, Soraya ; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo R. - \ 2020
Oikos (2020). - ISSN 0030-1299
activity behavior - body mass - camera traps - diet - energy budget - predation risk
Activity range – the amount of time spent active per day – is a fundamental aspect contributing to the optimization process by which animals achieve energetic balance. Based on their size and the nature of their diet, theoretical expectations are that larger carnivores need more time active to fulfil their energetic needs than do smaller ones and also more time active than similar-sized non-carnivores. Despite the relationship between daily activity, individual range and energy acquisition, large-scale relationships between activity range and body mass among wild mammals have never been properly addressed. This study aimed to understand the scaling of activity range with body mass, while controlling for phylogeny and diet. We built simple empirical predictions for the scaling of activity range with body mass for mammals of different trophic guilds and used a phylogenetically controlled mixed model to test these predictions using activity records of 249 mammal populations (128 species) in 19 tropical forests (in 15 countries) obtained using camera traps. Our scaling model predicted a steeper scaling of activity range in carnivores (0.21) with higher levels of activity (higher intercept), and near-zero scaling in herbivores (0.04). Empirical data showed that activity ranges scaled positively with body mass for carnivores (0.061), which also had higher intercept value, but not for herbivores, omnivores and insectivores, in general, corresponding with the predictions. Despite the many factors that shape animal activity at local scales, we found a general pattern showing that large carnivores need more time active in a day to meet their energetic demands.
Dietary protein intake and kidney function decline after myocardial infarction: the Alpha Omega Cohort
Esmeijer, Kevin ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Fijter, Johan W. de; Kromhout, Daan ; Hoogeveen, Ellen K. - \ 2020
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 35 (2020)1. - ISSN 0931-0509 - p. 106 - 115.
diet - kidney function decline - myocardial infarction - protein intake
BACKGROUND: Post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients have a doubled rate of kidney function decline compared with the general population. We investigated the extent to which high intake of total, animal and plant protein are risk factors for accelerated kidney function decline in older stable post-MI patients. METHODS: We analysed 2255 post-MI patients (aged 60-80 years, 80% men) of the Alpha Omega Cohort. Dietary data were collected with a biomarker-validated 203-item food frequency questionnaire. At baseline and 41 months, we estimated glomerular filtration rate based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations for serum cystatin C [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcysC)] alone and both creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cysC). RESULTS: Mean [standard deviation (SD)] baseline eGFRcysC and eGFRcr-cysC were 82 (20) and 79 (19) mL/min/1.73 m2. Of all patients, 16% were current smokers and 19% had diabetes. Mean (SD) total protein intake was 71 (19) g/day, of which two-thirds was animal and one-third plant protein. After multivariable adjustment, including age, sex, total energy intake, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, renin-angiotensin system blocking drugs and fat intake, each incremental total daily protein intake of 0.1 g/kg ideal body weight was associated with an additional annual eGFRcysC decline of -0.12 (95% confidence interval -0.19 to -0.04) mL/min/1.73 m2, and was similar for animal and plant protein. Patients with a daily total protein intake of ≥1.20 compared with <0.80 g/kg ideal body weight had a 2-fold faster annual eGFRcysC decline of -1.60 versus -0.84 mL/min/1.73 m2. Taking eGFRcr-cysC as outcome showed similar results. Strong linear associations were confirmed by restricted cubic spline analyses. CONCLUSION: A higher protein intake was significantly associated with a more rapid kidney function decline in post-MI patients.
Editorial : Diet, Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer
Gessani, Sandra ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J. Van; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria Jesus - \ 2019
Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-3224
colorectal cancer - diet - dietary factors - inflammation - obesity
Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies
Marklund, Matti ; Wu, Jason H.Y. ; Imamura, Fumiaki ; Gobbo, Liana C. Del; Fretts, Amanda ; Goede, Janette De; Shi, Peilin ; Tintle, Nathan ; Wennberg, Maria ; Aslibekyan, Stella ; Chen, Tzu An ; Oliveira Otto, Marcia C. De; Hirakawa, Yoichiro ; Eriksen, Helle Højmark ; Kröger, Janine ; Laguzzi, Federica ; Lankinen, Maria ; Murphy, Rachel A. ; Prem, Kiesha ; Samieri, Cécilia ; Virtanen, Jyrki ; Wood, Alexis C. ; Wong, Kerry ; Yang, Wei Sin ; Zhou, Xia ; Baylin, Ana ; Boer, Jolanda M.A. ; Brouwer, Ingeborg A. ; Campos, Hannia ; Chaves, Paulo H.M. ; Chien, Kuo Liong ; Faire, Ulf De; Djoussé, Luc ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; El-Abbadi, Naglaa ; Forouhi, Nita G. ; Michael Gaziano, J. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gigante, Bruna ; Giles, Graham ; Guallar, Eliseo ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Harris, Tamara ; Harris, William S. ; Helmer, Catherine ; Hellenius, Mai Lis ; Hodge, Allison ; Hu, Frank B. ; Jacques, Paul F. ; Jansson, Jan Håkan ; Kalsbeek, Anya ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Koh, Woon Puay ; Laakso, Markku ; Leander, Karin ; Lin, Hung Ju ; Lind, Lars ; Luben, Robert ; Luo, Juhua ; Mcknight, Barbara ; Mursu, Jaakko ; Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Overvad, Kim ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Rimm, Eric ; Schulze, Matthias B. ; Siscovick, David ; Skjelbo Nielsen, Michael ; Smith, Albert V. ; Steffen, Brian T. ; Steffen, Lyn ; Sun, Qi ; Sundström, Johan ; Tsai, Michael Y. ; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh ; Uusitupa, Matti I.J. ; Dam, Rob M. van; Veenstra, Jenna ; Verschuren, Monique ; Wareham, Nick ; Willett, Walter ; Woodward, Mark ; Yuan, Jian Min ; Micha, Renata ; Lemaitre, Rozenn N. ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Risérus, Ulf - \ 2019
Circulation 139 (2019)21. - ISSN 0009-7322 - p. 2422 - 2436.
arachidonic acid - biomarkers - cardiovascular diseases - diet - epidemiology - linoleic acid - primary prevention
Background: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies. Methods: We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available). Results: In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15 198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68 659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships. Conclusions: In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.
Determining Key Research Areas for Healthier Diets and Sustainable Food Systems in Viet Nam
Raneri, Jessica E. ; Kennedy, Gina ; Nguyen, Trang ; Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. ; Haan, Stef de; Do, Ha Thi Phuong ; Nguyen, Phuong Hong ; Thi, Huong Le ; Mai, Truong Tuyet ; Duong, Thi Thanh Thuy ; Hung, Nguyen ; Nguyen, Tuan ; Huynh, Tuyen ; Nodari, Gulia Rota ; Spellman, Olga ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Stoian, Dietmar ; Duong, Minh-Cam ; Tran, Lam Nguyen ; Bene, Christophe - \ 2019
IFPRI (IFPRI Discussion Paper 1872) - 127 p.
food systems - diet - nutrition - agriculture
Vietnamese food systems are undergoing rapid transformation, with important implications for human and environmental health and economic development. Poverty has decreased, and diet quality and under-nutrition have improved significantly since the end of the Doi Moi reform period (1986-1993) as a result of Viet Nam opening its economy and increasing its regional and global trade. Yet poor diet quality is still contributing the triple burden of malnutrition, with 25 percent stunting among children under age 5, 26 percent and 29 percent of women and children, respectively, anemic, and 21 percent of adults overweight. Agricultural production systems have shifted from predominantly diverse smallholder systems to larger more commercialized and specialized systems, especially for crops, while the ‘meatification’ of the Vietnamese diet is generating serious trade-offs between improved nutrition and sustainability of the Vietnamese food systems. The food processing industry has developed rapidly, together with food imports, resulting in new and processed food products penetrating the food retail outlets, trending towards an increase in the Westernized consumption patterns that are shifting nutrition-related problems towards overweight and obesity and, with it, an increase of non-communicable disease-related health risks. While regulatory policies exist across the food system, these are not systematically implemented, making food safety a major concern for consumers and policy makers alike. Where data exists, it is not easy to aggregate with data from across food system dimensions, making it difficult for Viet Nam to make an informed analysis of current and potential food system trade-offs. In our research, we reviewed existing literature and data, and applied a food systems framework to develop an initial food systems profile for Viet Nam and to identify a comprehensive set a of research questions to fill current data gaps identified through the review. Insights on these would provide the comprehensive evidence needed to inform policy makers on how to develop new food systems policies for Viet Nam, and further refine and improve existing policies to achieve better quality diets and more sustainable food systems in Viet Nam. Based on these, we then engaged with stakeholders to develop research priorities in the Viet Nam context and identified 25 priority research questions. This paper aims to stimulate such reflections by clearly outlining key areas for research, government policy, and development programs on priority investment to build the evidence base around inclusive food systems interventions that aim to result in healthier diets and more sustainable food systems for Viet Nam.
The UroLife study: protocol for a Dutch prospective cohort on lifestyle habits in relation to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer prognosis and health-related quality of life
Goeij, Liesbeth de; Westhoff, Ellen ; Witjes, J.A. ; Aben, Katja K. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Kiemeney, Lambertus Alm ; Vrieling, Alina - \ 2019
BMJ Open 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2044-6055 - p. e030396 - e030396.
biomarkers - bladder cancer - cohort - diet - lifestyle - prognosis - quality of life - recurrence - study protocol
INTRODUCTION: Patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) have a good survival but are at high risk for tumour recurrence and disease progression. It is important to identify lifestyle habits that may reduce the risk of recurrence and progression and improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This paper describes the rationale and design of the UroLife study. The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether lifestyle habits are related to prognosis and HRQOL in patients with NMIBC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The UroLife study is a multicentre prospective cohort study among more than 1100 newly diagnosed patients with NMIBC recruited from 22 hospitals in the Netherlands. At 6 weeks and 3, 15 and 51 months after diagnosis, participants fill out a general questionnaire, and questionnaires about their lifestyle habits and HRQOL. At 3, 15 and 51 months after diagnosis, information about fluid intake and micturition is collected with a 4-day diary. At 3 and 15 months after diagnosis, patients donate blood samples for DNA extraction and (dietary) biomarker analysis. Tumour samples are collected from all patients with T1 disease to assess molecular subtypes. Information about disease characteristics and therapy for the primary tumour and subsequent recurrences is collected from the medical records by the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Statistical analyses will be adjusted for age, gender, tumour characteristics and other known confounders. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the Committee for Human Research region Arnhem-Nijmegen (CMO 2013-494). Patients who agree to participate in the study provide written informed consent. The findings from our study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed scientific journals and presentations at (inter)national scientific meetings. Patients will be informed about the progress and results of this study through biannual newsletters and through the website of the study and of the bladder cancer patient association.
The Newly Developed Elderly Nutrient-Rich Food Score Is a Useful Tool to Assess Nutrient Density in European Older Adults
Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Kramer, Charlotte S. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de - \ 2019
Frontiers in Nutrition 6 (2019). - ISSN 2296-861X
diet - diet quality - elderly - nutrient density - nutrient profiling - nutrient-rich food index
Objective: To develop a nutrient-rich food (NRF) score that captures dietary reference values for older adults and to validate this against a diet index that was specifically designed to assess adherence to dietary guidelines for the older population. Design: A cross-sectional study within the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS, n = 735 men and women aged 70–94 years, enrolled between October 2010 and February 2012) and within the NU-AGE study (n = 250 men and women aged 65–79 years, enrolled between April 2012 and March 2013). Dietary intake was assessed by means of two non-consecutive dietary record assisted 24-h recalls and 7-day food records, respectively. Structured questionnaires collected data on lifestyle and socio-economic information. Anthropometrics were measured by trained dieticians or research assistants. We evaluated Elderly NRF (E-NRF) scores against the NU-AGE index, a measure of adherence to European dietary guidelines for the aging population. The E-NRF scores were composed of nutrients that: (1) have been shown to be of inadequate intake in the aging population (>20%), (2) were defined as nutrients of public health relevance, and (3) were associated with relevant health outcomes. Results: The E-NRF score that best predicted the NU-AGE index included seven nutrients to encourage (protein, dietary fiber, folate, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, potassium) and three nutrients to limit (saturated fat, sodium and mono- and disaccharides) on a 100-kcal basis, the E-NRF7.3 score (model R2 0.27 in DNFCS and 0.41 in NU-AGE). Food groups contributing the most to the individual E-NRF7.3 scores were vegetables, bread, potatoes and milk and milk products. Conclusion: The E-NRF7.3 score is a useful tool for assessing nutrient density of diets within the older population. No index has previously been developed with the aim of evaluating nutrient density of diets and foods specifically capturing dietary reference values for older adults.
SHARP Indicators Database: Towards a public database for environmental sustainability
Mertens, E. ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
environment - greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - land use (LU) - life cycle analyses (LCA) - Europe - food - diet
In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten.
High Dietary Intake of Vegetable Protein Is Associated With Lower Prevalence of Renal Function Impairment: Results of the Dutch DIALECT-1 Cohort
Oosterwijk, Milou M. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Navis, Gerjan ; Binnenmars, S.H. ; Gant, Christina M. ; Laverman, Gozewijn D. - \ 2019
Kidney International Reports 4 (2019)5. - ISSN 2468-0249 - p. 710 - 719.
diabetes mellitus type 2 - diet - kidney function - lifestyle
Introduction: Dietary protein intake may influence development of renal function impairment in diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). We assessed the association between sources of protein and prevalence of renal function impairment. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed in baseline data of 420 patients of the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente-1 (DIALECT-1)study. Protein intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire, modified for accurate assessment of protein intake, including types and sources of protein. Renal function impairment was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula). Results: Among 420 patients with T2DM, 99 renal function impairment cases were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used and adjusted for the main lifestyle and dietary factors. The prevalence ratios in the fully adjusted model were 1 (reference), 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44–1.27; P = 0.28)and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.23–0.98; P = 0.04)according to increasing tertiles of vegetable protein intake. For animal protein intake the prevalence ratios were 1 (reference), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.64–1.88; P = 0.74)and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.56–1.99; P = 0.87)according to increasing tertiles of intake. Theoretical replacement models showed that replacing 3 energy percent from animal protein by vegetable protein lowered the prevalence ratio for the association with renal function impairment to 0.20 (95% CI: 0.06–0.63; P = 0.01). Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that higher intake of vegetable protein was associated with a lower prevalence of renal function impairment, and theoretical replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein was inversely associated with renal function impairment among patients with T2DM.
Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids
Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. ; Laurent, Sophie ; Veenenbos, Margot E. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2019
Insect Science (2019). - ISSN 1672-9609
Acheta domesticus - Alphitobius diaperinus - diet - fatty acids - Hermetia illucens
Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.
What are the health effects of sodium?
Kersten, A.H. - \ 2019
sodium - salt - nutrition and health - diet - intake
In this video we explain the health effects of your sodium intake.
Top-down pressure on a coastal ecosystem by harbor seals
Aarts, Geert ; Brasseur, Sophie ; Poos, Jan Jaap ; Schop, Jessica ; Kirkwood, Roger ; Kooten, Tobias Van; Mul, Evert ; Reijnders, Peter ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Tulp, Ingrid - \ 2019
Ecosphere 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2150-8925 - p. e02538 - e02538.
demersal fish - diet - harbor seal - impact - intertidaL - Phoca vitulina - predation pressure - sealing - Subtidal - top-down regulation - top predator
Historic hunting has led to severe reductions of many marine mammal species across the globe. After hunting ceased, some populations have recovered to pre-exploitation levels and may have regained their prominent position as top predator in marine ecosystems. Also, the harbor seal population in the international Wadden Sea grew at an exponential rate following a ban on seal hunting in 1960s, and the current number ~38,000 is close to the historic population size. Here we estimate the impact of the harbor seal predation on the fish community in the Wadden Sea and nearby coastal waters. Fish remains in fecal samples and published estimates on the seal’s daily energy requirement were used to estimate prey selection and the magnitude of seal consumption. Estimates on prey abundance were derived from demersal fish surveys, and fish growth was estimated using a Dynamic Energy Budget model. GPS tracking provided information on where seals most likely caught their prey. Harbor seals hauling-out in the Dutch Wadden Sea fed predominantly on demersal fish, for example, flatfish species (flounder, sole, plaice, dab), but also on sandeel, cod, and whiting. Although harbor seals acquire the majority of prey further offshore in the adjacent North Sea, and only spend 14% of their diving time in the Wadden Sea, seal predation was still estimated to cause an average annual mortality of 43% of the remaining fish in the Wadden Sea and 60% in the nearby shallow coastal waters (<20 m). There were however large sources of uncertainty in the estimated impact of seals on fish, including the migration of fish between the North Sea and Wadden Sea, and catchability estimates of the fish survey sampling gear, particularly for sandeel and other pelagic fish species. Our estimate suggested a considerable top-down pressure by harbor seals on demersal fish. However, predation by seals may also alleviate density-dependent competition between the remaining fish, allowing for increased fish growth, and partly compensating for the reduction in fish numbers. This study shows that recovering coastal marine mammal populations could become an important component in the functioning of shallow coastal ecosystems.
Designing a research infrastructure on dietary intake and its determinants
Bogaardt, M.J. ; Geelen, A. ; Zimmermann, K. ; Finglas, P. ; Raats, M.M. ; Mikkelsen, B.E. ; Poppe, K.J. ; van't Veer, P. - \ 2018
Nutrition Bulletin 43 (2018)3. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 301 - 309.
big data - consumers - diet - food - public health - research infrastructure
Research on dietary intake and its determinants is crucial for an adequate response to the current epidemic of diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to respond to this challenge, the RICHFIELDS project was tasked with designing a research infrastructure (RI) that connects data on dietary intake of consumers in Europe, and its determinants, collected using apps and wearable sensors, from behavioural laboratories and experimental facilities and from other RIs. The main output of the project, an RI design, describes interfaces (portals) to collect data, a meta-database and a data-model to enable data linkage and sharing. The RICHFIELDS project comprises three phases, each consisting of three work packages, and an overarching methodological support work package. Phase 1 focused on data generated by consumers (e.g. collected by apps and sensors) relating to the purchase, preparation and consumption of food. Phase 2 focused on data generated by organisations such as businesses (e.g. retail data), government (e.g. procurement data) and experimental research facilities (e.g. virtual supermarkets). Phases 1 and 2 provided Phase 3 with insights on data types and design requirements, including the business models, data integration and management systems and governance and ethics. The final design will be used in the coming years to build an RI for the scientific research community, policy makers and businesses in Europe. The RI will boost interdisciplinary multi-stakeholder research through harmonisation and integration of data on food behaviour.
Soya bean meal increases litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in maize and wheat based diets for turkeys but maize and non-soya diets lower body weight
Hocking, P.M. ; Vinco, L.J. ; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2018
British Poultry Science 59 (2018)2. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 227 - 231.
Cereal - dermatitis - diet - electrolyte balance - feed - feed intake - litter moisture - protein
1. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of wheat or maize based diets differing in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in heavy-medium turkeys. A second objective was to investigate the effects on foot pad dermatitis of the interaction between dietary composition and artificially increasing litter moisture by adding water to the litter. 2. High DEB diets contained soya as the main protein source whereas low DEB diets did not contain soya bean meal. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous in each of 3 successive 4-week phases following recommended dietary compositions. DEB concentrations were 330, 290 and 250 mEq/kg in high DEB diets and 230, 200 and 180 mEq/kg in low DEB diets. 3. Litter moisture and mean FPD score were higher in turkeys fed on high DEB diets compared with low DEB diets whereas there was no difference between maize and wheat. 4. Food intake was similar and body weight was lower after litter moisture was artificially raised in the wet compared with the dry litter treatment and there was no interaction with dietary composition. 5. Mean body weight and feed intake were higher in turkeys fed on wheat compared with maize and in high DEB compared with low DEB diets at 12 weeks of age. 6. Lowering dietary DEB for turkeys may improve litter moisture and lower the prevalence of FPD in commercial turkey flocks.
Multi-objective decision-making for dietary assessment and advice
Lemmen - Gerdessen, J.C. van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Vorst; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): G.D.H. Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437073 - 136
questionnaires - food - fractionation - modeling - diet - food intake - decision making - diet counseling - vragenlijsten - voedsel - fractionering - modelleren - dieet - voedselopname - besluitvorming - dieetadvisering
Unhealthy diets contribute substantially to the worldwide burden of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. Globally, non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death, and numbers are still rising, which makes healthy diets a global priority. In Nutrition Research, two fields are particularly relevant for formulating healthier diets: dietary assessment, which assesses food and nutrient intake in order to investigate the relation between diet and disease, and dietary advice, which translates food and nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices. Both fields face complex decision problems: which foods to include in dietary assessment or advice in order to pursue the multiple objectives of the researcher or fulfil the requirements of the consumer. This thesis connects the disciplines of Nutrition Research and Operations Research in order to contribute to formulating healthier diets.
In the context of dietary assessment, the thesis proposes a MILP model for the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires (a crucial tool in dietary assessment) that speeds up the selection process and increases standardisation, transparency, and reproducibility. An extension of this model gives rise to a 0-1 fractional programming problem with more than 200 fractional terms, of which in every feasible solution only a subset is actually defined. The thesis shows how this problem can be reformulated in order to eliminate the undefined fractional terms. The resulting MILP model can solved with standard software.
In the context of dietary advice, the thesis proposes a diet model in which food and nutrient requirements are formulated via fuzzy sets. With this model, the impact of various achievement functions is demonstrated. The preference structures modelled via these achievement functions represent various ways in which multiple nutritional characteristics of a diet can be aggregated into an overall indicator for diet quality. Furthermore, for Operations Research the thesis provides new insights into a novel preference structure from literature, that combines equity and utilitarianism in a single model.
Finally, the thesis presents conclusions of the research and a general discussion, which discusses, amongst others, the main modelling choices encountered when using MODM methods for optimising diet quality.
Summarising, this thesis explores the use of MODM approaches to improve decision-making for dietary assessment and advice. It provides opportunities for better decision-making in research on dietary assessment and advice, and it contributes to model building and solving in Operations Research. Considering the added value for Nutrition Research and the new models and solutions generated, we conclude that the combination of both fields has resulted in synergy between Nutrition Research and Operations Research.
Changes in body composition as a result of chemotherapy : Comparing women with and without breast cancer
Berg, Maaike M.G.A. van den - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E. Kampman; M. Visser, co-promotor(en): R.M. Winkels; J.H.M. de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436984 - 140
body composition - neoplasms - cancer - drug therapy - breast cancer - body weight - intake - diet - meta-analysis - toxicity - lichaamssamenstelling - neoplasma's - cancer - geneesmiddelenbehandeling - borstkanker - lichaamsgewicht - opname (intake) - dieet - meta-analyse - toxiciteit
Because of the improved survival rate, both short term and long term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment have become increasingly important. Body weight and body composition before, during, and after chemotherapy may influence side effects during treatment and survival. The aims of this thesis were to assess among stage I-IIIB breast cancer patients: 1) the association between pre-treatment body composition and dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy, 2) potential changes in body weight and body composition during and after chemotherapy compared to changes in age-matched women without cancer in the same time period, and 3) dietary intake during chemotherapy compared to age-matched women without cancer in the same time period.
Chapter 2 describes the association between pre-treatment body composition and dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy. Data from 172 breast cancer patients who participated in the COBRA-study were analysed. Body composition was measured using a total body Dual Energy X-ray Absorption (DEXA) scan. Information regarding dose-limiting toxicities was abstracted from medical records. A higher BMI (kg/m2) and a higher fat mass (kg and percentage) were associated with an increased risk of dose-limiting toxicity, while lean body mass (kg) was not associated with risk of toxicities.
Chapter 3 presents the findings of a meta-analysis on changes in body weight during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. The meta-analysis showed an overall gain in body weight of 2.7 kg (95% CI: 2.0-3.3) during chemotherapy, with a high degree of heterogeneity (I2= 94.2%). Weight gain in breast cancer patients was more pronounced in papers published before 2000 and studies including cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil as chemotherapy regime.
Chapter 4 describes changes in body weight and body composition during and after chemotherapy. Data from 145 patients and 121 women of an age-matched comparison group, participating in the COBRA-study were analysed. Body composition was measured using DEXA-scan at three time points during the study period. For the patient group, these tie points were: before start of chemotherapy, shortly after chemotherapy, and 6 months after chemotherapy. For the comparison group these measurements were conducted over a similar time frame: baseline, 6 months after baseline, and 12 months after baseline. In addition, we identified determinants of changes in body weight and body composition.
Shortly after chemotherapy, patients had a significantly higher body weight, BMI, and lean body mass than women in the comparison group, while fat mass was similar. Six months after chemotherapy no differences in body weight or body composition were observed between the patient and comparison group. A younger age, better appetite during chemotherapy, and an ER-receptor negative tumour were associated with greater changes in body weight over time. A younger age and better appetite during chemotherapy were associated with greater changes in fat mass over time, while the only determinant associated with greater changes in lean body mass over time was a better appetite during chemotherapy.
Chapter 5 describes the dietary intake and food groups before and during chemotherapy of breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer. In addition we assessed the association between symptoms and energy intake. Data from 117 breast cancer patients and 88 women without breast cancer who participated in the COBRA-study were used. Habitual dietary intake before chemotherapy was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Two 24-hr dietary recalls were used to assess actual dietary intake during chemotherapy for patients and within 6 months for the comparison group. Shortly after the 24-hr dietary recall, participants filled out questionnaires about symptoms. Before chemotherapy, dietary intake was similar for both groups. During chemotherapy, breast cancer patients reported significantly lower total energy, total fat, total protein, and alcohol intake than women without cancer, which could be explained by a lower intake of specific food groups.
Overall results from this thesis suggest that pre-treatment fat mass is associated with dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy. Weight gain during chemotherapy appeared to be more modest than we expected based on literature and changes in body composition during chemotherapy consist mainly of an increase in lean body mass, which is only temporary and returned to baseline within 6 months after chemotherapy. A higher appetite during chemotherapy was associated with changes in body weight and body composition. A younger age at diagnosis was associated with greater changes in body weight and fat mass, but not with changes in lean body mass. In addition, an ER-receptor negative tumour was associated with greater changes in body weight, but not with changes in fat mass or lean body mass. During chemotherapy women with breast cancer have a lower intake of energy, fat, protein and alcohol compared to age-matched women without cancer, which was expressed in a lower intake of specific food groups. The results of this thesis do not suggest that dietary intake is associated with weight gain during chemotherapy.
On the genetic mechanisms of nutrient-dependent lifespan and reproduction
Zandveld, Jelle - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J. Zwaan, co-promotor(en): A.J.M. Debets. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436861 - 209
genetics - lifespan - reproduction - nutrients - drosophila melanogaster - fungi - diet - evolution - genetica - levensduur - voortplanting - voedingsstoffen - drosophila melanogaster - schimmels - dieet - evolutie
Dietary restriction (DR), a moderate reduction in nutrient intake, improves health or extends lifespan across many species. Moreover, recent insights have shown that also the effects of specific nutrients are of importance for the beneficial effects of DR rather than intake alone. However, we still lack much insight through what mechanisms the lifespan increase through diet changes is exactly mediated.
To further increase our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of nutrient-dependent lifespan, in Chapter 2, 3, 4, and 5 I employed different methods of genetic interventions (i.e. a genetic knockout, natural genetic variation and experimental evolution) using the model species Drosophila melanogaster and Podospora anserina. To test whether the genetic interventions affected the diet response, a broad range of diets was applied, thereby taking the recent insights of nutritional geometry into account. Furthermore, the response of the fly’s whole-genome transcription to different dietary treatments were assessed in Chapter 6 and 7 to identify and potentially disentangle genetic mechanisms for lifespan from those for reproduction.
Chapter 2 addressed the effects of a triple knockout in the insulin-IGF signalling (IIS) pathway, namely for three genes encoding insulin-like peptides in Drosophila (dilp2-3,5). The mutant showed a strong elevation of lifespan that was irrespective of food type, but also a strong reduction of the female fly fecundity. In addition, this assay also revealed that the same knockout can yield different interpretations for its function in the fly’s diet response, which was strongly dependent per diet dimension under consideration (i.e. varying yeast, sugar, or its ratio in the diet). This observation set the stage for other experimental chapters in this thesis, where a broad range of diets was applied to depict the exact genotypic effects that are involved in the lifespan response to diet. For example, in Chapter 2, interactive effects were observed between dilp2-3,5 knockout and the lifespan response to dietary sugar, but however, not for the yeast component of the diet.
In Chapter 3, for the same experimental diets, gene expression responses in dilp2-3,5 knockout flies were measured to describe the general dynamics on the pathway level. Interestingly, expression of the remaining fly head-expressed dilp, dilp6, was elevated on higher yeast levels upon dilp2-3,5 knockout. Therefore, compensatory mechanisms within IIS might still partly mediate the lifespan response to yeast.
In Chapter 4 the natural genetic variation for the response to DR was explored in wild-derived strains of the fungus Podospora anserina. By applying a broad range of glucose concentrations in a synthetic medium, we constructed reaction norms for 62 natural occurring strains and showed considerable natural variation in the shape of the reaction norms, including the glucose concentration at which lifespan increased and how steeply the fungus’ lifespan responds to diet (the slope S). Furthermore, I identified a significant correlation between a strain’s general lifespan and both parameters, suggesting that the lifespan response to diet partly acts through a mechanism involved in the fungus’ lifespan determination under high nutrient, growth and reproduction permissive, conditions. On moderate glucose restriction levels we showed that a reduced reproduction was not always associated with lifespan extension, which indicates that decoupling of these traits (that often trade-off) can be achieved.
An evolutionary perspective on diet response and the connection between reproduction and lifespan, two often interconnected traits in lifespan research, was provided in Chapter 5. Here, experimental evolution (EE) was performed in Drosophila melanogaster to test whether improved reproductive capacity (i.e. local adaptation) to three nutritionally distinct diets directly affected the lifespan response. Adaptation to the distinct nutritional conditions, had no consistent effect on the lifespan response to diet. Other life-history traits that I assessed could more consistently be associated with the evolutionary nutritional treatments, which together suggested that the adaptive genetic mechanisms increasing the fly’s reproduction were not necessarily interconnected singly with a change of lifespan, but rather with a change in the whole life-history strategy.
By exploring the fly’s whole-genome transcription response in a continuously changing environment, Chapter 6 continued on the evolutionary relevance of lifespan responses to diet. This type of fluctuations may better reflect the fly’s natural ecological setting than the continuous diets typically applied in whole-genome transcription laboratory studies. This revealed that flies were able to respond quickly to diet fluctuations throughout lifespan by drastically changing their transcription pattern and, moreover, my results indicated that a large part of the whole-genome transcription response could be attributed to the female fly’s reproduction. Because I measured the response of multiple life-history traits to the fluctuating diet changes, I was able to decouple groups of genes associated with lifespan from those associated with reproduction. This is an important step in the direction of unravelling the genetic architecture that specifically mediates the lifespan response to diet, which can be especially useful in whole-genome transcription studies.
In Chapter 7, the consistencies between studies for their whole-genome transcription responses upon DR were investigated. This revealed large transcriptomic variations on different regulatory levels, i.e. the level of whole-genome transcription, most significant genes, and also gene ontology. To test whether the observed inconsistent whole-genome transcription responses were primarily a reflection of the fly’s reproduction, such as observed in Chapter 6, a new cohort of flies was subjected to different regimes that resulted in very different age-dependent reproduction patterns. By assessing whole-genome transcription in this cohort at two time points, the gene expression changes reflected the age-dependent reproduction patterns observed, rather than the lifespan phenotypes. Similar to Chapter 6, this again highlighted the importance of measuring multiple life-history traits for associating whole-genome transcription responses to lifespan effects of dietary restriction.
In Chapter 8 the acquired insights across the experimental chapters were synthesized, discussing the importance of assessing a broad range of nutrients for the interpretation of any genotypic effect, and in addition discussing the value of measuring multiple life-history traits for genetic associations. In this chapter I also suggested directions for future research in Drosophila and Podospora that may be valuable for further unravelling and understanding the mechanisms of diet responses in other organisms, including in humans.
Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects
Desrues, Olivier ; Mueller-Harvey, Irene ; Pellikaan, Wilbert F. ; Enemark, Heidi L. ; Thamsborg, Stig M. - \ 2017
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65 (2017)7. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 1420 - 1427.
Cooperia oncophora - diet - digesta - feces - helminth parasite - Ostertagia ostertagi - proanthocyanidins
Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2.3% of DM; expt 1) compared with the rumen and intestines, along with higher mean size and prodelphinidins percentage, corroborating CTs efficacy reported only against Ostertagia ostertagi in the abomasum. In expt 2, the dietary levels of CTs were probably too low to demonstrate anthelmintic effects in the rumen. Overall, the level of CTs accessible to thiolysis is favored under the acidic conditions of the abomasum, which seems critical for anthelmintic activity.
Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity during aging
Rusli, Fenni - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Muller, co-promotor(en): Wilma Steegenga. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578845 - 179
diet - liver diseases - energy restricted diets - fibroblasts - aging - fatty liver - dieet - leverziekten - energiearme diëten - fibroblasten - verouderen - vetlever
Increasing life expectancy in the past decades has led to the emergence of age-related chronic diseases and disabilities. A deeper understanding in the molecular events of the aging process is essential to provide evidence-based guidance how lifestyle interventions will be more efficient in delaying age-related disease phenotypes. Calorie restriction (CR) is by far the best nutritional strategy to achieve longevity in animal models. Although potentially also effective for humans, most people experience this rigorous diet as not feasible. To search for a practicable alternative we explored, using a C57BL/6J mice cohort, the effects of intermittent (INT) diet, a weekly alternating diet regimen between 40E% CR and ad libitum medium-fat feeding. We hypothesized that the weekly fluctuating energy availability provides beneficial challenges to the body.
In this thesis we focused on the effects induced by the INT diet on the liver, the central metabolic organ in the body. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease that develops with age and is considered as the hepatic phenotype of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is a disease that develops slowly over the years; its prevalence has been shown to increase at old age (>60 years). In chapter 2 we investigated whether the INT dietary regimen was able to reverse the unfavourable effects of a medium-fat (25%E fat; MF) diet on the liver and its implication on NAFLD development. We showed that, at the age of 12 months, the INT diet prevented NAFLD development. INT-exposed animals retained healthy physiological features as displayed by continuous exposure to CR; maintenance of glucose tolerance, normal insulin levels and low plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Furthermore, they did not exhibit signs of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, indicated by the reduced hepatic TG levels and morphological observations. The results presented in chapter 3 show that, at the age of 24 months, INT-fed mice displayed normal plasma ALT levels, no liver inflammation or fibrosis. These mice, however, display mild steatosis with IHTG levels significantly lower than the MF-exposed mice. To summarize, long-term exposure to a MF diet seriously impaired metabolic homeostasis and was a risk factor for NAFLD development. Applying every-other-week 40E% CR largely reversed the adverse health effects induced by the MF diet. Although the livers of the INT-exposed mice were still protected for the advanced stages of NAFLD, it is noteworthy that, in the long run, liver fat accumulation still occurred.
The second part of chapter 3 describes the obesity-counteracting effects of the INT diet. Part of the mice that had been exposed to the MF diet till 12 months of age was switched to the INT diet until the age of 24 months. The switch to the INT diet successfully improved glucose clearance, survival and liver health, but failed to improve IHTG levels. Within the diet switch experiment, we also investigated the plasticity of adaptive response to the switch by means of transcriptome analysis. Most of the genes differentially expressed between the INT- and MF-exposed mice (~95% of 2,667 genes) switched to the INT-expression profile. There was only a small subset of 148 genes which expression levels persistently remained similar to the MF diet-induced expression levels, instead of adapting to INT’s expression profile. Pathway analysis pointed out that this subset of 148 genes contains genes involved in lipid and xenobiotic metabolism, with PXR as the strongest upstream regulator. This suggests that MF-induced deregulated PXR activity persistently affects lipid and xenobiotic metabolism in the liver of the old diet switch mice. Therefore, we suggested that, despite the strong improvement of overall and liver-specific phenotypes, these persistently regulated genes might have potentially adverse effects on health.
The adaptive response to the diet switch at an old age was further investigated in chapter 4, but then in the reverse order: switching from a healthy to an unhealthy diet. Our results showed that, despite the long-term exposure to CR regimen, mice in the CR-MF group displayed hyperphagia, rapid weight gain, and hepatic steatosis. However, no hepatic fibrosis/injury or alteration in CR-improved survival was observed in the diet switch group. The liver transcriptomic profile of CR-MF group largely shifted to a profile similar to the MF-fed animals but leaving ~22% of the 1578 differentially regulated genes between the CR and MF diet groups comparable with the expression of the life-long CR group. Therefore, although the diet switch was performed at an old age, the CR-MF-exposed mice were still able to rapidly gain weight to similar level as life-long MF mice with the same age, but without developing severe liver pathologies.
In chapter 5, the data from the different dietary interventions and age time points were combined to further explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the NAFLD development. Hereby, we focussed our analysis on the association with Fgf21, an emerging non-invasive biomarker for NAFLD. We demonstrated that plasma Fgf21 levels strongly reflected liver fat accumulation, confirming its potential as NAFLD marker. Transcriptomics analysis of the liver was performed and revealed that the link between plasma Fgf21 and IHTG levels was associated with differentially regulated PPARα and NRF2 targets during NAFLD. This suggested that the elevated Fgf21 levels in NAFLD was a measure to maintain homeostasis against the adverse effects of lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in NAFLD. The PPARα challenge test, which was performed by administrating PPARa agonist Wy-14,643 to the mice, confirmed the dysregulation of PPARα signalling in NAFLD, including the hepatic expression of Fgf21.
To conclude, the results presented in this thesis adds to our understanding the effects of different diets have on genotype-phenotype relationships, which translate into different health states and are essential for identifying healthy aging strategies. We investigated the role of different dietary regimen on the phenotypes of genetically identical mice, particularly on an intermittent (INT) diet, which alternates weekly between the ad libitum medium-fat (MF) and calorie restriction (CR) diet. We found that the INT dietary regimen provided a remarkable protection against the severe health outcomes of the long-term medium-fat diet consumption, which may improve life quality by reducing the burden of chronic disease. Although it is too early to conclude that the INT dietary regimen (or modulation of the energy intake) is beneficial and safe to be applied in human population, this study is a proof-of-concept of intervening a chronic overnutrition status with a metabolic challenge of energy stress. Further investigation of this novel dietary regimen is needed to allow it to be safely applied in humans. By switching the diets at a defined time point during the study, we demonstrated that, even at middle and old age, the liver is still a highly flexible organ that rapidly adapts its transcriptional program to the different dietary challenges. We also demonstrated that the strong link between the diet-induced NAFLD and Fgf21 denoted a dysregulation of PPARa signalling pathway during the development of the liver disease.
Linking growing up and getting old : plastic and evolutionary effects of developmental diet on adult phenotypes and gene expression in the fruit fly
May, C.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Zwaan, co-promotor(en): Fons Debets. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577633 - 183
drosophila melanogaster - gene expression - nutrition - evolution - diet - lifespan - fecundity - biological development - drosophila melanogaster - genexpressie - voeding - evolutie - dieet - levensduur - voortplantingspotentieel - biologische ontwikkeling