Reconciling interests concerning wildlife and livestock near conservation areas: A model for analysing alternative land uses
Chaminuka, P. ; Groeneveld, R.A. ; Ierland, E.C. van - \ 2014
Ecological Economics 98 (2014). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 29 - 38.
reserve network - southern africa - biodiversity - selection - policy - costs
Land use decisions are central to both biodiversity conservation and rural development goals at local, national and international levels. Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs), now common in Southern Africa, present an opportunity to address these goals simultaneously. This paper proposes a theoretical spatial land allocation model that enables analysis of alternative scenarios for realising rural development and biodiversity conservation within TFCAs. The model includes socioeconomic and ecological factors such as income, fencing, connectivity, predation and disease costs and allows for clarification of opportunities and tradeoffs in land use. The model demonstrates alternative spatial options for diversification in land use, whilst accommodating the connectivity requirements and endogenous effects of wildlife on other land uses. The model is illustrated using several scenarios which include changes in key parameters, and limitations on total land allocated per land use. Illustrated scenarios show that land allocated to different land uses varies with output prices and costs such as fencing and wildlife damages, resulting in different spatial land use allocations. In addition, total revenue also changes when limitations are placed on land allocated to wildlife and tourism uses. The model can be used to reconcile interests where conservation and agricultural development activities compete for land.
Livelihood roles of cattle and prospects for alternative land uses at the wildlife/livestock interface in South Africa
Chaminuka, P. ; Udo, H.M.J. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 38 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 80 - 90.
benefits - livestock - policy - conservation - management - valuation - poverty - systems - costs - areas
The emergence of wildlife ranching as an alternative land use option to agriculture, in Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs), has cast renewed interest on the role of cattle farming in rural livelihoods in areas close to wildlife parks. This study analysed the contribution of cattle to livelihoods and relationships between cattle and potential wildlife land uses in rural areas near Kruger National Park. Data were collected through household surveys, key informant interviews and community workshops. About 11% of households studied owned cattle, and cattle income constituted 29% of total household income. Benefits from cattle were also derived by households without cattle. About 71% of households had at least three sources of income, reflecting diversity of livelihoods. Wildlife related land uses were perceived by some households as threatening cattle production, whilst others viewed them as opportunities for alternative livelihoods. We conclude that cattle production has important livelihood roles, but is not sufficient as a driver of economic development in these areas. Incentives to encourage diversification of livelihoods at the wildlife/livestock interface, with possibilities for rural communities to explore wildlife based land uses should be put in place. In addition, land use policy and planning in such areas should focus on creating institutional mechanisms through which programmes integrating conservation and rural development goals can benefit rural communities
Tourist preferences for ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park: A choice experiment approach
Chaminuka, P. ; Groeneveld, R.A. ; Selomane, A.O. ; Ierland, E.C. van - \ 2012
Tourism Management 33 (2012)1. - ISSN 0261-5177 - p. 168 - 176.
conservation - africa - models - areas
This paper analyses the potential for development of ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We determine preferences of tourists, according to origin and income levels, for ecotourism and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for three ecotourism attributes: village accommodation, village tours and visits to crafts markets. Data were collected from 319 tourists through choice experiments, and analyzed using a conditional probit model. Findings indicate reluctance on the part of all tourists to use accommodation facilities outside KNP, but interest to purchase village tours and visit village-based craft markets. MWTP was negative for accommodation for all income groups, but positive for village tours and crafts markets. Among international and high income groups of tourists, tourists were willing to pay much higher fees than proposed by communities. These findings suggest the potential for development of some limited ecotourism services in villages adjacent to KNP.
Cattle Farming at the Wildlife/Livestock Interface: Assessment of Costs and Benefits Adjacent to Kruger National Park, South Africa
Chaminuka, P. ; Mccrindle, C.M.E. ; Udo, H.M.J. - \ 2012
Society & Natural Resources 25 (2012)3. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 235 - 250.
wildlife management - communities - patterns - disease
This study examined the extent and magnitude of cattle loss to wildlife depredation and diseases and also considered the benefits from the park for households adjacent to Kruger National Park. Data were from interviews with 540 randomly sampled households, inspection of records, and focus-group discussions. Households in villages close to the park reported higher incidence of livestock depredation (32%) than those further from the park (13%). Livestock diseases described by farmers included foot-and-mouth and heartwater. A partial budget was used to compare costs incurred and benefits derived by households. Mean annual costs of wildlife/livestock interactions, taking into account benefits associated with proximity to the park, averaged US$34 per household. Farmers viewed wildlife as an obstacle to cattle farming. Mechanisms to reduce effects of wildlife damages and increase livelihood benefits of coexistence with wildlife for households and the community are suggested
Evaluating land use options at the wildlife/livestock interface: an integrated spatial land use analysis
Chaminuka, P. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; Akke van der Zijpp; C.M.E. Mccrindle, co-promotor(en): Rolf Groeneveld. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731333 - 258
wild - vee - rundvee - landgebruik - plattelandsgemeenschappen - ecotoerisme - middelen van bestaan - wildlife - livestock - cattle - land use - rural communities - ecotourism - livelihoods
In Africa, rural development and biodiversity conservation, are both important, but sometimes potentially conflicting priorities. Most rural areas adjacent to wildlife protected areas in Southern Africa have high biodiversity potential, but are characterised by high poverty, unemployment, and limited economic activity. The problems in these rural areas are further compounded by problems of crop destruction, and livestock depredation by wildlife. Transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), recently introduced in Southern Africa, have potential to address both biodiversity and poverty alleviation through promotion of multiple land uses such as wildlife ranching, tourism, livestock and crop production. It is however, not clear how these land uses can be combined, and what the associated socio-economic costs and benefits of alternative land use options in these areas are. This study proposed a spatial land use model for evaluating alternative land uses and development pathways in these rural areas. The model maximised net revenues from the land, assuming the presence of a social planner. The model proposed, considered a range of socio-economic and biophysical factors, identified jointly with rural communities. The study comprised five empirical chapters in which the following issues are addressed; (i) socioeconomic risks associated with agriculture at the interface, and community attitudes towards wildlife tourism land uses (ii) contribution of existing livelihood strategies to household incomes, (iii) potential for tourism development and (iv) trade-offs in net revenues between different options for land use. The case study areas was Mhinga, one of the rural areas within the Great Limpopo TFCA in South Africa. The study area is situated on the north-western border of Kruger National Park (KNP), next to the Punda Maria park gate. Results showed that the costs by wildlife related damage such as livestock depredation and diseases, were higher than the benefits in employment and subsidies from the park for households. As a consequence attitudes towards wildlife by farmers were generally negative. There was also no mechanism to compensate households incurring wildlife damage. Households living closer to the park had more problems with wildlife damage. When the contribution of different livelihood activities to household incomes were considered, the study found that the main sources of income were the government welfare grants, formal employment and cattle farming. Cattle farmers were not in support of introducing wildlife based land use activities as they considered them to impose costs on other livelihood activities. Some community members were however of the opinion that introducing wildlife tourism could create employment and improve household incomes, especially for those households not engaged in cattle farming. When preferences of tourists, towards supporting forms of ecotourism outside the KNP were analysed, through a choice experiment approach, the study found that tourists were interested in village tours and crafts markets, but generally reluctant to use accommodation facilities outside the park. Analysis of options for land based development at the interface showed that existing land use practices were not optimal. The model results indicate that, by introducing irrigation, tourism and wildlife land uses, net revenues from land could be doubled in the future. It is concluded that, given the socioeconomic and bio-physical constraints characteristic to the area, most income can be obtained by combining all four land uses in the area in optimal proportions. Factors such as property rights, and benefits distribution which could impact the ability of rural communities in the TFCA to support, utilize and benefit from wildlife resources need to be addressed before any land use changes are implemented.
What do local communities say about fences?
Chaminuka, P. - \ 2010
In: Fencing Impacts: a review of the environmental, social and economic impacts of game and veterinary fencing in Africa with particular reference to the great Limpopo and Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservaton Areas / Ferguson, K., Hanks, J., Pretoria, South Africa : Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria - p. 53 - 55.
Livestock systems and competing claims for land at the wildlife-bsed tourism/livestock interface
Chaminuka, P. ; Udo, H.M.J. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2010
Applied Animal Husbandry and Rural Development Journal 3 (2010)1. - p. 5 - 9.
This paper discusses competition for land between communal grazing livestock systems and emerging preferences for wildlife-based tourism land uses in the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Renewed efforts to improve livestock production as a tool for rural development in Southern Africa come at a time that new transfrontier parks present new opportunities for rural communities to generate incomes from tourism. These multiple opportunities for rural livelihoods intensify competing claims on grazing land, which will likely influence the nature and future of livestock production at the wildlife-based tourism/livestock interface. Data on livestock numbers, land use preferences and uses of grazing land were collected through examination of dip records, focus group discussions and structured interviews with 540 households. The data were analysed through weighted rankings, Pearson chi-square tests and general descriptive statistics. Results show increasing pressure and diversified stakeholder interests on communal grazing land and a shift in preference towards more diversified use of communal grazing land. These results highlight emerging challenges for communal grazing systems at the wildlife-based tourism/livestock interface
|Livestock Systems and Livelihoods: responding to competing Claims for Land and the tourism/livestock Interface
Chaminuka, P. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der; Mccrindle, C. ; Udo, H.M.J. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Ierland, E.C. van; Groeneveld, R.A. - \ 2008
In: Book of abstracts for the World Conference on Animal Production. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861002 - p. 14 - 14.