Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Survey of clenbuterol in bovine muscle and liver in Ecuador
    Espinoza, Wania ; Vargas Jentzsch, Paul ; Gualpa, Fernando ; Andrade, Paulette ; Moreno, Carla ; Vaca, Israel ; Betancourt, Rommel ; Medina, Lorena ; Enríquez, Dominique ; Guijarro, Michelle ; Garrido, Patricia ; Bravo, Juan ; Ulic, Sonia ; Montalvo García, Gemma ; Ortega, Fernando ; Stolker, Linda ; Ramos, Luis - \ 2020
    Food Additives & Contaminants Part B-Surveillance 13 (2020)2. - ISSN 1939-3210 - p. 107 - 114.
    Clenbuterol - food contamination - food safety - β-adrenergic receptors - β-agonist

    Clenbuterol is a steroid-type drug used in respiratory treatments in both humans and animals. However, it has a secondary effect related to the hypertrophy process in muscle and fat reduction. The illegal or bad use of clenbuterol has been reported in several countries, but there is scarce information in South America, where the production and consumption of meat are considerable. In this sense, the present study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of clenbuterol in bovine muscle and liver samples from a high cattle production area of Ecuador in 2015 and 2018. For this purpose, 57–58 samples were evaluated in 2015 and 20 samples in 2018 using the Enzyme-Linked Inmuno Sorbent Assay and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed complained results for clenbuterol in meat samples from both years and 23% (2015) and 85% (2018) of the samples of meat complied the maximum residue level defined by CODEX.

    Exploratory monitoring of the quality and authenticity of commercial honey in Ecuador
    Salvador, Lorena ; Guijarro, Michelle ; Rubio, Daniela ; Aucatoma, Bolívar ; Guillén, Tanya ; Jentzsch, Paul Vargas ; Ciobotă, Valerian ; Stolker, Linda ; Ulic, Sonia ; Vásquez, Luis ; Garrido, Patricia ; Bravo, Juan ; Guerrero, Luis Ramos - \ 2019
    Foods 8 (2019)3. - ISSN 2304-8158
    Adulteration - Chemometric - Honey - Infrared spectroscopy - Raman spectroscopy

    Honey is one of the oldest sweetening foods and has economic importance, making this product attractive to adulteration with cheap sugars. This can cause a critical problem in the honey industry and a possible health risk. The present work has the aim of evaluating the authenticity of honey commercialized in two different provinces of Ecuador (Pichincha and Loja) by performing physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. For this study 25 samples were collected from different places and markets and characterized by water, sucrose, reducing sugars and electric conductivity measurement. Also, their Raman and Infrared (IR) spectra were recorded and analysed using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to verify the quality of the honeys. In addition, a screening of several pesticides was performed in order to verify possible chemical threats to human health and honey bees. It was found that 8 samples have a deviation from the Standard established parameters. Two of them have a high difference in the content of sucrose and reducing sugars, which are located deviated from all the other samples in the PCA of the applied vibrational spectroscopy (IR/Raman), shaping two clear clusters. The results show that Raman and IR spectroscopy is appropriate techniques for the quality control of honey and correlates well with the physicochemical analyses.

    Nationale Referentie Laboratoria : RIKILT jaarrapport 2015
    Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gerssen, A. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, A. ; Weesepoel, Y. ; Ginkel, L. van; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rikilt-rapport 2016.007)
    High sensitive multiresidue analysis of pharmaceuticals and antifungals in surface water using U-HPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap HRMS. Application to the Danube river basin on the Romanian territory
    Chitescu, C.L. ; Kaklamanos, George ; Nicolau, A.I. ; Stolker, Linda - \ 2015
    Science of the Total Environment 532 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 501 - 511.
    Antifungals - Danube river - High resolution - Orbitrap - Pharmaceutical residues

    The occurrence of 67 pharmaceutical and antifungal residues in the Danube river on the Romanian territory was studied by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LC-Q Exactive Orbitrap high resolution MS in both full scan (FS) MS and targeted MS/MS modes. A single-laboratory validation procedure was carried out for the determination of 67 compounds in FSMS mode evaluating selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method showed satisfactory analytical performance. The evaluation of the recovery concluded that 75% of the compounds show recoveries between 85 and 115% and 10% of the compounds show recoveries between 85% and 65%. The level of detection was lower than 5ngl-1 for 66% of the compounds, between 5 and 10ngl-1 for 22% and between 10 and 25ngl-1 for 14% of the compounds. The coefficients of determination R2 were higher than 0.99 for 79% of the compounds, over a linearity range of 2.5-50ngl-1. Targeted MS/MS analysis, performed in addition to the full scan acquisition was used for confirmatory purpose.Twenty samples of Danube water and three of the main tributaries were collected in May, July, August and October 2014. Analysis of the selected water samples revealed the occurrence of 23 compounds such as diclofenac, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, tylosin, indomethacin, ketoprofen, piroxicam, together with antifungals like thiabendazole, and carbendazim. Carbamazepine was detected in 17 samples, the maximum concentration being 40ngl-1. The highest concentration reached was 166ngl-1 for diclofenac.

    Simultaneous determination of seven gestagens in kidney fats by Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
    Tao, Yanfei ; Balzer-Rutgers, Paula ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Chen, Dongmei ; Yuan, Zonghui - \ 2015
    Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 988 (2015). - ISSN 1570-0232 - p. 143 - 148.
    Gestagens - Kidney fat - Residues analysis - Ultra-performance convergence chromatography

    An ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC2) system coupled tandem mass spectrometry was successfully utilised to analyse chlormadinone acetate, delmadinone acetate, fluorogestone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, melengestrol acetate, chlortestasterone acetate in bovine and porcine kidney fat. This novel approach obtained an improved resolution in comparison to previously reported chromatographic methods combined with MS detector in a shorter analytical time. All the acetylgestagen compounds were well separated on a ACQUITY UPC2 HSS C18 column (3.0×100mm, 1.7μm) by applying methanol and carbon dioxide (2/98). The LOQ of delmadinone acetate, melengestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate and megestrol acetate are 0.5μg/kg, fluorogestone acetate, chlormadinone acetate and chlortestasterone acetate 1.0μg/kg. The recoveries of gestagens spiked in kidney fats at a concentration range of 0.5 to 4μg/kg were above 86.1% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 13.1%. These rapid and reliable methods can be used to efficiently separate, characterize and quantify the residues of gestagens in kidney fats with advantages of shorter time, more sensitive and environmental friendly.

    Nationale referentie laboratoria : RIKILT jaarrapport 2014
    Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gerssen, A. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, A. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2015-012) - 48
    voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselveiligheid - voederveiligheid - schadelijke stoffen - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - laboratoriumproeven - europese unie - food legislation - food safety - feed safety - noxious substances - genetically engineered organisms - laboratory tests - european union
    Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL’s) vormen een onderdeel van het stelsel voor controle en handhaving van EU wet- en regelgeving op het gebied van veiligheid van voedsel en diervoeders. RIKILT is aangewezen als NRL voor twaalf onderzoekdomeinen. Taken van een NRL zijn afhankelijk van het onderzoekdomein. In dit rapport wordt een overzicht gegeven van de activiteiten in 2014 van alle NRL’s van RIKILT. Dit zijn de NRL’s voor dioxines en PCB’s, pesticiden in dierlijke producten, mycotoxinen, zware metalen, polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen (PAK’s), mariene biotoxinen, stoffen en producten gerelateerd aan Richtlijn 96/23/EG, genetisch gemodificeerde organismen in voedsel en voeders, dierlijke eiwitten, diervoederadditieven, melk- en melkproducten en watergehalte pluimveevlees.
    The analysis of animal faeces as a tool to monitor antibiotic usage
    Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Wegh, R.S. ; Memelink, J. ; Zuidema, T. ; Stolker, A.A.M. - \ 2015
    Talanta 132 (2015). - ISSN 0039-9140 - p. 258 - 268.
    antimicrobial resistance genes - veterinary antibiotics - manure storage - soil - environment - fate - chloramphenicol - sulfadiazine - agriculture - spread
    The analysis of antibiotics in animal faeces is important to obtain more insight in the possible formation of bacterial resistance in the animals¿ gut, to learn about the dissemination of antibiotics to the environment, to monitor trends in antibiotic usage and to detect the illegal and off-label use of antibiotics. To facilitate these studies a comprehensive method for the analysis of trace levels of 44 antibiotic compounds including tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides and sulfonamides in animal faeces by liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) detection is reported. The method is fully validated according to European regulation and showed satisfactory quantitative performance according to the stringent criteria adopted, with the exception of some of the macrolide compounds, which can be analysed with somewhat high measurement uncertainty. A large survey was carried out monitoring swine and cattle faeces and the outcomes were striking. In 55% of the swines, originating from 80% of the swine farms and in 75% of the calves, originating from 95% of the cattle farms, antibiotics were detected. Oxytetracycline, doxycycline and sulfadiazine were the most detected antibiotics, followed by tetracycline, flumequine, lincomycin and tylosin. Over 34% of the faeces samples contained two or more different antibiotics with a maximum of eight. Possible explanations for these findings are given and the effects are discussed.
    Efficiency improvement in the analyses for the Dutch notional monitoring plan
    Bolck, Y.J.C. ; Nibbeling, C.V.M. ; Mensink, R. ; Verbrugge, M. ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Berendsen, B. ; Zuidema, T. ; Stolker, A.A.M. - \ 2014
    Non-invasive monitoring of antibiotic usage by the analysis of faeces
    Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Wegh, R.S. ; Memelink, J. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Zuidema, T. - \ 2014
    Antibiotics in the chain : analyses of feces to study the life-cycle of antibiotics
    Stolker, A.A.M. ; Kang, J.W. ; Lee, K.J. ; Park, H.C. ; So, B. ; Wegh, R.S. ; Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Zuidema, T. - \ 2014
    feces - antibiotica - antibioticaresistentie - dierhouderij - vleesproductie - monitoring - faeces - antibiotics - antibiotic resistance - animal husbandry - meat production - monitoring
    To prevent further dissemination of resistance, the use of antimicrobial compounds in animal husbandry should be decreased. Therefore, instead of monitoring food products related to MRL regulations, antibiotic usage in general should be monitored in an effective way. The analysis of feces is a promising option.
    A B-Lactam LC-MS/MS multi-method including penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems
    Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Gerritsen, H.W. ; Wegh, R.S. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2014
    Kruiscontaminatie van antibiotica : onderzoek naar de aanwezigheid van antibioticaresiduen in mest van vleesvarkens en vleeskalveren en op pluimveebedrijven
    Zuidema, T. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Ginkel, L.A. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT rapport 2014.015) - 47
    antibioticumresiduen - plattelandsomgeving - mest - drinkwater - blootstelling - besmetting - varkens - vleeskuikens - vleeskalveren - pluimvee - rundvee - antibiotic residues - rural environment - manures - drinking water - exposure - contamination - pigs - broilers - veal calves - poultry - cattle
    Dit onderzoek heeft tot doel een eerste indicatie te krijgen over het voorkomen van antibioticaresiduen in dieren en hun directe omgeving. Het gaat daarbij met name om de onbedoelde blootstelling als gevolg van kruiscontaminatie. Hiertoe is een onderzoek gedaan naar de aanwezigheid van antibioticaresiduen in mestmonsters van vleesvarkens, vleeskalveren en vleeskuikens. Bij vleeskuikens is ook onderzoek gedaan in omgevingsmonsters (blootstelling vanuit de omgeving) en in watermonsters (blootstelling van dieren via water).
    Nationale referentie laboratoria : RIKILT jaarrapport 2013
    Traag, W.A. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gersen, A. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, A. ; Heenen, S. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rikilt rapport 2014-004) - 47
    voedselveiligheid - voedselbesmetting - voederveiligheid - voedselanalyse - ringtest - laboratoria - eu regelingen - food safety - food contamination - feed safety - food analysis - ring test - laboratories - eu regulations
    In deze jaarrapportage doet het RIKILT verslag van haar activiteiten als Nationaal Referentielaboratorium (NRL).
    Single-laboratory validation of a multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of coccidiostats in eggs and feed
    Bienenmann-Ploum, M.E. ; Vincent, U. ; Campbell, K. ; Huet, A.C. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Delahaut, P. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Elliott, C.T. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405 (2013)29. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 9571 - 9577.
    screening methods
    Coccidiostats are authorized in the European Union (EU) to be used as poultry feed additives. Maximum (residue) levels (M(R)Ls) have been set within the EU for consumer and animal protection against unintended carry-over, and monitoring is compulsory. This paper describes the single-laboratory validation of a previously developed multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) as screening method for coccidiostats in eggs and feed and provides and compares different approaches for the calculation of the cut-off levels which are not described in detail within Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Comparable results were obtained between the statistical (reference) approach and the rapid approaches. With the most rapid approach, the cut-off levels for narasin/salinomycin, lasalocid, diclazuril, nicarbazin (DNC) and monensin in egg, calculated as percentages of inhibition (%B/B0), were 60, 32, 76, 80 and 84, respectively. In feed, the cut-off levels for narasin/salinomycin, lasalocid, nicarbazin (DNC) and monensin were 70, 64, 72 and 78, respectively, and could not be determined for diclazuril. For all analytes, except for diclazuril in feed, the rate of false positives (false non-compliant) in blank samples was lower than 1 %, and the rate of false negatives (false compliant) at the M(R)Ls was below 5 %. Additionally, very good correlations (r ranging from 0.994 to 0.9994) were observed between two different analysers, a sophisticated flow cytometer (FlexMAP 3D®) and a more cost-efficient and transportable planar imaging detector (MAGPIX®), hence demonstrating adequate transferability.
    Chloramphenicol can occur in crops naturally
    Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Wegh, R.S. ; Sisseren, M. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
    Comprehensive analysis of B-Lactam antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems in poultry muscle using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry
    Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Gerritsen, H.W. ; Wegh, R.S. ; Lameris, S.L. ; Sebille, R. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405 (2013)24. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 7859 - 7874.
    beta-lactamase - quantitative-analysis - ceftiofur resistance - escherichia-coli - european-union - bovine muscle - kidney tissue - enterobacteriaceae - salmonella - mechanisms
    A comprehensive method for the quantitative residue analysis of trace levels of 22 ß-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, in poultry muscle by liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometric detection is reported. The samples analyzed for ß-lactam residues are hydrolyzed using piperidine in order to improve compound stability and to include the total residue content of the cephalosporin ceftifour. The reaction procedure was optimized using a full experimental design. Following detailed isotope labeling, tandem mass spectrometry studies and exact mass measurements using high-resolution mass spectrometry reaction schemes could be proposed for all ß-lactams studied. The main reaction occurring is the hydrolysis of the ß-lactam ring under formation of the piperidine substituted amide. For some ß-lactams, multiple isobaric hydrolysis reaction products are obtained, in accordance with expectations, but this did not hamper quantitative analysis. The final method was fully validated as a quantitative confirmatory residue analysis method according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and showed satisfactory quantitative performance for all compounds with trueness between 80 and 110 % and within-laboratory reproducibility below 22 % at target level, except for biapenem. For biapenem, the method proved to be suitable for qualitative analysis only.
    Occurrence of Chloramphenicol in Crops through Natural Production by Bacteria in Soil
    Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Wegh, R. ; Sisseren, M. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (2013). - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4004 - 4010.
    streptomyces-venezuelae - vegetables - plants - manure
    Due to the unexpected findings of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in products of animal origin, feed, and straw, the hypothesis was studied that the drug is naturally present in soil, through production by soil bacteria, and subsequently can be transferred to crops. First, the stability of chloramphenicol in soil was studied. The fate of chloramphenicol highly depends on soil type and showed a half-life of approximately one day in nonsterile topsoil. It was found to be more stable in subsoil and sterile soils. Second, the production of chloramphenicol in soil was studied, and it was confirmed that Streptomyces venezuelae can produce chloramphenicol at appreciable amounts in nonsterile soil. Third, a transfer study was carried out using wheat and maize grown on three different soils that were weekly exposed to aqueous chloramphenicol solutions at different levels. Chloramphenicol was taken up by crops as determined by chiral liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometric analysis, and the...
    Selectivity in the sample preparation for the analysis of drug residues in products of animal origin using LC-MS
    Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
    TrAC : Trends in Analytical Chemistry 43 (2013). - ISSN 0165-9936 - p. 229 - 239.
    tandem mass-spectrometry - quantitative trace analysis - solid-phase extraction - veterinary drugs - antibiotic-residues - multiclass method - environmental-samples - multiresidue method - screening method - food analysis
    Sample preparation is critical in relation to analysis time, sample throughput and therefore analysis costs. Due to recent advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instrumentation, the detection of many compounds within one run became possible, and methods for the simultaneous analysis of different compound groups were developed. To be able to analyze compounds with different physical and chemical properties simultaneously, generic, non-selective sample-preparation procedures are applied. The most frequently reported generic sample-preparation methods are a solvent extraction only, solid-phase extraction and a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) approach. These multi-analyte methods – sometimes including more than 150 different compounds – are of much interest for analytical laboratories due to their reduction in costs. A clear drawback of generic sample-preparation procedures is the occurrence of abundant matrix effects, which compromise detection limits, quantitative aspects, method selectivity and maintenance frequency. In contrast to the trend towards non-selective sample preparation, an opposite trend towards more selective sample-preparation methods is expected to be able to confirm the identity of compounds unambiguously (e.g., stereoisomers). This review gives an overview of generic sample-preparation procedures in the analysis of veterinary drug residues in products of animal origin using LC-MS as the detection technique and an outlook towards expected future trends.
    Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants
    Stolker, A.A.M. ; Zuidema, T. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Deckers, E.R. ; Herbes, R. ; Hooglught, J. ; Olde Heuvel, E. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2013
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 30 (2013)6. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1100 - 1107.
    feedingstuffs - residues - animals - agents - food
    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary drugs like antibiotics added to the previous batch of medicated feed. To monitor the carry-over of antibiotics in the Netherlands, 21 feed mills were visited and 140 samples of flushing feeds were collected and analysed for containing residues of antibiotics. Results show that 87% of all samples contain concentrations of antibiotics in the range of 0.1-154 mg/kg. It is expected that these levels - which are in the same range as previously found for the nowadays banned antimicrobial growth promoters (AMGPs) - have an effect on the occurrence of microbial resistance. Analysis of a second set of samples collected at four different feed mills directly after the production of oxytetracycline-medicated feed demonstrated that the first part of a flushing feed has much higher contamination than the last part of the batch. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the carry-over percentage shows no correlation with the carry-over determined by one of the standard GMP+ procedures. These observations, unavoidable carry-over, inhomogeneous batches of feed with antibiotics and difficulties to predict the carry-over levels, together with the awareness of the increasing problem of microbial resistance, motivated the NEVEDI, association of Dutch Feed Producers, to announce that they will voluntarily stop the production of medicated feed in 2011. The alternatives for medicated feed are for example water or milk medication or the use of top-dressings at the farm. The consequences and possible new risks of carry-over at the farm are not completely clear yet
    Veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in animal products : annual report 2012 of the National Reference Laboratory
    Stolker, A.A.M. ; Sterk, S.S. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Rikilt - Institute of Food Safety (Report / RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety 2013.002) - 21
    dierlijke productie - veterinaire producten - kwaliteit - animal production - veterinary products - quality
    This report if the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in products of animal origin according to Council Directive 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2012. The main tasks of the NRL are communication with Official Laboratories (OL), quality assurance of the analyses of offical samples inclusive the preparation of quality control samples and the advisory function for the Competent Authority and OL. Furthermore the NRL organizes comparative tests, ensures that the OL observes the residue limits, disseminates information obtained from the European Union Reference Laboratories (EURLs) and participates trainings organized by the Commission or by the EURLs.
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