- E.A.J. Fischer (1)
- G.E. Hop (1)
- J.E. Kammenga (1)
- M.C.M. Mourits (2)
- G. Nodelijk (1)
- A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink (1)
- G.P. Pijlman (1)
- J.A.G. Riksen (1)
- H.J.W. Roermund van (1)
- H.W. Saatkamp (4)
- L.B. Snoek (1)
- M.G. Sterken (1)
- R.J.M. Volkers (1)
- Y. Wang (1)
|Dissecting the genetic architecture of resistance to orsay virus infection in C. elegans
Sterken, M.G. ; Wang, Y. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Volkers, R.J.M. ; Riksen, J.A.G. ; Bosman, K.J. ; Pijlman, G.P. ; Kammenga, J.E. - \ 2014
In: Proceedings of PhD Spring School Host-Microbe Interactomics. - - p. 12 - 12.
Host-pathogen interactions play a major role in evolutionary selection and in shaping natural genetic variation. Recent identification of viral infection in C. elegans has prompted research into understanding the underlying pathways of Orsay virus (OrV) infection in natural populations. Here we report the dissection of the genetic architecture of OrV infection. We found that wild type Hawaii CB4856 strain was more resistant to OrV than the canonical Bristol N2 strain. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of resistance, 52 fully sequenced recombinant inbred lines (CB4856 x N2 RILs) were exposed to OrV using our recently developed quantitative assay. This led to the identification of two distinct loci on chromosome IV associated with OrV resistance. These loci were both associated with a lower viral load in the CB4856 genotype. Strikingly, these loci do not harbour the recently found drh-1 locus, which encodes a RIG-I like helicase that plays an important role in antiviral RNAi. To verify our results and gain additional insight into the genetic architecture, a panel of 18 introgression lines (ILs) (together covering chromosome IV entirely) was exposed to OrV. Both loci could be verified by ILs, also showing more resistance against OrV infection with the CB4856 locus. Our results provide insight in the loci underlying the higher viral resistance in CB4856. They also form an important step toward identifying polymorphic genes underlying resistance to viral infection in C. elegans.
Minimization of the Impact of Aujeszky’s Disease Outbreaks in The Netherlands: A Conceptual Framework
Bosman, K.J. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Saatkamp, H.W. - \ 2013
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 60 (2013)4. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. 303 - 314.
In the Netherlands, outbreaks of Aujeszky’s Disease (AD) are controlled by vaccination and movement restriction zones (MRZ). Although this strategy avoids the socio-ethical concerns associated with pre-emptive slaughter, it can easily result in animal welfare problems and negative economic consequences. These arise because movement restrictions result in surpluses of live (vaccinated) piglets on farms. The aim is to provide insight into the development of these surpluses and its impact and to describe how measures that allow early transportation of pigs under certain conditions and to specific destinations (channelling) could reduce these problems. For the analysis, a deterministic simulation model was developed, which calculates surpluses of piglets at multiplier farms during AD outbreaks. This is performed on a weekly basis for two areas (with and without piglet surplus), three outbreak durations (minimum, moderate and long) and three strategies for movement restrictions (strict, transports within the MRZ allowed and transports outside the MRZ allowed). The results show that in case of complete movement restrictions, surpluses of piglets varying in age and vaccination status will quickly arise. These surpluses are larger for longer epidemics and can become as large as 180–340 thousand piglets (45–75% of weekly domestic production) for moderate and long epidemics, respectively. Implementation of channelling strategies that allow earlier transportation within the MRZ can reduce surpluses by about 50% to 100–150 thousand piglets maximum. Strategies that also allow transportation outside the MRZ can reduce surpluses even further to below 100 thousand piglets. It was concluded that channelling of live piglets during AD outbreaks results in a drastic reduction of problems with accommodating ready-for-transport piglets. Moreover, it reduces shortages during movement restrictions and peak supply immediately after removing the restrictions. Channelling could therefore be an important instrument to reduce the economic and animal welfare impacts of containment measures.
|Livestock disease control in frontier regions: problems and prospects, challenges and limitations for cross-border collaboration
Saatkamp, H.W. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Hop, G.E. ; Bosman, K.J. ; Breuer, O. - \ 2012
Frontier regions have specific features that make them more vulnerable for introduction and spread of livestock diseases compared to ‘backland areas’, e.g. more intensive livestock trade and transport. This holds for traditional diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF), but even more for vector-borne Emerging Infectious Diseases such as Blue Tongue. On the other hand, the cross-border inter-dependency offers quite some possibilities for collaboration and mitigation of particularly the economic impact of livestock diseases. Currently these possibilities are not fully recognized and hence under-utilized. This paper aims to review the development of cross-border collaboration in livestock disease control from two perspectives: (1) specific veterinary aspects; and (2) mitigation of economic impacts. Specific attention will be given to the following issues: (1) communication and data exchange; (2) capacity building; (3) routine versus crisis time measures and practices; (4) collaboration in prevention and control; (5) cross-border exercises; and (6) harmonization of disease control. The frontier region Germany-Netherlands is a very prominent example of cross-border economic inter-dependency and veterinary risks, and steps towards harmonization have been taken in the last decade. Therefore, particularly examples from this area will be presented and put in a wider perspective. One such an example shows the contradictory effect that might occur: cross-border harmonization of CSF can reduce the overall impact, however, because of differences in institutional aspects (i.e. compensation schemes), for some German stakeholders the impact can increase. This emphasizes the need for an integrated beyond-veterinary approach. It is concluded that in frontier regions specific veterinary and economic risks can be mitigated provided an integrated veterinary-economic approach.
Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza; Epidemiological and economic aspects
Backer, J.A. ; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Fischer, E.A.J. ; Nodelijk, G. ; Bosman, K.J. ; Saatkamp, H.W. ; Roermund, H.J.W. van - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report 2011-032) - ISBN 9789086155200 - 80
aviaire influenzavirussen - pluimveeziekten - dierziekten - pluimvee - ziektebestrijding - vaccinatie - methodologie - efficiëntie - invloeden - epidemiologie - economische aspecten - economische situatie - economie - sociale economie - economische analyse - europese unie - nederland - avian influenza viruses - poultry diseases - animal diseases - poultry - disease control - vaccination - methodology - efficiency - influences - epidemiology - economic aspects - economic situation - economics - socioeconomics - economic analysis - european union - netherlands
Epidemieën van hoog pathogene aviaire influenza (HPAI) kunnen een grote invloed hebben op het dierenwelzijn, de pluimveesector en, vanwege de zoönotische aard, ook op de volksgezondheid. Vanwege de vele mogelijke insleeproutes, reservoirs en mutaties in laag pathogene AI (LPAI) loopt het pluimvee in Nederland voortdurend het gevaar te worden besmet met HPAI. In geval van een uitbraak moeten de besmette boerderijen worden geruimd, moet het transport worden gereguleerd, moeten er beschermings- en toezichtsgebieden worden opgezet en moeten gevaarlijke contacten worden opgespoord, dit alles volgens de vereisten van de EU. Er kunnen ook bestrijdingsmaatregelen worden genomen om de blootgestelde bedrijfsdichtheid in het getroffen gebied te verkleinen door preventief ruimen of vaccineren. Net zoals in 2003, kan een nieuwe HPAI epidemie grote gevolgen hebben voor de pluimveesector. Het bestrijden van aangifteplichtige ziektes zoals AI door grootschalig preventief ruimen, wordt maatschappelijk steeds minder geaccepteerd, en de roep om alternatieve bestrijdingsmaatregelen zoals vaccinatie wordt steeds luider. Dit onderzoek ondersteunt het besluitvormingsproces.
Minimization of the economic consequences of Aujeszky's disease outbreaks in the Euregion NL-NRW-NDS: a conceptual framework
Bosman, K.J. ; Saatkamp, H.W. - \ 2010
In: Proceedings of the International Workshop Farm Animal Health Economics, Nantes, France, 14-15 January 2010. - Nantes : INRA - p. 47 - 55.
Book Review: The State of Food and Agriculture in Asia and the Pacific 2006
Bosman, K. - \ 2006
CGPRT Flash 4 (2006)7. - ISSN 1693-4636 - p. 4 - 4.