Records 1 - 20 / 301
Patterning and lifetime of plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase is dependent on actin organization in Arabidopsis interphase cells
Sampathkumar, A. ; Gutierrez, R. ; McFarlane, H.E. ; Bringmann, M. ; Lindeboom, J.J. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Samuels, L. ; Ketelaar, T. ; Ehrhardt, D.W. ; Persson, S. - \ 2013
Plant Physiology 162 (2013)2. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 675 - 688.
functional association - fluorescent protein - electron microscopy - wall biosynthesis - pollen-tube - in-vitro - microtubules - endocytosis - growth - cytoskeleton
The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons regulate cell shape across phyla, from bacteria to metazoans. In organisms with cell walls, the wall acts as a primary constraint of shape, and generation of specific cell shape depends on cytoskeletal organization for wall deposition and/or cell expansion. In higher plants, cortical microtubules help to organize cell wall construction by positioning the delivery of cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes and guiding their trajectories to orient newly synthesized cellulose microfibrils. The actin cytoskeleton is required for normal distribution of CesAs to the plasma membrane, but more specific roles for actin in cell wall assembly and organization remain largely elusive. We show that the actin cytoskeleton functions to regulate the CesA delivery rate to, and lifetime of CesAs at, the plasma membrane, which affects cellulose production. Furthermore, quantitative image analyses revealed that actin organization affects CesA tracking behavior at the plasma membrane and that small CesA compartments were associated with the actin cytoskeleton. By contrast, localized insertion of CesAs adjacent to cortical microtubules was not affected by the actin organization. Hence, both actin and microtubule cytoskeletons play important roles in regulating CesA trafficking, cellulose deposition, and organization of cell wall biogenesis
EXO70A1-mediated vesicle trafficking is critical for tracheary element development in Arabidopsis
Li, S. ; Chen, M. ; Yu, D. ; Ren, S. ; Sun, S. ; Liu, L. ; Ketelaar, T. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Liu, C.M. - \ 2013
The Plant Cell 25 (2013)5. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 1774 - 1786.
vascular-related nac-domain7 - xylem vessel formation - exocyst complex - plasma-membrane - cell-growth - differentiation - exocytosis - genes - expression - transport
Exocysts are highly conserved octameric complexes that play an essential role in the tethering of Golgi-derived vesicles to target membranes in eukaryotic organisms. Genes encoding the EXO70 subunit are highly duplicated in plants. Based on expression analyses, we proposed previously that individual EXO70 members may provide the exocyst with functional specificity to regulate cell type– or cargo-specific exocytosis, although direct evidence is not available. Here, we show that, as a gene expressed primarily during tracheary element (TE) development, EXO70A1 regulates vesicle trafficking in TE differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations of EXO70A1 led to aberrant xylem development, producing dwarfed and nearly sterile plants with very low fertility, reduced cell expansion, and decreased water potential and hydraulic transport. Grafting of a mutant shoot onto wild-type rootstock rescued most of these aboveground phenotypes, while grafting of a wild-type shoot to the mutant rootstock did not rescue the short root hair phenotype, consistent with the role of TEs in hydraulic transport from roots to shoots. Histological analyses revealed an altered pattern of secondary cell wall thickening and accumulation of large membrane-bound compartments specifically in developing TEs of the mutant. We thus propose that EXO70A1 functions in vesicle trafficking in TEs to regulate patterned secondary cell wall thickening.
A mechanism for reorientation of cortical microtubule arrays driven by microtubule severing
Lindeboom, J.J. ; Nakamura, M. ; Hibbel, A. ; Shundyak, K. ; Gutierrez, R. ; Ketelaar, T. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Mulder, B.M. - \ 2013
Science 342 (2013)6163. - ISSN 0036-8075
outer epidermal wall - plasma-membrane - arabidopsis hypocotyl - maize coleoptiles - gamma-tubulin - higher-plants - growth-rate - cell-wall - in-vitro - katanin
Environmental and hormonal signals cause reorganization of microtubule arrays in higher plants, but the mechanisms driving these transitions have remained elusive. The organization of these arrays is required to direct morphogenesis. We discovered that microtubule severing by the protein katanin plays a crucial and unexpected role in the reorientation of cortical arrays, as triggered by blue light. Imaging and genetic experiments revealed that phototropin photoreceptors stimulate katanin-mediated severing specifically at microtubule intersections, leading to the generation of new microtubules at these locations. We show how this activity serves as the basis for a mechanism that amplifies microtubules orthogonal to the initial array, thereby driving array reorientation. Our observations show how severing is used constructively to build a new microtubule array.
The Arabidopsis exocyst subunit SEC3A is essential for embryo development and accumulates in transient puncta at the plasma membrane
Zhang, Y. ; Immink, G.H. ; Liu, C.M. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Ketelaar, T. - \ 2013
New Phytologist 199 (2013)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 74 - 88.
plant-cell growth - auxin transport - root hairs - complex - exocytosis - secretion - gene - expression - thaliana - yeast
The exocyst is a protein complex that is essential for polarized secretion in mammals and fungi. Although the exocyst is essential for plant development, its precise function has not been elucidated. We studied the role of exocyst subunit SEC3A in plant development and its subcellular localization. T-DNA insertional mutants were identified and complemented with a SEC3A-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct. SEC3A-GFP localization was determined using confocal microscopy. sec3a mutants are defective in the globular to heart stage transition in embryogenesis. SEC3A-GFP has similar cell plate localization to the other plant exocyst subunits. In interphase cells, SEC3A-GFP localizes to the cytoplasm and to the plasma membrane, where it forms immobile, punctate structures with discrete lifetimes of 2-40 s. These puncta are equally distributed over the cell surface of root epidermal cells and tip growing root hairs. The density of puncta does not decrease after growth termination of these cells, but decreases strongly when exocytosis is inhibited by treatment with brefeldin A. SEC3A does not appear to be involved in polarized secretion for cell expansion in tip growing root hairs. The landmark function performed by SEC3 in mammals and yeast is likely to be conserved in plants
Cortical microtubule arrays are initiated from a nonrandom prepattern driven by atypical microtubule initiation
Lindeboom, J.J. ; Lioutas, A. ; Deinum, E.E. ; Tindemans, S. ; Ehrhardt, D.W. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Mulder, B. - \ 2013
Plant Physiology 161 (2013)3. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1189 - 1201.
plant-cells - nitella-tasmanica - self-organization - gamma-tubulin - arabidopsis - nucleation - mechanism - orientation - dynamics - reveals
The ordered arrangement of cortical microtubules in growing plant cells is essential for anisotropic cell expansion and, hence, for plant morphogenesis. These arrays are dismantled when the microtubule cytoskeleton is rearranged during mitosis and reassembled following completion of cytokinesis. The reassembly of the cortical array has often been considered as initiating from a state of randomness, from which order arises at least partly through self-organizing mechanisms. However, some studies have shown evidence for ordering at early stages of array assembly. To investigate how cortical arrays are initiated in higher plant cells, we performed live-cell imaging studies of cortical array assembly in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 cells after cytokinesis and drug-induced disassembly. We found that cortical arrays in both cases did not initiate randomly but with a significant overrepresentation of microtubules at diagonal angles with respect to the cell axis, which coincides with the predominant orientation of the microtubules before their disappearance from the cell cortex in preprophase. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root cells, recovery from drug-induced disassembly was also nonrandom and correlated with the organization of the previous array, although no diagonal bias was observed in these cells. Surprisingly, during initiation, only about one-half of the new microtubules were nucleated from locations marked by green fluorescent protein-¿-tubulin complex protein2-tagged ¿-nucleation complexes (¿-tubulin ring complex), therefore indicating that a large proportion of early polymers was initiated by a noncanonical mechanism not involving ¿-tubulin ring complex. Simulation studies indicate that the high rate of noncanonical initiation of new microtubules has the potential to accelerate the rate of array repopulation.
Texture of cellulose microfibrils of root hair cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula, and Vicia sativa
Akkerman, M. ; Franssen-Verheijen, M.A.W. ; Immerzeel, P. ; Hollander, L. den; Schel, J.H.N. ; Emons, A.M.C. - \ 2012
Journal of Microscopy 247 (2012)1. - ISSN 0022-2720 - p. 60 - 67.
cortical microtubules - nodulation factors - geometrical model - plasma-membrane - tip growth - deposition - deformation - microscopy - alignment - plants
Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth, and has qualities that make it suitable for biofuel. There are new tools for the visualisation of the cellulose synthase complexes in living cells, but those do not show their product, the cellulose microfibrils (CMFs). In this study we report the characteristics of cell wall textures, i.e. the architectures of the CMFs in the wall, of root hairs of Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Vicia sativa and compare the different techniques we used to study them. Root hairs of these species have a random primary cell wall deposited at the root hair tip, which covers the outside of the growing and fully grown hair. The secondary wall starts between 10 (Arabidopsis) and 40 (Vicia) µm from the hair tip and the CMFs make a small angle, Z as well as S direction, with the long axis of the root hair. CMFs are 3–4 nm wide in thin sections, indicating that single cellulose synthase complexes make them. Thin sections after extraction of cell wall matrix, leaving only the CMFs, reveal the type of wall texture and the orientation and width of CMFs, but CMF density within a lamella cannot be quantified, and CMF length is always underestimated by this technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and surface preparations for transmission electron microscopy reveal the type of wall texture and the orientation of individual CMFs. Only when the orientation of CMFs in subsequent deposited lamellae is different, their density per lamella can be determined. It is impossible to measure CMF length with any of the EM techniques.
Arabidopsis VILLIN2 and VILLIN3 are required for the generation of thick actin filament bundles and for directional organ growth.
Honing, H.S. van der; Kieft, H. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Ketelaar, T. - \ 2012
Plant Physiology 158 (2012)3. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1426 - 1438.
pollen-tube growth - elongation-factor 1-alpha - root hair-cells - f-actin - binding-sites - plant villin - tip growth - severing protein - cytoskeleton - morphogenesis
In plant cells, actin filament bundles serve as tracks for myosin-dependent organelle movement and play a role in the organization of the cytoplasm. Although virtually all plant cells contain actin filament bundles, the role of the different actin-bundling proteins remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the actin-bundling protein villin in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We used Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion lines to generate a double mutant in which VILLIN2 (VLN2) and VLN3 transcripts are truncated. Leaves, stems, siliques, and roots of vln2 vln3 double mutant plants are twisted, which is caused by local differences in cell length. Microscopy analysis of the actin cytoskeleton showed that in these double mutant plants, thin actin filament bundles are more abundant while thick actin filament bundles are virtually absent. In contrast to full-length VLN3, truncated VLN3 lacking the headpiece region does not rescue the phenotype of the vln2 vln3 double mutant. Our results show that villin is involved in the generation of thick actin filament bundles in several cell types and suggest that these bundles are involved in the regulation of coordinated cell expansion.
High expression of lifeact in Arabidopsis thaliana reduces dynamic reorganization of actin filaments but does not affect plant development
Honing, H.S. van der; Bezouwen, L. van; Emons, A.M.C. ; Ketelaar, T. - \ 2011
Cytoskeleton 68 (2011)10. - ISSN 1949-3584 - p. 578 - 587.
growing pollen tubes - f-actin - in-vivo - cell expansion - hair-cells - root hairs - cytoskeleton - microtubules - organization - fusion
Lifeact is a novel probe that labels actin filaments in a wide range of organisms. We compared the localization and reorganization of Lifeact:Venus-labeled actin filaments in Arabidopsis root hairs and root epidermal cells of lines that express different levels of Lifeact: Venus with that of actin filaments labeled with GFP:FABD2, a commonly used probe in plants. Unlike GFP:FABD2, Lifeact:Venus labeled the highly dynamic fine F-actin in the subapical region of tip-growing root hairs. Lifeact:Venus expression at varying levels was not observed to affect plant development. However, at expression levels comparable to those of GFP:FABD2 in a well-characterized marker line, Lifeact:Venus reduced reorganization rates of bundles of actin filaments in root epidermal cells. Reorganization rates of cytoplasmic strands, which reflect the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, were also reduced in these lines. Moreover, in the same line, Lifeact:Venus-decorated actin filaments were more resistant to depolymerization by latrunculin B than those in an equivalent GFP:FABD2-expressing line. In lines where Lifeact: Venus is expressed at lower levels, these effects are less prominent or even absent. We conclude that Lifeact: Venus reduces remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis in a concentration-dependent manner. Since this reduction occurs at expression levels that do not cause defects in plant development, selection of normally growing plants is not sufficient to determine optimal Lifeact expression levels. When correct expression levels of Lifeact have been determined, it is a valuable probe that labels dynamic populations of actin filaments such as fine F-actin, better than FABD2 does.
Golgi body motility in the plant cell cortex correlates with actin cytoskeleton organization
Akkerman, M. ; Overdijk, O. ; Schel, J.H.N. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Ketelaar, T. - \ 2011
Plant and Cell Physiology 52 (2011)10. - ISSN 0032-0781 - p. 1844 - 1855.
arabidopsis root hairs - nod factors induce - class-xi myosins - cortical microtubules - latrunculin b - pollen-tube - growth - elongation - expansion - reveals
The actin cytoskeleton is involved in the transport and positioning of Golgi bodies, but the actin-based processes that determine the positioning and motility behavior of Golgi bodies are not well understood. In this work, we have studied the relationship between Golgi body motility behavior and actin organization in intercalary growing root epidermal cells during different developmental stages. We show that in these cells two distinct actin configurations are present, depending on the developmental stage. In small cells of the early root elongation zone, fine filamentous actin (F-actin) occupies the whole cell, including the cortex. In larger cells in the late elongation zone that have almost completed cell elongation, actin filament bundles are interspersed with areas containing this fine F-actin and areas without F-actin. Golgi bodies in areas with the fine F-actin exhibit a non-directional, wiggling type of motility. Golgi bodies in areas containing actin filament bundles move up to 7 µm s-1. Since the motility of Golgi bodies changes when they enter an area with a different actin configuration, we conclude that the type of movement depends on the actin organization and not on the individual organelle. Our results show that the positioning of Golgi bodies depends on the local actin organization
Distribution of callose synthase, cellulose synthase, and sucrose synthase in tobacco pollen tube is controlled in dissimilar ways by actin filaments and microtubules
Cai, G. ; Faleri, C. ; Casino, C. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Cresti, M. - \ 2011
Plant Physiology 155 (2011)3. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1169 - 1190.
arabidopsis root hairs - nicotiana-alata link - cell-wall - plasma-membrane - f-actin - cortical microtubules - vegetative nucleus - polarized growth - genetic-evidence - generative cell
Callose and cellulose are fundamental components of the cell wall of pollen tubes and are probably synthesized by distinct enzymes, callose synthase and cellulose synthase, respectively. We examined the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes in relation to the dynamics of actin filaments, microtubules, and the endomembrane system using specific antibodies to highly conserved peptide sequences. The role of the cytoskeleton and membrane flow was investigated using specific inhibitors (latrunculin B, 2,3-butanedione monoxime, taxol, oryzalin, and brefeldin A). Both enzymes are associated with the plasma membrane, but cellulose synthase is present along the entire length of pollen tubes (with a higher concentration at the apex) while callose synthase is located in the apex and in distal regions. In longer pollen tubes, callose synthase accumulates consistently around callose plugs, indicating its involvement in plug synthesis. Actin filaments and endomembrane dynamics are critical for the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase, showing that enzymes are transported through Golgi bodies and/or vesicles moving along actin filaments. Conversely, microtubules appear to be critical in the positioning of callose synthase in distal regions and around callose plugs. In contrast, cellulose synthases are only partially coaligned with cortical microtubules and unrelated to callose plugs. Callose synthase also comigrates with tubulin by Blue Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Membrane sucrose synthase, which expectedly provides UDP-glucose to callose synthase and cellulose synthase, binds to actin filaments depending on sucrose concentration; its distribution is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system but not on microtubules.
Differential regulation of cellulose orientation at the inner and outer face of epidermal cells in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl
Crowell, E.F. ; Timpano, H. ; Desprez, T. ; Franssen-Verheijen, M.A.W. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Höfte, H. ; Vernhettes, S. - \ 2011
The Plant Cell 23 (2011)7. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 2592 - 2605.
cortical microtubules - nitella-opaca - mechanical properties - sunflower hypocotyl - synthase complexes - wall microfibrils - internodal cells - fine-structure - growth - elongation
It is generally believed that cell elongation is regulated by cortical microtubules, which guide the movement of cellulose synthase complexes as they secrete cellulose microfibrils into the periplasmic space. Transversely oriented microtubules are predicted to direct the deposition of a parallel array of microfibrils, thus generating a mechanically anisotropic cell wall that will favor elongation and prevent radial swelling. Thus far, support for this model has been most convincingly demonstrated in filamentous algae. We found that in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, microtubules and cellulose synthase trajectories are transversely oriented on the outer surface of the epidermis for only a short period during growth and that anisotropic growth continues after this transverse organization is lost. Our data support previous findings that the outer epidermal wall is polylamellate in structure, with little or no anisotropy. By contrast, we observed perfectly transverse microtubules and microfibrils at the inner face of the epidermis during all stages of cell expansion. Experimental perturbation of cortical microtubule organization preferentially at the inner face led to increased radial swelling. Our study highlights the previously underestimated complexity of cortical microtubule organization in the shoot epidermis and underscores a role for the inner tissues in the regulation of growth anisotropy.
Images, imagination, insight
Emons, A.M.C. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085858881
afbeelden - verbeelding - cellen - celbiologie - foto's - imagery - imagination - cells - cellular biology - photographs
Expression and functional analyses of EXO70 genes in Arabidopsis implicate their roles in regulating cell type-specific exocytosis
Li, S. ; Os, G.M.A. van; Ren, S. ; Yu, D. ; Ketelaar, T. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Liu, C. - \ 2010
Plant Physiology 154 (2010). - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1819 - 1830.
lateral root emergence - exocyst complex - plasma-membrane - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - plant transformation - epithelial-cells - 19.5s particle - tip growth - pollen - thaliana
During exocytosis, Golgi-derived vesicles are tethered to the target plasma membrane by a conserved octameric complex called the exocyst. In contrast to a single gene in yeast and most animals, plants have greatly increased number of EXO70 genes in their genomes, with functions very much unknown. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were performed on all 23 EXO70 genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to examine their expression at the organ level. Cell-level expression analyses were performed using transgenic plants carrying ß-glucuronidase reporter constructs, showing that EXO70 genes are primarily expressed in potential exocytosis-active cells such as tip-growing and elongating cells, developing xylem elements, and guard cells, whereas no expression was observed in cells of mature organs such as well-developed leaves, stems, sepals, and petals. Six EXO70 genes are expressed in distinct but partially overlapping stages during microspore development and pollen germination. A mutation in one of these genes, EXO70C1 (At5g13150), led to retarded pollen tube growth and compromised male transmission. This study implies that multiplications of EXO70 genes may allow plants to acquire cell type- and/or cargo-specific regulatory machinery for exocytosis
Probing cytoplasmic organization and the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells with optical tweezers
Ketelaar, T. ; Honing, H.S. van der; Emons, A.M.C. - \ 2010
Biochemical Society Transactions 38 (2010). - ISSN 0300-5127 - p. 823 - 828.
tobacco by-2 cells - class-xi myosins - root hair-cells - f-actin - arabidopsis-thaliana - transvacuolar strands - endoplasmic-reticulum - depolymerizing factor - hydrodynamic flow - bundling protein
In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be considered. In the present review, we discuss literature that gives an insight into how cytoplasmic organization is achieved and in which actin-binding proteins have been identified that play a role in this process. We discuss how physical properties of the actin cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of live plant cells, such as deformability and elasticity, can be probed by using optical tweezers. This technique allows non-invasive manipulation of cytoplasmic organization. Optical tweezers, integrated in a confocal microscope, can be used to manipulate cytoplasmic organization while studying actin dynamics. By combining this with mutant studies and drug applications, insight can be obtained about how the physical properties of the actin cytoskeleton, and thus the cytoplasmic organization, are influenced by different cellular processes. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Caspase inhibitors affect the kinetics and dimensions of tracheary elements in xylogenic Zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell cultures
Twumasi, P. ; Iakimova, E.T. ; Qian, T. ; Ieperen, W. van; Schel, J.H.N. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Kooten, O. van; Woltering, E.J. - \ 2010
BMC Plant Biology 10 (2010). - ISSN 1471-2229
tomato suspension cells - mesophyll-cells - hypersensitive response - vascular development - dna fragmentation - serine proteases - plant caspases - nuclear-dna - death - differentiation
BACKGROUND: The xylem vascular system is composed of fused dead, hollow cells called tracheary elements (TEs) that originate through trans-differentiation of root and shoot cambium cells. TEs undergo autolysis as they differentiate and mature. The final stage of the formation of TEs in plants is the death of the involved cells, a process showing some similarities to programmed cell death (PCD) in animal systems. Plant proteases with functional similarity to proteases involved in mammalian apoptotic cell death (caspases) are suggested as an integral part of the core mechanism of most PCD responses in plants, but participation of plant caspase-like proteases in TE PCD has not yet been documented. RESULTS: Confocal microscopic images revealed the consecutive stages of TE formation in Zinnia cells during trans-differentiation. Application of the caspase inhibitors Z-Asp-CH2-DCB, Ac-YVAD-CMK and Ac-DEVD-CHO affected the kinetics of formation and the dimensions of the TEs resulting in a significant delay of TE formation, production of larger TEs and in elimination of the 'two-wave' pattern of TE production. DNA breakdown and appearance of TUNEL-positive nuclei was observed in xylogenic cultures and this was suppressed in the presence of caspase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that caspase inhibitors can modulate the process of trans-differentiation in Zinnia xylogenic cell cultures. As caspase inhibitors are closely associated with cell death inhibition in a variety of plant systems, this suggests that the altered TE formation results from suppression of PCD. The findings presented here are a first step towards the use of appropriate PCD signalling modulators or related molecular genetic strategies to improve the hydraulic properties of xylem vessels in favour of the quality and shelf life of plants or plant parts
The plant exocyst
Zhang, Y. ; Emons, A.M.C. ; Ketelaar, T. - \ 2010
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 52 (2010)2. - ISSN 1672-9072 - p. 138 - 146.
electron tomographic analysis - s-receptor kinase - plasma-membrane - self-incompatibility - spatial regulation - cell polarity - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - arabidopsis-thaliana - tip growth - complex
exocyst is an octameric vesicle tethering complex that functions upstream of SNARE mediated exocytotic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All proteins in the complex have been conserved during evolution, and genes that encode the exocyst subunits are present in the genomes of all plants investigated to date. Although the plant exocyst has not been studied in great detail, it is likely that the basic function of the exocyst in vesicle tethering is conserved. Nevertheless, genomic and genetic studies suggest that the exocyst complex in plants may have more diversified roles than that in budding yeast. In this review, we compare the knowledge about the exocyst in plant cells to the well-studied exocyst in budding yeast, in order to explore similarities and differences in expression and function between these organisms, both of which have walled cells
Biosynthesis of callose and cellulose by detergent extracts of tobacco cell membranes and quantification of the polymers synthesized in vivo.
Cifuentes Espitia, C.C. ; Bulone, V. ; Emons, A.M.C. - \ 2010
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 52 (2010)2. - ISSN 1672-9072 - p. 221 - 233.
beta-glucan synthesis - plasma-membrane - higher-plants - pollen tubes - by-2 cells - cortical microtubules - actin bundles - hybrid aspen - cotton fiber - growth cone
The conditions that favor the in vitro synthesis of cellulose from tobacco BY-2 cell extracts were determined. The procedure leading to the highest yield of cellulose consisted of incubating digitonin extracts of membranes from 11-day-old tobacco BY-2 cells in the presence of 1 mM UDP-glucose, 8 mM Ca2+ and 8 mM Mg2+. Under these conditions, up to nearly 40% of the polysaccharides synthesized in vitro corresponded to cellulose, the other polymer synthesized being callose. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the occurrence of two types of structures in the synthetic reactions. The first type consisted of small aggregates with a diameter between 3 and 5 nm that associated to form fibrillar strings of a maximum length of 400 nm. These structures were sensitive to the acetic/nitric acid treatment of Updegraff and corresponded to callose. The second type of structures was resistant to the Updegraff reagent and corresponded to straight cellulose microfibrils of 2–3 nm in diameter and 200 nm to up to 5 µm in length. In vitro reactions performed on electron microscopy grids indicated that the minimal rate of microfibril elongation in vitro is 120 nm/min. Measurements of retardance by liquid crystal polarization microscopy as a function of time showed that small groups of microfibrils increased in retardance by up to 0.047 nm/min per pixel, confirming the formation of organized structures
The Plant Cell Surface
Emons, A.M.C. ; Fagerstedt, K.V. - \ 2010
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 52 (2010)2. - ISSN 1672-9072 - p. 126 - 130.
cellulose synthase complexes - plasma-membrane - arabidopsis - microtubules - growth - actin
Actin and myosin regulate cytoplasm stiffness in plant cells: a study using optical tweezers
Honing, H.S. van der; Ruijter, N.C.A. de; Emons, A.M.C. ; Ketelaar, T. - \ 2010
New Phytologist 185 (2010)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 90 - 102.
tobacco by-2 cells - stamen hair-cells - 2,3-butanedione monoxime - f-actin - transvacuolar strands - cultured-cells - cytoskeleton - organization - manipulation - microtubules
Here, we produced cytoplasmic protrusions with optical tweezers in mature BY-2 suspension cultured cells to study the parameters involved in the movement of actin filaments during changes in cytoplasmic organization and to determine whether stiffness is an actin-related property of plant cytoplasm. Optical tweezers were used to create cytoplasmic protrusions resembling cytoplasmic strands. Simultaneously, the behavior of the actin cytoskeleton was imaged. After actin filament depolymerization, less force was needed to create cytoplasmic protrusions. During treatment with the myosin ATPase inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime, more trapping force was needed to create and maintain cytoplasmic protrusions. Thus, the presence of actin filaments and, even more so, the deactivation of a 2,3-butanedione monoxime-sensitive factor, probably myosin, stiffens the cytoplasm. During 2,3-butanedione monoxime treatment, none of the tweezer-formed protrusions contained filamentous actin, showing that a 2,3-butanedione monoxime-sensitive factor, probably myosin, is responsible for the movement of actin filaments, and implying that myosin serves as a static cross-linker of actin filaments when its motor function is inhibited. The presence of actin filaments does not delay the collapse of cytoplasmic protrusions after tweezer release. Myosin-based reorganization of the existing actin cytoskeleton could be the basis for new cytoplasmic strand formation, and thus the production of an organized cytoarchitecture
Flexibility contra stiffness: The phragmoplast as a physical barrier for beads but not for vesicles
Esseling-Ozdoba, A. ; Kik, R.A. ; Lammeren, A.A.M. van; Kleijn, J.M. ; Emons, A.M.C. - \ 2010
Plant Physiology 152 (2010). - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1065 - 1072.
cell plate formation - higher-plants - root hairs - growing microtubules - actin cytoskeleton - motor proteins - cytokinesis - association - organelles - cytoplasm
In plant cells, Golgi vesicles are transported to the division plane to fuse with each other, forming the cell plate, the initial membrane-bordered cell wall separating daughter cells. Vesicles, but not organelles, move through the phragmoplast, which consists of two opposing cylinders of microtubules and actin filaments, interlaced with endoplasmic reticulum membrane. To study physical aspects of this transport/inhibition process, we microinjected fluorescent synthetic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-1-glycerol (DOPG) vesicles and polystyrene beads into Tradescantia virginiana stamen hair cells. The phragmoplast was nonselective for DOPG vesicles of a size up to 150 nm in diameter but was a physical barrier for polystyrene beads having a diameter of 20 and 40 nm and also when beads were coated with the same DOPG membrane. We conclude that stiffness is a parameter for vesicle transit through the phragmoplast and discuss that cytoskeleton configurations can physically block such transit