Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    How to make healthier meat substitutes
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2020
    Covalent modification of food proteins by plant-based ingredients (polyphenols and organosulphur compounds) : A commonplace reaction with novel utilization potential
    Keppler, Julia K. ; Schwarz, Karin ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2020
    Trends in Food Science and Technology 101 (2020). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 38 - 49.
    Allergenicity - Antimicrobial activity - Covalent interaction - Emulsion - Food processing - Functional extracts - Gelling - Ingredient interaction - Isothiocyanate-protein interaction - Polyphenol-protein interaction - Posttranslational modification - Protein modification - Protein refining

    Background: Many food ingredients such as polyphenols, phenolic acids (e.g. present in fruit and vegetables) and organosulphur compounds (e.g. present in mustard, garlic and chives) covalently interact with meat, egg, dairy and plant-based proteins. The results of those interactions are manifold and range from altered technological properties (in emulsions, foams, gels) to sensory changes (colour formation, altered taste and smell) and different biological activity (allergy, antimicrobial effects, hydrolysis). Scope and approach: The present review discusses both the positive and the negative side effects of such interactions and explores the potential to fine-tune protein functionality during processing not only in model solutions but also in more complex foods. Key findings and conclusions: Traditionally, studies have focused on the negative effects of interactions between protein and plant ingredients (e.g. discolouration and solubility changes), but more recent studies highlight positive effects (e.g. enhanced emulsifying capacity, reduced allergy and targeted production of protein pigments). By controlling food processing conditions (e.g. protein nativity) and the food matrix (e.g. presence of antioxidative compounds or thiol groups, pH value during storage), the observed effects can be prevented or induced. On the basis of the listed findings, future processes can be developed that take such interactions into account to enable targeted co-processing of plant compounds with proteins. A better understanding of these interactions opens up a wealth of novel utilization potential.

    Small angle neutron scattering quantifies the hierarchical structure in fibrous calcium caseinate
    Tian, Bei ; Wang, Zhaojun ; Campo, Liliana de; Gilbert, Elliot P. ; Dalgliesh, Robert M. ; Velichko, Evgenii ; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Bouwman, Wim G. - \ 2020
    Food Hydrocolloids 106 (2020). - ISSN 0268-005X
    Anisotropic Guinier–Porod model - Calcium caseinate - Fibrous structure - Mechanical property - Small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Pronounced fibres are formed through simple shearing of a dense calcium caseinate dispersion. Both mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy images demonstrate that the material is anisotropic. It is hypothesised that calcium caseinate aggregates, under shear, align into micro-fibres and bundle further into a hierarchical structure. Yet no direct evidence at the sub-micron length scale can support the assumption. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were conducted on calcium caseinate samples prepared at different conditions. Analysis of the SANS data revealed that the micro-fibres have a diameter of ∼100nm and a length of ∼300nm. The addition of enzyme and air contributed to longer and thinner micro-fibres. Furthermore, the extent of fibre alignment at the micro-scale and the macroscopic anisotropy index followed the same trends with varying processing conditions. It is concluded that the material does indeed possess a hierarchical structure and the micro-fibres are responsible for the anisotropy on the macro-scale.

    Oxidative stability of soy proteins: From ground soybeans to structured products
    Duque-Estrada, Patrícia ; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina ; Groot, Wouter de; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Berton-Carabin, Claire C. - \ 2020
    Food Chemistry 318 (2020). - ISSN 0308-8146
    Carbonylation - Lipid oxidation - Protein oxidation - Soy protein isolate - Thiols

    The production of soy protein-based foods requires multiple-step, intensive processing and storage of soy ingredients, which can increase the product's susceptibility to oxidation. Therefore, we investigated the oxidative stability of soy protein-based products subjected to different relevant conditions or treatments: over storage of soy flours, over fractionation to yield soy protein isolate (SPI), and over subsequent thermomechanical processing to yield a model structured product. Soy flours were stable to lipid and protein oxidation over 250 days storage in chilled or ambient conditions. The fractionation process applied to make SPI did not increase substantially protein carbonylation, but increased surface-exposed hydrophobicity and decreased free thiols, compared to the starting defatted flour. Subsequent processing of hydrated SPI powder at 140 °C further increased protein carbonylation to a high extent. Therefore, we conclude that soy flours can be stable over long storage times, but processing to yield structured foods products promote protein oxidation.

    Growing pains for meat substitutes
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2020
    Vlees eten is zó 2019
    Boer, Imke de; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2020

    Welke keuzes moeten we maken om onze ecologische voetafdruk te verlagen: gekweekt vlees uit het lab of beter helemaal geen vlees? Zijn er nieuwe productietechnieken die zelfs de meest verstokte vleeseter overtuigt van een lapje ‘vega-vlees’? Maarten Keulemans (de Volkskrant) pluist het vlees debat samen met wetenschappers en het publiek tot in de vezels uit. Imke de Boer gaat in op de vraag of dierlijke producten nog wel in een duurzaam dieet passen.

    Water redistribution determined by time domain NMR explains rheological properties of dense fibrous protein blends at high temperature
    Schreuders, Floor K.G. ; Bodnár, Igor ; Erni, Philipp ; Boom, Remko M. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2020
    Food Hydrocolloids 101 (2020). - ISSN 0268-005X
    Blends of different plant proteins can form excellent basis for meat analogues by subjecting those to shear and heating. We here want to obtain more information of the internal structure of pea protein-gluten and soy protein-gluten blends, by using the polymer blending law to explain rheological responses. For this polymer blending law the water distribution over the two phases is the blend was obtained with time domain 1H NMR measurements using the NMR measurements of individual protein phases and on the blend. By matching the relaxation rate (R2) of the individual phases with those of the blend, the water distribution over the two phases could be obtained. Water is preferentially taken up by the soy or pea protein phase leaving less water for gluten, which effect strongly changes the volume fractions of the phases. Rheological properties of the separate phases as function of their hydration resulted in higher apparent modulus for the wheat gluten phase, and a lower one for the pea and soy protein phase. From the results, it was concluded that both blends show signs of a bi-continuous morphology. The SPI-WG blend showed an intermediate value between bi-continuous and SPI continuous. PPI-WG at lower temperatures showed a bi-continuous structure, while at higher processing temperatures and time was probably WG continuous.
    Process history of calcium caseinate affects fibre formation
    Wang, Zhaojun ; Dekkers, Birgit L. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2020
    Journal of Food Engineering 275 (2020). - ISSN 0260-8774
    Calcium caseinate - Drying - Fibre - Mechanical properties - Roller - Spray drying - Thermal history

    In this study, we compared the physical properties and structuring potential of spray-dried calcium caseinate (Scaca) and roller-dried calcium caseinate (Rcaca). Scaca formed more pronounced fibrous materials upon shearing compared with Rcaca. The rheological measurements revealed that the Scaca dispersion exhibited more solid-like behaviour. Besides, the particle size in excess water was larger for Rcaca (2–300 μm), while Scaca mainly contained small caseinate aggregates (<800 nm). Finally, Rcaca was less susceptible to enzymatic crosslinking with transglutaminase. The different physical properties and structuring potentials were explained by the intensive thermal treatment during roller drying for Rcaca. The application of a similar thermal process to Scaca resulted in similar properties as Rcaca. We concluded that the process history of calcium caseinate has major consequences for its fibre formation potential.

    Functional properties of mildly fractionated soy protein as influenced by the processing pH
    Peng, Yu ; Kersten, Natalie ; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2020
    Journal of Food Engineering 275 (2020). - ISSN 0260-8774
    Aqueous fractionation - Rheological properties - Solubility - Soybean - Viscosity - Water holding capacity

    In this study an alternative mild fractionation process for the extraction of soy protein is investigated; aqueous fractionation, in which oil extraction and intensive washing steps are omitted. Moreover, a pH adjustment is proposed instead of the conventional neutralization step. The mildly fractionated soy protein fractions (SPFs) showed higher protein and oil content compared to commercial soy protein isolate. The process retained the proteins’ native state. SPFs adjusted at pH 4.5 and 5.5 (close to pI) formed a powdery texture, resulting in larger size particles after dispersion in water. Despite their low nitrogen solubility index, water holding capacity and viscosity, when mixed with flour these SPFs presented the highest G* values. A flaky texture and reversed properties were observed with SPF adjusted at pH away from the pI. The range of properties achieved exhibits new routes in creating soy protein ingredients with desired functionality, avoiding over-processing due to post-treatment modifications.

    Yellow pea aqueous fractionation increases the specific volume fraction and viscosity of its dispersions
    Kornet, Cornelis ; Venema, Paul ; Nijsse, Jaap ; Linden, Erik van der; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Meinders, Marcel - \ 2020
    Food Hydrocolloids 99 (2020). - ISSN 0268-005X
    Aqueous fractionation - Protein purification - Rarefied protein aggregates - Solubility - Viscosity - Yellow pea

    Some studies have shown that mild fractionation may result in similar or even better functional properties, than those of highly purified ingredients. This study aimed to relate the level of aqueous purification to the composition, solubility and viscosity of yellow pea fractions. A seldomly used method of cryo-planing combined with Cryo-SEM revealed the presence of protein bodies and starch granules in the seeds and flour, with sizes of ~3 μm and ~20 μm, respectively. Fractions with protein purities ranging from 40 to 85% (w/w) were obtained from the flour and characterized. These fractions were also compared to commerially available yellow pea protein isolate. The fractions that were only exposed to a solubilisation step contained high quantities of carbohydrates (23.6% w/w), which were mostly present as oligosaccharides. Subsequent fractionation steps increased the protein content and changed the ratio between the different pea proteins to some extent. We found that more fractionation steps reduced the solubility of the fractions. The most purified fraction contained 17% (w/w) insoluble protein aggregates with radii ≥ 100 nm. This fraction showed a substantial thickening capacity, with a viscosity of up to 103 mPa s at a concentration of 23% (w/w). The impurities (i.e. sugars, starch granules) present in the fractions only had a small effect on viscosity. Based on the protein specific volume fraction and particle size analysis, it was concluded that yellow pea protein can form aggregates with a rarefied structure responsible for its thickening capacity.

    PlantPROMISE : Public Private Partnership. Plant PROtein Meat alternatIveS using Extrusion
    Pouvreau, L.A.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der; Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research - 4 p.
    Offering attractive and tasty alternatives plant-based meat analogues to the consumer could stimulate the transition from animal to plant proteins.
    PlantPROMISE will improve the understanding of physico-chemical changes during processing in the extruder, combined with a better understanding of product attributes like texture, flavour, juiciness, digestibility and sustainability. Together with the partners, these findings will be used to develop meat analogues which offer a better experience to the consumer, while using a cost effective and sustainable approach.
    Plant meat matters : Public Private Partnership 'Towards a next generation meat analogues'
    Goot, A.J. van der; Matser, A.M. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research - 4 p.
    Alle data en modellen voor waterbeheer op één plek en voor iedereen!
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
    Feeding the 11 billion: the small Dutch town ending our food crisis
    Goot, Atze Jan van der; Schaart, Jan ; Barbosa, Maria ; Noort, Filip van - \ 2019
    Future protein
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
    In Groesbeek groeit de vegaburger van morgen
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
    Shear cell technology in Future of Food (exhibition in Nemo, Amsterdam)
    Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2019
    De grootste voedselrevolutie
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
    Wie unser Essen in Labor new erfunden wird
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
    Hoe groen is de vegaburger?
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
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