Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Natural variation of photosynthetic efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions under low temperature conditions
    Prinzenberg, Aina E. ; Campos-Dominguez, Lucia ; Kruijer, Willem ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Aarts, Mark G.M. - \ 2020
    Plant, Cell & Environment 43 (2020)8. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 2000 - 2013.
    Arabidopsis - cold - GWAS - natural variation - photosynthesis

    Low, but non-freezing, temperatures have negative effects on plant growth and development. Despite some molecular signalling pathways being known, the mechanisms causing different responses among genotypes are still poorly understood. Photosynthesis is one of the processes that are affected by low temperatures. Using an automated phenotyping platform for chlorophyll fluorescence imaging the steady state quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) electron transport (ΦPSII) was measured and used to quantify the effect of moderately low temperature on a population of Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions. Observations were made over the course of several weeks in standard and low temperature conditions and a strong decrease in ΦPSII upon the cold treatment was found. A genome wide association study identified several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that are associated with changes in ΦPSII in low temperature. One candidate for a cold specific QTL was validated with a mutant analysis to be one of the genes that is likely involved in the PSII response to the cold treatment. The gene encodes the PSII associated protein PSB27 which has already been implicated in the adaptation to fluctuating light.

    Plants could capture more sun
    Theeuwen, Tom ; Wijnker, Erik ; Harbinson, Jeremy - \ 2020
    Reciprocal cybrids reveal how organellar genomes affect plant phenotypes
    Flood, Pádraic J. ; Theeuwen, Tom P.J.M. ; Schneeberger, Korbinian ; Keizer, Paul ; Kruijer, Willem ; Severing, Edouard ; Kouklas, Evangelos ; Hageman, Jos A. ; Wijfjes, Raúl ; Calvo-Baltanas, Vanesa ; Becker, Frank F.M. ; Schnabel, Sabine K. ; Willems, Leo A.J. ; Ligterink, Wilco ; Arkel, Jeroen Van; Mumm, Roland ; Gualberto, José M. ; Savage, Linda ; Kramer, David M. ; Keurentjes, Joost J.B. ; Eeuwijk, Fred Van; Koornneef, Maarten ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Aarts, Mark G.M. ; Wijnker, Erik - \ 2020
    Nature Plants 6 (2020)1. - ISSN 2055-026X - p. 13 - 21.
    Assessment of the impact of variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA (collectively termed the plasmotype) on plant phenotypes is challenging due to the difficulty in separating their effect from nuclear-derived variation (the nucleotype). Haploid-inducer lines can be used as efficient plasmotype donors to generate new plasmotype–nucleotype combinations (cybrids)1. We generated a panel comprising all possible cybrids of seven Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and extensively phenotyped these lines for 1,859 phenotypes under both stable and fluctuating conditions. We show that natural variation in the plasmotype results in both additive and epistatic effects across all phenotypic categories. Plasmotypes that induce more additive phenotypic changes also cause more epistatic effects, suggesting a possible common basis for both additive and epistatic effects. On average, epistatic interactions explained twice as much of the variance in phenotypes as additive plasmotype effects. The impact of plasmotypic variation was also more pronounced under fluctuating and stressful environmental conditions. Thus, the phenotypic impact of variation in plasmotypes is the outcome of multi-level nucleotype–plasmotype–environment interactions and, as such, the plasmotype is likely to serve as a reservoir of variation that is predominantly exposed under certain conditions. The production of cybrids using haploid inducers is a rapid and precise method for assessment of the phenotypic effects of natural variation in organellar genomes. It will facilitate efficient screening of unique nucleotype–plasmotype combinations to both improve our understanding of natural variation in these combinations and identify favourable combinations to enhance plant performance.
    Reciprocal cybrids reveal how organellar genomes affect plant phenotypes - RNA Sequencing
    Flood, Padraic ; Theeuwen, Tom ; Schneeberger, Korbinian ; Keizer, Paul ; Kruijer, Willem ; Severing, Edouard ; Kouklas, Evangelos ; Hageman, Jos ; Wijfjes, Raul ; Calvo Baltanas, Vanesa ; Becker, Frank ; Schnabel, Sabine ; Willems, Leo ; Ligterink, Wilco ; Arkel, Jeroen van; Mumm, Roland ; Gualberto, José M. ; Savage, Linda ; Kramer, David M. ; Keurentjes, Joost ; Eeuwijk, Fred van; Koornneef, Maarten ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Aarts, Mark ; Wijnker, Erik - \ 2019
    Wageningen University
    PRJEB35324 - ERP118362 - Arabidopsis thaliana - RNA Sequencing - Cybrids
    Assessing the impact of variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA (collectively termed the plasmotype) on plant phenotypes is challenging due to the difficulty in separating their effect from nuclear derived variation (the nucleotype). Haploid inducer lines can be used as efficient plasmotype donors to generate new plasmotype-nucleotype combinations (cybrids). We generated a panel comprising all possible cybrids of seven Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and extensively phenotyped these lines for 1859 phenotypes under stable and fluctuating conditions. We show that natural variation in the plasmotype results in additive as well as epistatic effects across all phenotypic categories. Plasmotypes which induce more additive phenotypic changes also cause more significant epistatic effects, suggesting a possible common basis for both additive and epistatic effects. On average epistatic interactions explained twice as much of the variance in phenotypes as additive plasmotype effects. The impact of plasmotypic variation was also more pronounced under fluctuating and stressful environmental conditions. Thus, the phenotypic impact of variation in plasmotypes is the outcome of multilevel Nucleotype x Plasmotype x Environment interactions and, as such, the plasmotype is likely to serve as a reservoir of variation which is predominantly exposed under certain conditions. The production of cybrids using haploid inducers is a quick and precise method for assessing the phenotypic effects of natural variation in organellar genomes. It will facilitate efficient screening of unique nucleotype-plasmotype combinations to both improve our understanding of natural variation in nucleotype-plasmotype interactions and identify favourable combinations to improve plant performance.
    Reciprocal cybrids reveal how organellar genomes affect plant phenotypes
    Theeuwen, Tom ; Flood, Padraic ; Schneeberger, Korbinian ; Kruijer, Willem ; Severing, Edouard ; Kouklas, Evangelos ; Hageman, Jos ; Wijfjes, Raul ; Calvo Baltanas, Vanesa ; Becker, Frank ; Schnabel, Sabine ; Willems, Leo ; Ligterink, Wilco ; Arkel, Jeroen van; Mumm, Roland ; Gualberto, José M. ; Savage, Linda ; Kramer, David M. ; Keurentjes, Joost ; Eeuwijk, Fred van; Koornneef, Maarten ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Aarts, Mark ; Wijnker, Erik - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    Assessing the impact of variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA (collectively termed the plasmotype) on plant phenotypes is challenging due to the difficulty in separating their effect from nuclear derived variation (the nucleotype). Haploid inducer lines can be used as efficient plasmotype donors to generate new plasmotype-nucleotype combinations (cybrids). We generated a panel comprising all possible cybrids of seven Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and extensively phenotyped these lines for 1859 phenotypes under stable and fluctuating conditions. We show that natural variation in the plasmotype results in additive as well as epistatic effects across all phenotypic categories. Plasmotypes which induce more additive phenotypic changes also cause more significant epistatic effects, suggesting a possible common basis for both additive and epistatic effects. On average epistatic interactions explained twice as much of the variance in phenotypes as additive plasmotype effects. The impact of plasmotypic variation was also more pronounced under fluctuating and stressful environmental conditions. Thus, the phenotypic impact of variation in plasmotypes is the outcome of multilevel Nucleotype x Plasmotype x Environment interactions and, as such, the plasmotype is likely to serve as a reservoir of variation which is predominantly exposed under certain conditions. The production of cybrids using haploid inducers is a quick and precise method for assessing the phenotypic effects of natural variation in organellar genomes. It will facilitate efficient screening of unique nucleotype-plasmotype combinations to both improve our understanding of natural variation in nucleotype-plasmotype interactions and identify favourable combinations to improve plant performance.
    Reciprocal cybrids reveal how organellar genomes affect plant phenotypes - Whole Genome Sequencing
    Flood, Padraic ; Theeuwen, Tom ; Schneeberger, Korbinian ; Keizer, Paul ; Kruijer, Willem ; Severing, Edouard ; Kouklas, Evangelos ; Hageman, Jos ; Wijfjes, Raul ; Calvo Baltanas, Vanesa ; Becker, Frank ; Schnabel, Sabine ; Willems, Leo ; Ligterink, Wilco ; Arkel, Jeroen van; Mumm, Roland ; Gualberto, José M. ; Savage, Linda ; Kramer, David M. ; Keurentjes, Joost ; Eeuwijk, Fred van; Koornneef, Maarten ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Aarts, Mark ; Wijnker, Erik - \ 2019
    Wageningen University
    PRJEB29654 - ERP111970 - Arabidopsis thaliana - Whole Genome Sequencing - Cybrids
    Assessing the impact of variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA (collectively termed the plasmotype) on plant phenotypes is challenging due to the difficulty in separating their effect from nuclear derived variation (the nucleotype). Haploid inducer lines can be used as efficient plasmotype donors to generate new plasmotype-nucleotype combinations (cybrids). We generated a panel comprising all possible cybrids of seven Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and extensively phenotyped these lines for 1859 phenotypes under stable and fluctuating conditions. We show that natural variation in the plasmotype results in additive as well as epistatic effects across all phenotypic categories. Plasmotypes which induce more additive phenotypic changes also cause more significant epistatic effects, suggesting a possible common basis for both additive and epistatic effects. On average epistatic interactions explained twice as much of the variance in phenotypes as additive plasmotype effects. The impact of plasmotypic variation was also more pronounced under fluctuating and stressful environmental conditions. Thus, the phenotypic impact of variation in plasmotypes is the outcome of multilevel Nucleotype x Plasmotype x Environment interactions and, as such, the plasmotype is likely to serve as a reservoir of variation which is predominantly exposed under certain conditions. The production of cybrids using haploid inducers is a quick and precise method for assessing the phenotypic effects of natural variation in organellar genomes. It will facilitate efficient screening of unique nucleotype-plasmotype combinations to both improve our understanding of natural variation in nucleotype-plasmotype interactions and identify favourable combinations to improve plant performance.
    Demonstration of a relationship between state transitions and photosynthetic efficiency in a higher plant
    Taylor, Craig R. ; Ieperen, Wim van; Harbinson, Jeremy - \ 2019
    Biochemical Journal 476 (2019)21. - ISSN 0264-6021 - p. 3295 - 3312.
    light-use efficiency - photosynthesis - photosystems - state transitions

    A consequence of the series configuration of PSI and PSII is that imbalanced excitation of the photosystems leads to a reduction in linear electron transport and a drop in photosynthetic efficiency. Achieving balanced excitation is complicated by the distinct nature of the photosystems, which differ in composition, absorption spectra, and intrinsic efficiency, and by a spectrally variable natural environment. The existence of long- and short-term mechanisms that tune the photosynthetic apparatus and redistribute excitation energy between the photosystems highlights the importance of maintaining balanced excitation. In the short term, state transitions help restore balance through adjustments which, though not fully characterised, are observable using fluorescence techniques. Upon initiation of a state transition in algae and cyanobacteria, increases in photosynthetic efficiency are observable. However, while higher plants show fluorescence signatures associated with state transitions, no correlation between a state transition and photosynthetic efficiency has been demonstrated. In the present study, state 1 and state 2 were alternately induced in tomato leaves by illuminating leaves produced under artificial sun and shade spectra with a sequence of irradiances extreme in terms of PSI or PSII overexcitation. Light-use efficiency increased in both leaf types during transition from one state to the other with remarkably similar kinetics to that of F'm/Fm, F'o/Fo, and, during the PSII-overexciting irradiance, ΦPSII and qP. We have provided compelling evidence for the first time of a correlation between photosynthetic efficiency and state transitions in a higher plant. The importance of this relationship in natural ecophysiological contexts remains to be elucidated.

    Photosynthesis 2.0
    Aarts, M.G.M. ; Amerongen, H. van; Bock, R. ; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete ; Croce, Roberta ; Finazzi, Giovanni ; Foyer, C. ; Genty, B. ; Harbinson, J. ; Hibberd, J. ; Klein Lankhorst, R.M. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Struik, P.C. ; Weijers, D. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University and Research - 5 p.
    High-Altitude Wild Species Solanum arcanum LA385—A Potential Source for Improvement of Plant Growth and Photosynthetic Performance at Suboptimal Temperatures
    Dinh, Quy Dung ; Dechesne, Annemarie ; Furrer, Heleen ; Taylor, Graham ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Trindade, Luisa M. - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
    dry matter partitioning - photosynthesis - Solanum arcanum - Solanum lycopersicum - suboptimal temperature - sucrose metabolism

    Plant growth, development, and yield of current tomato cultivars are directly affected by low temperatures. Although wild tomato species have been suggested as a potential source for low temperature tolerance, very little is known about their behavior during the reproductive phase. Here, we investigated the impact of suboptimal temperatures (SOT, 16/14°C), as compared to control temperatures (CT, 22/20°C), on plant growth, photosynthetic capacity, and carbohydrate metabolism. Under these conditions, two genotypes were analyzed: a Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Moneymaker and a high-altitude wild species Solanum arcanum LA385, from flowering onset until a later stage of fruit development. Total dry matter production in cv. Moneymaker was reduced up to 30% at SOT, whereas it was hardly affected in wild accession LA385. Specific leaf area, total leaf area, and number of fruits were also decreased at SOT in cv. Moneymaker. In contrast, wild accession LA385 showed an acclimation to SOT, in which ΦPSII and net CO2 assimilation rates were less affected; a similar specific leaf area; higher total leaf area; and higher number of fruits compared to those at CT. In addition, LA385 appeared to have a more distinct sucrose metabolism than cv. Moneymaker at both temperatures, in which it had higher contents of sucrose-6-phosphate, sucrose, and ratio of sucrose: starch in leaves and higher ratio of sucrose: hexose in fruits. Overall, our findings indicate that wild accession LA385 is able to acclimate well to SOT during the reproductive phase, whereas growth and development of cv. Moneymaker is reduced at SOT.

    PH-dependent cell–cell interactions in the green alga Chara
    Eremin, Alexey ; Bulychev, Alexander A. ; Kluge, Christopher ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Foissner, Ilse - \ 2019
    Protoplasma 256 (2019)6. - ISSN 0033-183X - p. 1737 - 1751.
    Characean internodal cells - Charasomes - Kinetics of alkaline band formation - Mitochondria - Mutual interactions - pH banding pattern - Photosynthetic activity Y(II)

    Characean internodal cells develop alternating patterns of acid and alkaline zones along their surface in order to facilitate uptake of carbon required for photosynthesis. In this study, we used a pH-indicating membrane dye, 4-heptadecylumbiliferone, to study the kinetics of alkaline band formation and decomposition. The differences in growth/decay kinetics suggested that growth occurred as an active, autocatalytic process, whereas decomposition was due to diffusion. We further investigated mutual interactions between internodal cells and found that their alignment parallel to each other induced matching of the pH banding patterns, which was mirrored by chloroplast activity. In non-aligned cells, the lowered photosynthetic activity was noted upon a rise of the external pH, suggesting that the matching of pH bands was due to a local elevation of membrane conductance by the high pH of the alkaline zones of neighboured cells. Finally, we show that the altered pH banding pattern caused the reorganization of the cortical cytoplasm. Complex plasma membrane elaborations (charasomes) were degraded via endocytosis, and mitochondria were moved away from the cortex when a previously acid region became alkaline and vice versa. Our data show that characean internodal cells react flexibly to environmental cues, including those originating from neighboured cells.

    Effects of continuous or end-of-day far-red light on tomato plant growth, morphology, light absorption, and fruit production
    Kalaitzoglou, Pavlos ; Ieperen, Wim van; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Meer, Maarten van der; Martinakos, Stavros ; Weerheim, Kees ; Nicole, Celine C.S. ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
    Far-red - LED - Light absorption - Photomorphogenesis - Shade avoidance - Tomato

    Shading by sunlit leaves causes a low red (R) to far-red (FR) ratio that results in a low phytochrome stationary state (PSS). A low PSS induces an array of shade avoidance responses that influence plant architecture and development. It has often been suggested that this architectural response is advantageous for plant growth due to its positive effect on light interception. In contrast to sunlight, artificial light sources such as LEDs often lack FR, resulting in a PSS value higher than solar light (∼0.70). The aim of this study was to investigate how PSS values higher than solar radiation influence the growth and development of tomato plants. Additionally, we investigated whether a short period of FR at the end of the day (EOD-FR) could counteract any potentially negative effects caused by a lack of FR during the day. Tomato plants were grown at four PSS levels (0.70, 0.73, 0.80, and 0.88), or with a 15-min end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) application (PSS 0.10). Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR; 150 μmol m -2 s -1 ) was supplied using red and blue (95/5%) LEDs. In an additional experiment, the same treatments were applied to plants receiving supplementary low-intensity solar light. Increasing PSS above solar PSS resulted in increased plant height. Leaf area and plant dry mass were lower in the treatments completely lacking FR than treatments with FR. EOD-FR-treated plants responded almost similarly to plants grown without FR, except for plant height, which was increased. Simulations with a 3D-model for light absorption revealed that the increase in dry mass was mainly related to an increase in light absorption due to a higher total leaf area. Increased petiole angle and internode length had a negative influence on total light absorption. Additionally, the treatments without FR and the EOD-FR showed strongly reduced fruit production due to reduced fruit growth associated with reduced source strength and delayed flowering. We conclude that growing tomato plants under artificial light without FR during the light period causes a range of inverse shade avoidance responses, which result in reduced plant source strength and reduced fruit production, which cannot be compensated by a simple EOD-FR treatment.

    Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool for describing the operation and regulation of photosynthesis in vivo
    Harbinson, Jeremy - \ 2018
    In: Light Harvesting in Photosynthesis / Croce, R., van Grondelle, R., van Amerongen, H., van Stokkum, I., Boca Raton : CRC Press - ISBN 9781482218350 - p. 539 - 571.
    In very broad terms, photosynthesis begins with the absorption of light (the photosynthetically active kind) and ends with assimilation—the fixation of CO2—a process that is fundamental to trophic networks in the biosphere. In between the absorption of light and the act of assimilation, there are the intermediate processes of photosynthesis: photochemistry, electron transport and energy transduction, metabolism, and gaseous diffusion processes. The rate of assimilation will ultimately be determined by the limiting activity of these processes. There are also complex regulatory networks that coordinate the activities of the many subprocesses of photosynthesis whose combined activity is necessary for assimilation. To understand the relationship between light absorption and assimilation, it is necessary to understand operation of the intermediate processes, how they interact with each other, and how they individually or collectively limit the overall efficiency of assimilation. In this chapter, we will describe the principles and use of a major, widely used nondestructive method for measuring the operation and regulation of PSII not only in leaves and similar photosynthetic plant tissues but also in in vitro samples: steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence.
    Optimized photosynthesis: The next green revolution
    Harbinson, Jeremy ; Ende, Ernst van den - \ 2018
    Optimized photosynthesis can bring solutions for food security, renewable energy and the reduction of CO2. It anables you to get 'more crop per drop', you can increase productivity, increase yields, but also increase water use efficiency. With optimized photosynthesis, we have the potential to facilitate a green revolution.
    Photosynthetic response to increased irradiance correlates to variation in transcriptional response of lipid-remodeling and heat-shock genes
    Rooijen, Roxanne van; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Aarts, Mark G.M. - \ 2018
    Plant Direct 2 (2018)7. - ISSN 2475-4455
    Arabidopsis thaliana - high light stress - microarray - natural genetic variation - photosynthesis efficiency - photosystem II

    Plants have evolved several mechanisms for sensing increased irradiance, involving signal perception by photoreceptors (cryptochromes), and subsequent biochemical (reactive oxygen species, ROS) and metabolic clues to transmit the signals. This results in the increased expression of heat-shock response genes and of the transcription factor LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5, mediated by the cryptochrome photoreceptor 1, CRY1). Here, we show the existence of another response pathway in Arabidopsis. This pathway evokes the SPX1-mediated expression activation of the transcription factor PHR1 and leads to the expression of several galactolipid biosynthesis genes. Gene expression analysis of accessions Col-0, Ga-0, and Ts-1, showed activated expression of the SPX1/PHR1-mediated gene expression activation pathway acting on galactolipids biosynthesis genes in both Ga-0 and Col-0, but not in Ts-1. The activation of the SPX1/PHR1-mediated response pathway can be associated with lower photosynthesis efficiency in Ts-1, compared to Col-0 and Ga-0. Besides the accession-associated activation of the SPX1/PHR1-mediated response pathway, comparing gene expression in the accessions showed stronger activation of several heat responsive genes in Ga-0, and the opposite in Ts-1, when compared to Col-0, in line with the differences in their efficiency of photosynthesis. We conclude that natural variation in activation of both heat responsive genes and of galactolipids biosynthesis genes contribute to the variation in photosynthesis efficiency in response to irradiance increase.

    Converging phenomics and genomics to study natural variation in plant photosynthetic efficiency
    Bezouw, Roel F.H.M. van; Keurentjes, Joost J.B. ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Aarts, Mark G.M. - \ 2018
    The Plant Journal 97 (2018)1. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 112 - 133.
    genome-wide association study - genomics - high-throughput phenotyping - phenomics - photosynthesis - trait discovery

    In recent years developments in plant phenomic approaches and facilities have gradually caught up with genomic approaches. An opportunity lies ahead to dissect complex, quantitative traits when both genotype and phenotype can be assessed at a high level of detail. This is especially true for the study of natural variation in photosynthetic efficiency, for which forward genetics studies have yielded only a little progress in our understanding of the genetic layout of the trait. High-throughput phenotyping, primarily from chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, should help to dissect the genetics of photosynthesis at the different levels of both plant physiology and development. Specific emphasis should be directed towards understanding the acclimation of the photosynthetic machinery in fluctuating environments, which may be crucial for the identification of genetic variation for relevant traits in food crops. Facilities should preferably be designed to accommodate phenotyping of photosynthesis-related traits in such environments. The use of forward genetics to study the genetic architecture of photosynthesis is likely to lead to the discovery of novel traits and/or genes that may be targeted in breeding or bio-engineering approaches to improve crop photosynthetic efficiency. In the near future, big data approaches will play a pivotal role in data processing and streamlining the phenotype-to-gene identification pipeline.

    Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging reveals genetic variation and loci for a photosynthetic trait in diploid potato
    Prinzenberg, Aina E. ; Víquez-Zamora, Marcela ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Lindhout, Pim ; Heusden, Sjaak van - \ 2018
    Physiologia Plantarum 164 (2018)2. - ISSN 0031-9317 - p. 163 - 175.

    Physiology and genetics are tightly interrelated. Understanding the genetic basis of a physiological trait such as the quantum yield of the photosystem II, or photosynthetic responses to environmental changes will benefit the understanding of these processes. By means of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) imaging, the quantum yield of photosystem II can be determined rapidly, precisely and non-invasively. In this article, the genetic control and variation in the steady-state quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII) is analyzed for diploid potato plants. Current progress in potato research and breeding is slow due to high levels of heterozygosity and complexity of tetraploid genetics. Diploid potatoes offer the possibility of overcoming this problem and advance research for one of the globally most important staple foods. With the help of a diploid genetic mapping population two genetic loci that were strongly associated with differences in ΦPSII were identified. This is a proof of principle that genetic analysis for ΦPSII can be done on potato. The effects of three different stress conditions that are important in potato cultivation were also tested: salt stress, low temperature and deficiency in the macronutrient phosphate. For the last two stresses, significant decreases in photosynthetic activity could be shown, revealing potential for stress detection with CF based tools. In general, our findings show the potential of high-throughput phenotyping for physiological research and breeding in potato.

    De wereld is geen kastomaat
    Yin, X. ; Harbinson, J. - \ 2018

    De CO2 die de mens in de natuur brengt, is voer voor planten. Die gaan dus harder groeien. Of toch niet?

    RAF2 is a RuBisCO assembly factor in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Fristedt, Rikard ; Hu, Chen ; Wheatley, Nicole ; Roy, Laura M. ; Wachter, Rebekka M. ; Savage, Linda ; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Kramer, David M. ; Merchant, Sabeeha S. ; Yeates, Todd ; Croce, Roberta - \ 2018
    The Plant Journal 94 (2018)1. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 146 - 156.
    Abscisic acid - Atg5 g51110 - Chloroplast - RAF2 - RuBisCO - RuBisCO aggregation - RuBisCO assembly factor - SDIRIP1
    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) catalyzes the reaction between gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate. Although it is one of the most studied enzymes, the assembly mechanisms of the large hexadecameric RuBisCO is still emerging. In bacteria and in the C4 plant Zea mays, a protein with distant homology to pterin-4α-carbinolamine dehydratase (PCD) has recently been shown to be involved in RuBisCO assembly. However, studies of the homologous PCD-like protein (RAF2, RuBisCO assembly factor 2) in the C3 plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) have so far focused on its role in hormone and stress signaling. We investigated whether A. thalianaRAF2 is also involved in RuBisCO assembly. We localized RAF2 to the soluble chloroplast stroma and demonstrated that raf2 A. thaliana mutant plants display a severe pale green phenotype with reduced levels of stromal RuBisCO. We concluded that the RAF2 protein is probably involved in RuBisCO assembly in the C3 plant A. thaliana.
    Acclimation of photosynthesis to lightflecks in tomato leaves: interaction with progressive shading in a growing canopy
    Kaiser, M.E. ; Matsubara, Shizue ; Harbinson, J. ; Heuvelink, E. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2018
    Physiologia Plantarum 162 (2018)4. - ISSN 0031-9317 - p. 506 - 517.
    Plants in natural environments are often exposed to fluctuations in light intensity, and leaf-level acclimation to light may be affected by those fluctuations. Concurrently, leaves acclimated to a given light climate can become progressively shaded as new leaves emerge and grow above them. Acclimation to shade alters characteristics such as photosynthetic capacity. To investigate the interaction of fluctuating light and progressive shading, we exposed three-week old tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants to either lightflecks or constant light intensities. Lightflecks of 20 s length and 1000 μmol m-2  s-1 peak intensity were applied every 5 min for 16 h per day, for 3 weeks. Lightfleck and constant light treatments received identical daily light sums (15.2 mol m-2  day-1 ). Photosynthesis was monitored in leaves 2 and 4 (counting from the bottom) during canopy development throughout the experiment. Several dynamic and steady-state characteristics of photosynthesis became enhanced by fluctuating light when leaves were partially shaded by the upper canopy, but much less so when they were fully exposed to lightflecks. This was the case for CO2 -saturated photosynthesis rates in leaves 2 and 4 growing under lightflecks 14 days into the treatment period. Also, leaf 2 of plants in the lightfleck treatment showed significantly faster rates of photosynthetic induction when exposed to a stepwise change in light intensity on day 15. As the plants grew larger and these leaves became increasingly shaded, acclimation of leaf-level photosynthesis to lightflecks disappeared. These results highlight continuous acclimation of leaf photosynthesis to changing light conditions inside developing canopies.
    Fluctuating light takes crop photosynthesis on a rollercoaster ride
    Kaiser, Elias ; Morales Sierra, A. ; Harbinson, Jeremy - \ 2018
    Plant Physiology 176 (2018)2. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 977 - 989.
    Crops are regularly exposed to frequent irradiance fluctuations, which
    20 decrease their integrated CO2 assimilation and affect their phenotype
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