Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Author Correction: Nitrogen and phosphorus constrain the CO2 fertilization of global plant biomass
    Terrer, César ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Prentice, I.C. ; Keenan, Trevor F. ; Kaiser, Christina ; Vicca, Sara ; Fisher, Joshua B. ; Reich, Peter B. ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Hungate, Bruce A. ; Peñuelas, Josep ; McCallum, Ian ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Cernusak, Lucas A. ; Talhelm, Alan F. ; Sundert, Kevin Van; Piao, Shilong ; Newton, Paul C.D. ; Hovenden, Mark J. ; Blumenthal, Dana M. ; Liu, Yi Y. ; Müller, Christoph ; Winter, Klaus ; Field, Christopher B. ; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang ; Lissa, Caspar J. Van; Hoosbeek, Marcel R. ; Watanabe, Makoto ; Koike, Takayoshi ; Leshyk, Victor O. ; Polley, H.W. ; Franklin, Oskar - \ 2020
    Nature Climate Change 10 (2020). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 696 - 697.

    Nitrogen and phosphorus constrain the CO2 fertilization of global plant biomass
    Terrer, César ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Prentice, I.C. ; Keenan, Trevor F. ; Kaiser, Christina ; Vicca, Sara ; Fisher, Joshua B. ; Reich, Peter B. ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Hungate, Bruce A. ; Peñuelas, Josep ; McCallum, Ian ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Cernusak, Lucas A. ; Talhelm, Alan F. ; Sundert, Kevin Van; Piao, Shilong ; Newton, Paul C.D. ; Hovenden, Mark J. ; Blumenthal, Dana M. ; Liu, Yi Y. ; Müller, Christoph ; Winter, Klaus ; Field, Christopher B. ; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang ; Lissa, Caspar J. Van; Hoosbeek, Marcel R. ; Watanabe, Makoto ; Koike, Takayoshi ; Leshyk, Victor O. ; Polley, H.W. ; Franklin, Oskar - \ 2019
    Nature Climate Change 9 (2019). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 684 - 689.

    Elevated CO2 (eCO2) experiments provide critical information to quantify the effects of rising CO2 on vegetation1–6. Many eCO2 experiments suggest that nutrient limitations modulate the local magnitude of the eCO2 effect on plant biomass1,3,5, but the global extent of these limitations has not been empirically quantified, complicating projections of the capacity of plants to take up CO2 7,8. Here, we present a data-driven global quantification of the eCO2 effect on biomass based on 138 eCO2 experiments. The strength of CO2 fertilization is primarily driven by nitrogen (N) in ~65% of global vegetation and by phosphorus (P) in ~25% of global vegetation, with N- or P-limitation modulated by mycorrhizal association. Our approach suggests that CO2 levels expected by 2100 can potentially enhance plant biomass by 12 ± 3% above current values, equivalent to 59 ± 13 PgC. The global-scale response to eCO2 we derive from experiments is similar to past changes in greenness9 and biomass10 with rising CO2, suggesting that CO2 will continue to stimulate plant biomass in the future despite the constraining effect of soil nutrients. Our research reconciles conflicting evidence on CO2 fertilization across scales and provides an empirical estimate of the biomass sensitivity to eCO2 that may help to constrain climate projections.

    Temporal patterns of nutrient availability: the importance of tropical seasonality on bioavailability of phosphorus in the Central Amazon
    Schaap, Karst ; Fuchslueger, L. ; Valverde-Barrantes, O. ; Oblitas, E. ; Hofhansl, F. ; Fleischer, K. ; Garcia, S. ; Grandis, A. ; Araujo, A.C. de; Lapola, D. ; Norby, R. ; Hartley, I. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Quesada, C.A. - \ 2018
    In: 6th Symposium on Phosphorus in Soils and Plants. - The organizing committee of the 6th Symposium on Phosphorus in Soils ans Plants (PSPS) - p. 136 - 136.
    Seasonality of microbial organic matter decomposition affecting phosphorus availability in a Central Amazonian tropical lowland rainforest soil
    Fuchslueger, Lucia ; Schaap, Karst ; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar ; Oblitas, Erick ; Hofhansl, Florian ; Garcia, Sabrina ; Grandis, Adriana ; Araùjo, Alessandro ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lapola, David ; Norby, Richard ; Hartley, Iain ; Quesada, Carlos Alberto - \ 2018
    Geophysical Research Abstracts 20 (2018). - ISSN 1029-7006 - 1 p.
    Soil fertility and species traits, but not diversity, drive productivity and biomass stocks in a Guyanese tropical rainforest
    Sande, M.T. van der; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Pena Claros, M. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Caceres-Siani, Yasmani ; Hout, P. van de; Poorter, L. - \ 2018
    Functional Ecology 32 (2018)2. - ISSN 0269-8463 - p. 461 - 474.
    1.Tropical forests store and sequester large amounts of carbon in above- and below-ground plant biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), but how these are driven by abiotic and biotic factors remains poorly understood.
    2.Here, we test the effects of abiotic factors (light variation, caused by logging disturbance, and soil fertility) and biotic factors (species richness and functional trait composition) on biomass stocks (above-ground biomass, fine root biomass), SOM and productivity in a relatively monodominant Guyanese tropical rainforest. This forest grows on nutrient-poor soils and has few species that contribute most to total abundance. We, therefore, expected strong effects of soil fertility and species’ traits that determine resource acquisition and conservation, but not of diversity. We evaluated 6 years of data for 30 0.4-ha plots and tested hypotheses using structural equation models.
    3.Disturbance increased productivity but decreased above-ground biomass stocks. Soil phosphorus (P) enhanced above-ground biomass and productivity, whereas soil nitrogen reduced fine root biomass. In contrast to expectations, trait values representing acquisitive strategies (e.g. high leaf nutrient concentration) increased biomass stocks, possibly because they indicate higher nutrient absorption and thus higher biomass build-up. However, under harsh conditions where biomass increase is slow, acquisitive trait values may increase respiration and vulnerability to hazards and therefore increase biomass loss. As expected, species richness did not affect productivity.
    4.We conclude that light availability (through disturbance) and soil fertility—especially P—strongly limit forest biomass productivity and stocks in this Guyanese forest. Low P availability may cause strong environmental filtering, which in turn results in a small set of dominant species. As a result, community trait composition but not species richness determines productivity and stocks of biomass and SOM in tropical forest on poor soils.

    Trees enhance soil carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling in a silvopastoral system in south-western Nicaragua
    Hoosbeek, Marcel R. ; Remme, Roy P. ; Rusch, Graciela M. - \ 2018
    Agroforestry Systems 92 (2018)2. - ISSN 0167-4366 - p. 263 - 273.
    Carbon sequestration - Crescentia alata - Guazuma ulmifolia - Leaf litter deposition - Silvopastoral system - Soil carbon stabilization

    Tree occurrence in silvopastoral systems of Central America has been under pressure for various reasons including attempts to improve grassland productivity and the need for wood. However, scattered isolated trees are also recognized to provide ecosystem services like shade, fodder and fruits that are important to cattle in the dry season. In addition, trees may enhance the climate change mitigation potential of silvopastoral systems through increased carbon (C) uptake and subsequent soil carbon sequestration. Through differences in plant traits like nutrient uptake, canopy structure and litter quality, tree species may have an effect on C and nutrient cycling. Due to a prevailing north-easterly wind in the study area, three distinct areas associated with the impact of tree litter deposition were identified: (1) open pasture—no tree litter deposition; (2) tree canopy—above and belowground tree litter; and (3) leaf litter cone—aboveground tree litter deposition. Furthermore, the effect of tree species, Guazuma ulmifolia and Crescentia alata, were considered. The presence of trees, as compared to pasture, caused larger topsoil C, N and P contents. In the subsoil, C content was also larger due to tree presence. Soil fractionation showed that tree-induced larger litter input subsequently increased free and occluded OM fractions and ultimately increased stabilized SOM fractions. Therefore, trees were found to enhance soil C sequestration in these silvopastoral systems. This is also supported by the soil respiration data. Although the respiration rates in the pasture subplots were lower than in the leaf litter subplots, the difference was not significant, which suggests that part of the extra C input to the leaf litter subplots stayed in the soil. Nutrient cycling was also enhanced by tree presence, but with a clear differentiation between species. C. alata (Jícaro) enhanced available and stabilized forms of organic N, while G. ulmifolia (Guácimo) enhanced available soil P and stabilized organic P.

    Soil fertility and species traits, but not diversity, drive productivity and biomass stocks in a Guyanese tropical rainforest
    Sande, M.T. van der; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Pena Claros, M. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Caceres-Siani, Yasmani ; Hout, P. van der; Poorter, L. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University & Research
    biomass - soil fertility
    In this study, we test the effects of abiotic factors (light variation, caused by logging disturbance, and soil fertility) and biotic factors (species richness and functional trait composition) on biomass stocks (aboveground biomass, fine root biomass), SOM and productivity in a relatively monodominant Guyanese tropical rainforest. This forest grows on nutrient-poor soils and has few species that contribute most to total abundance. We therefore expected strong effects of soil fertility and species’ traits that determine resource acquisition and conservation, but not of diversity. We evaluated 6 years of data for 30 0.4-ha plots and tested hypotheses using structural equation models. Our results indicate that light availability (through disturbance) and soil fertility – especially P – strongly limit forest biomass productivity and stocks in this Guyanese forest. Low P availability may cause strong environmental filtering, which in turn results in a small set of dominant species. As a result, community trait composition but not species richness determines productivity and stocks of biomass and SOM in tropical forest on poor soils.
    Sources of errors and uncertainties in the assessment of forest soil carbon stocks at different scales—review and recommendations
    Vanguelova, E.I. ; Bonifacio, E. ; Vos, B. De; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Berger, T.W. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Armolaitis, K. ; Celi, L. ; Dinca, L. ; Kjønaas, O.J. ; Pavlenda, P. ; Pumpanen, J. ; Püttsepp, ; Reidy, B. ; Simončič, P. ; Tobin, B. ; Zhiyanski, M. - \ 2016
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188 (2016)11. - ISSN 0167-6369 - 24 p.
    Carbon stocks - European - Forest soils - Landscape - National - Plot - Sampling - Soil profile

    Spatially explicit knowledge of recent and past soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in forests will improve our understanding of the effect of human- and non-human-induced changes on forest C fluxes. For SOC accounting, a minimum detectable difference must be defined in order to adequately determine temporal changes and spatial differences in SOC. This requires sufficiently detailed data to predict SOC stocks at appropriate scales within the required accuracy so that only significant changes are accounted for. When designing sampling campaigns, taking into account factors influencing SOC spatial and temporal distribution (such as soil type, topography, climate and vegetation) are needed to optimise sampling depths and numbers of samples, thereby ensuring that samples accurately reflect the distribution of SOC at a site. Furthermore, the appropriate scales related to the research question need to be defined: profile, plot, forests, catchment, national or wider. Scaling up SOC stocks from point sample to landscape unit is challenging, and thus requires reliable baseline data. Knowledge of the associated uncertainties related to SOC measures at each particular scale and how to reduce them is crucial for assessing SOC stocks with the highest possible accuracy at each scale. This review identifies where potential sources of errors and uncertainties related to forest SOC stock estimation occur at five different scales—sample, profile, plot, landscape/regional and European. Recommendations are also provided on how to reduce forest SOC uncertainties and increase efficiency of SOC assessment at each scale.

    Elevated CO2 increased phosphorous loss from decomposing litter and soil organic matter at two FACE experiments with trees
    Hoosbeek, Marcel R. - \ 2016
    Biogeochemistry 127 (2016)1. - ISSN 0168-2563 - p. 89 - 97.
    Elevated CO - FACE experiment - Litter and soil stoichiometry - Secondary forest growth - Soil phosphorous

    Sustained increased productivity of trees growing in elevated CO2 depends in part on their stoichiometric flexibility, i.e., increasing their nutrient use efficiency, or on increased nutrient uptake from the soil. Phosphorus (P) may be a nutrient as limiting as nitrogen (N) in terrestrial ecosystems and may play a key-process in global terrestrial C storage. For this study archived litter and soil samples of two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments were analyzed for C, N and P. Populus euramericana, nigra and alba and Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Fagus sylvatica were grown in ambient and elevated CO2 at respectively the Euro- and BangorFACE experiments. At EuroFACE, aboveground litter accumulated in L, F and H layers, while at BangorFACE almost all aboveground litter was incorporated into the mineral soil due to bioturbation. At EuroFACE, more P was lost from the F and H litter layers due to trees growing in elevated CO2, while at BangorFACE more P was lost from the mineral soil. Results of this study imply that trees growing in elevated CO2 were P limited at both experiments. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2, P may play a more pronounced role than previous thought in regulating secondary forest growth. Moreover, increased atmospheric CO2 and ample N may allow a larger pool of P to become available for uptake due to, for instance, increased phosphatase activity resulting in increased organic matter turnover and biogenic weathering. Therefore, it may be postulated that under non-N-limited conditions, e.g., during regrowth, under high N deposition or in systems with high N2-fixation, increased P availability and uptake may allow P-limited forests to sustain increased growth under increasing atmospheric CO2.

    Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and manure application on storage of carbon and nitrogen under continuous maize cropping in Arenosols and Luvisols of Zimbabwe
    Mujuru, L. ; Rusinamhodzi, L. ; Nyamangara, J. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. - \ 2016
    Journal of Agricultural Science 154 (2016)2. - ISSN 1916-9752 - p. 242 - 257.
    Soil organic matter (SOM) is important for long-term crop productivity through maintenance of soil quality and is also now receiving attention due to its potential for climate change mitigation. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of 9 years of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) and total organic nitrogen (TON) and their fractions for the 0–50 cm profile in clayey (Luvisols) and sandy (Arenosols) soils in Murewa District, Zimbabwe. Three treatments were assessed: unfertilized (Control), nitrogen fertilizer (Nfert) and nitrogen fertilizer plus cattle manure (Nfert+manure). Density fractionation was used to assess the distribution of SOC and TON in three SOM fractions and their sensitivity to fertilization in fields 0–50 m away from homesteads (Homefields) and > 100 m away from homesteads (outfields). The relationship between light and heavy fraction organic carbon (C) were analysed to determine equilibrium levels that give an indication of carbon storage potential. In clayey soils total organic C under Nfert+manure was 4% higher than Nfert and 16% higher than the control. In sandy soils, SOC stocks were lowest in the control and highest in Nfert treatments at all depths. Nine years of fertilization significantly influenced SOC concentrations and storage up to 20 cm depth, below which stocks and concentrations of C and N were statistically insignificant. Distribution of C and N in density fractions showed greater stabilization under Nfert+manure in clayey soils, whereas it was greater under Nfert in sandy soils. Estimation of equilibrium levels suggested that homefields had potential to store more C, whereas outfields and control treatments had limited capacity due to attainment of lower equilibrium levels. Application of manure can be a low-cost alternative for enhancing soil quality and promoting soil C sequestration under conventionally tilled continuous maize cropping systems in Zimbabwe.
    Diversity enhances carbon storage in tropical forests
    Poorter, L. ; Sande, M.T. van der; Thompson, J. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Bongers, F. ; Steege, H. ter; Pena Claros, M. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Dutrieux, L.P. ; Levis, C. ; Rozendaal, Danaë - \ 2015
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 24 (2015)11. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1314 - 1328.
    Aim Tropical forests store 25% of global carbon and harbour 96% of the world's tree species, but it is not clear whether this high biodiversity matters for carbon storage. Few studies have teased apart the relative importance of forest attributes and environmental drivers for ecosystem functioning, and no such study exists for the tropics. Location Neotropics. Methods We relate aboveground biomass (AGB) to forest attributes (diversity and structure) and environmental drivers (annual rainfall and soil fertility) using data from 144,000 trees, 2050 forest plots and 59 forest sites. The sites span the complete latitudinal and climatic gradients in the lowland Neotropics, with rainfall ranging from 750 to 4350¿mm¿year-1. Relationships were analysed within forest sites at scales of 0.1 and 1 ha and across forest sites along large-scale environmental gradients. We used a structural equation model to test the hypothesis that species richness, forest structural attributes and environmental drivers have independent, positive effects on AGB. Results Across sites, AGB was most strongly driven by rainfall, followed by average tree stem diameter and rarefied species richness, which all had positive effects on AGB. Our indicator of soil fertility (cation exchange capacity) had a negligible effect on AGB, perhaps because we used a global soil database. Taxonomic forest attributes (i.e. species richness, rarefied richness and Shannon diversity) had the strongest relationships with AGB at small spatial scales, where an additional species can still make a difference in terms of niche complementarity, while structural forest attributes (i.e. tree density and tree size) had strong relationships with AGB at all spatial scales. Main conclusions Biodiversity has an independent, positive effect on AGB and ecosystem functioning, not only in relatively simple temperate systems but also in structurally complex hyperdiverse tropical forests. Biodiversity conservation should therefore be a key component of the UN Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation strategy.
    The use of radiocarbon to constrain current and future soil organic matter turnover and transport in a temperate forest
    Braakhekke, M.C. ; Beer, C. ; Schrumpf, M. ; Ahrens, B. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Kruijt, B. ; Kabat, P. ; Reichstein, M. ; Ekici, A. - \ 2014
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 119 (2014)3. - ISSN 2169-8953 - p. 372 - 391.
    global vegetation models - terrestrial carbon-cycle - climate-change - age calibration - vertical-distribution - eddy covariance - residence times - c-14 data - storage - co2
    We investigated the merits of radiocarbon measurements for estimating soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and vertical transport for a temperate deciduous forest in Germany. Eleven parameters, defining decomposition and transport in the soil carbon model SOMPROF, were estimated using a Bayesian approach based on organic carbon measurements and radiocarbon concentration of SOM and heterotrophic respiration. The addition of radiocarbon data had strong effects on the parameters, most importantly a reduction of the decomposition and production rate of the slowest SOM pool by an order of magnitude, and a similar reduction in advective SOM transport. The modified parameters further led to changes in the partitioning of SOM over the different model pools. The calibration results were subsequently used to perform transient soil carbon projections for the period 1901–2100. These simulations were run with parameter sets from calibrations both with and without radiocarbon. The results show an increase over time of topsoil carbon and a decrease in the subsoil, adding to a net gain overall. Near the end of the 21st century, total carbon stocks stabilize and—for the radiocarbon-constrained model—start to decrease. However, the changes are small compared to the total stocks. The model results for the calibrations with and without radiocarbon are in general quite similar, but the latter shows notably higher heterotrophic respiration fluxes. Constraining the model with radiocarbon yielded only a small reduction of uncertainty for the total carbon stocks, while for the individual depth compartments, the uncertainty was¿increased.
    Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration over an age sequence of Pinus patula plantations in Zimbabwean Eastern Highlands
    Mujuru, L. ; Gotora, T. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Nyamangara, J. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. - \ 2014
    Forest Ecology and Management 313 (2014). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 254 - 265.
    organic-carbon - forest floor - tropical forests - vertical-distribution - tree plantations - ne germany - land-use - biomass - matter - storage
    Forests play a major role in regulating the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations creating a need to investigate the ability of exotic plantations to sequester atmospheric CO2. This study examined pine plantations located in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe relative to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage along an age series. Samples of stand characteristics, forest floor (L, F and H) and 0–10, 10–30 and 30–60 cm soil depth were randomly taken from replicated stands in Pinus patula Schiede & Deppe of 1, 10, 20, 25, and 30 years plus two natural forests. Sodium polytungstate (density 1.6 g cm-3) was used to isolate organic matter into free light fraction (fLF), occluded light fraction (oLF) and mineral associated heavy fraction (MaHF). In both natural and planted forests, above ground tree biomass was the major ecosystem C pool followed by forest floor’s humus (H) layer in addition to the 45%, 31% and 24% of SOC contributed by the 0–10, 10–30 and 30–60 cm soil depths respectively. Stand age caused significant differences in total organic C and N stocks. Carbon and N declined initially soon after establishment but recovered rapidly at 10 years, after which it declined following silvicultural operations (thinning and pruning) and recovered again by 25 years. Soil C and N stocks were highest in moist forest (18.3 kg C m-2 and 0.66 kg of N m-2) and lowest in the miombo (8.5 kg m-2 of C and 0.22 kg of N m-2). Average soil C among Pinus stands was 11.4 kg of C m-2, being highest at 10 years (13.7 of C kg m-2) and lowest at 1 year (9.9 kg of C m-2). Some inputs of charcoal through bioturbation over the 25 year period contributed to stabilisation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its depth distribution compared to the one year old stands. Nitrogen was highest at 10 years (0.85 kg of N m-2) and least at 30 years (0.22 kg of N m-2). Carbon and N in density fractions showed the 20 year old stand having similar proportions of fLF and oLF while the rest had significantly higher fLF than oLF. The contribution of fLF C, oLF C and MaHF C to SOC was 8–13%, 1–7% and 90–91% respectively. Carbon and N in all fractions decreased with depth. The mineral associated C was significantly affected by stand age whilst the fLF and oLF were not. Conversion of depleted miombo woodlands to pine plantations yield better C gains in the short and long run whilst moist forest provide both carbon and biodiversity. Our results highlight the importance of considering forestry age based C pools in estimating C sink potential over a rotation and the possibility of considering conservation of existing natural forests as part of future REDD + projects.
    Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation
    Braakhekke, M.C. ; Wutzler, T. ; Beer, C. ; Kattge, J. ; Schrumpf, M. ; Ahrens, B. ; Schoning, I. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Kruijt, B. ; Kabat, P. ; Reichstein, M. - \ 2013
    Biogeosciences 10 (2013)1. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 399 - 420.
    terrestrial ecosystem model - scots pine forest - carbon dynamics - radioactive isotopes - temperate soils - lead - pb-210 - stabilization - transport - turnover
    The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) in the profile may constitute an important factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing due to bioturbation, and organic matter leaching. In this study we quantified the contribution of these three processes using Bayesian parameter estimation for the mechanistic SOM profile model SOMPROF. Based on organic carbon measurements, 13 parameters related to decomposition and transport of organic matter were estimated for two temperate forest soils: an Arenosol with a mor humus form (Loobos, the Netherlands), and a Cambisol with mull-type humus (Hainich, Germany). Furthermore, the use of the radioisotope Pb-210(ex) as tracer for vertical SOM transport was studied. For Loobos, the calibration results demonstrate the importance of organic matter transport with the liquid phase for shaping the vertical SOM profile, while the effects of bioturbation are generally negligible. These results are in good agreement with expectations given in situ conditions. For Hainich, the calibration offered three distinct explanations for the observations (three modes in the posterior distribution). With the addition of Pb-210(ex) data and prior knowledge, as well as additional information about in situ conditions, we were able to identify the most likely explanation, which indicated that root litter input is a dominant process for the SOM profile. For both sites the organic matter appears to comprise mainly adsorbed but potentially leachable material, pointing to the importance of organo-mineral interactions. Furthermore, organic matter in the mineral soil appears to be mainly derived from root litter, supporting previous studies that highlighted the importance of root input for soil carbon sequestration. The Pb-210(ex) measurements added only slight additional constraint on the estimated parameters. However, with sufficient replicate measurements and possibly in combination with other tracers, this isotope may still hold value as tracer for SOM transport.
    Soil carbon storage is promoted more by Jícaro than by Guácimo trees in silvopastoral systems in Nicaragua
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Remme, R.P. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Nieuwenhuyse, A. - \ 2013
    In: Proceedings of the FUNCiTREE final conference, 23-25 May 2013, Trondheim, Norway. - - p. 12 - 13.
    Abstract The role of solitary trees in providing ecosystems services to silvopastoral systems gained attention in recent years. Next to providing fodder (fruits), fuel and timber wood, trees are also likely to affect soil characteristics and the cycling of C and nutrients in their vicinity. These tree – soil effects are hypothesized to affect soil respiration (CO2 efflux) and C stabilisation. The soils in the Rivas area were formed in marine clay and sand deposits of young Tertiary age. For this study, 6 Guazuma ulmifolia (Guácimo) and 6 Crescentia alata (Jicaro) trees were selected in relatively flat parts of the landscape. Soils were classified as Vertic Haplustolls (Mollisols on gently sloping alluvial fans) and Haplusters (Vertisols in the central parts of depressions). Soil samples and soil respiration measurements were collected from three locations near each tree: 1 pasture – no tree effect (10 m up-wind from the tree); 2 tree canopies – above and belowground tree litter input; 3 pasture and aboveground leaf litter input (down-wind zone where most leaf litter is deposited). Soil samples were taken to represent the 0 – 20 and 20 – 50 cm depth increments. Soil bulk density was affected by soil type (P=0.011), tree species (P
    Soil carbon storage is promoted more by Jícaro than by Guácimo trees in silvopastoral systems in Nicaragua
    Hoosbeek, Marcel - \ 2013
    Land use and management effects on soil organic matter fractions in Rhodic Ferralsols and Haplic Arenosols in Bindura and Shamva districts of Zimbabwe
    Mujuru, L. ; Mureva, A. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. - \ 2013
    Geoderma 209-210 (2013). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 262 - 272.
    conservation agriculture - carbon sequestration - no-tillage - microbial biomass - density fractions - term changes - dynamics - impact - pools - stabilization
    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a major attribute of soil quality that responds to land management activities which is also important in the regulation of global carbon (C) cycling. This study evaluated bulk soil C and nitrogen (N) contents and C and N dynamics in three soil organic matter (SOM) fractions separated by density. The study was based on three tillage systems on farmer managed experiments (conventional tillage (CT), ripping (RP), direct seeding (DS)) and adjacent natural forest (NF) in Haplic Arenosols (sandy) and Rhodic Ferralsols (clayey) of Zimbabwe. Carbon stocks were significantly larger in forests than tillage systems, being significantly lower in sandy soils (15 and 14 Mg C ha- 1) than clayey soils (23 and 21 Mg C ha- 1) at 0–10 and 10–30 cm respectively. Nitrogen content followed the same trend. At the 0–10 cm depth, SOC stocks increased under CT, RP and DS by 0.10, 0.24, 0.36 Mg ha- 1 yr- 1 and 0.76, 0.54, 0.10 Mg ha- 1 yr- 1 on sandy and clayey soils respectively over a four year period while N stocks decreased by 0.55, 0.40, 0.56 Mg ha- 1 and 0.63, 0.65, 0.55 Mg ha- 1 respectively. SOM fractions were dominated by mineral associated heavy fraction (MaHF) which accounted for 86–93% and 94–98% on sandy and clayey soils respectively. Tillage systems on sandy soils had the smallest average free light fraction (fLF) and occluded light fraction (oLF) C stocks (25.3 ± 1.3 g m- 2 and 7.3 ± 1.2 g m- 2) at 0–30 cm when compared with corresponding NF (58.4 ± 4 g m2 and 18.5 ± 1.0 g m- 2). Clayey soils, had the opposite, having all fLF C and N in tillage systems being higher (80.9 ± 12 g C m- 2 and 2.7 ± 0.4 g N m- 2) than NF (57.4 ± 2.0 g C m- 2 and 2.4 ± 0.3 g N m- 2). Results suggest that oLF and MaHF C and N are better protected under DS and RP where they are less vulnerable to mineralisation while fLF contributes more in CT. Thus, DS and RP can be important in maintaining and improving soil quality although their practicability can be hampered by unsupportive institutional frameworks. Under prevailing climatic and management conditions, improvement of residue retention could be a major factor that can distinguish the potential of different management practices for C sequestration. The exploitation of the benefits of RP or DS and the corresponding sustainability of systems need support for surface cover retention which should also be extended to conventional tillage
    Simple additive effects are rare: a quantitative review of plant biomass and soil process responses to combined manipulations of CO2 and temperature
    Dieleman, W. ; Vicca, S. ; Dijkstra, F.A. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. - \ 2012
    Global Change Biology 18 (2012)9. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2681 - 2693.
    elevated atmospheric co2 - global environmental-changes - carbon-cycle feedback - climate-change - terrestrial ecosystems - forest ecosystems - thermal-acclimation - heterotrophic respiration - semiarid grassland - nitrogen cycles
    In recent years, increased awareness of the potential interactions between rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([ CO2 ]) and temperature has illustrated the importance of multifactorial ecosystem manipulation experiments for validating Earth System models. To address the urgent need for increased understanding of responses in multifactorial experiments, this article synthesizes how ecosystem productivity and soil processes respond to combined warming and [ CO2 ] manipulation, and compares it with those obtained in single factor [ CO2 ] and temperature manipulation experiments. Across all combined elevated [ CO2 ] and warming experiments, biomass production and soil respiration were typically enhanced. Responses to the combined treatment were more similar to those in the [ CO2 ]-only treatment than to those in the warming-only treatment. In contrast to warming-only experiments, both the combined and the [ CO2 ]-only treatments elicited larger stimulation of fine root biomass than of aboveground biomass, consistently stimulated soil respiration, and decreased foliar nitrogen (N) concentration. Nonetheless, mineral N availability declined less in the combined treatment than in the [ CO2 ]-only treatment, possibly due to the warming-induced acceleration of decomposition, implying that progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) may not occur as commonly as anticipated from single factor [ CO2 ] treatment studies. Responses of total plant biomass, especially of aboveground biomass, revealed antagonistic interactions between elevated [ CO2 ] and warming, i.e. the response to the combined treatment was usually less-than-additive. This implies that productivity projections might be overestimated when models are parameterized based on single factor responses. Our results highlight the need for more (and especially more long-term) multifactor manipulation experiments. Because single factor CO2 responses often dominated over warming responses in the combined treatments, our results also suggest that projected responses to future global warming in Earth System models should not be parameterized using single factor warming experiments.
    Glasshouse vs field experiments: do they yield ecologically similar results for assessing N impacts on peat mosses
    Limpens, J. ; Granath, G. ; Gunnarsson, U. ; Rydin, H. ; Aerts, R. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Breeuwer, A.J.G. - \ 2012
    New Phytologist 195 (2012)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 408 - 418.
    nitrogen deposition - sphagnum mosses - metaanalysis - peatlands - carbon - scale - responses - ecology - cycle
    • Peat bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) than any other terrestrial ecosystem today. Most of this C is associated with peat moss (Sphagnum) litter. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can decrease Sphagnum production, compromising the C sequestration capacity of peat bogs. The mechanisms underlying the reduced production are uncertain, necessitating multifactorial experiments. • We investigated whether glasshouse experiments are reliable proxies for field experiments for assessing interactions between N deposition and environment as controls on Sphagnum N concentration and production. We performed a meta-analysis over 115 glasshouse experiments and 107 field experiments. • We found that glasshouse and field experiments gave similar qualitative and quantitative estimates of changes in Sphagnum N concentration in response to N application. However, glasshouse-based estimates of changes in production – even qualitative assessments – diverged from field experiments owing to a stronger N effect on production response in absence of vascular plants in the glasshouse, and a weaker N effect on production response in presence of vascular plants compared to field experiments. • Thus, although we need glasshouse experiments to study how interacting environmental factors affect the response of Sphagnum to increased N deposition, we need field experiments to properly quantify these effects.
    Stoichiometric flexibility in terrestrial ecosystems under global change
    Hoosbeek, M.R. - \ 2011
    Oracle AZ USA : New Phytologist
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