“I prepared my own carrots”. The effect of participation in an out-of-home cooking session on Dutch 4–6-year-old children's vegetable consumption
Zeinstra, Gertrude G. ; Vrijhof, Milou ; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2020
Food Quality and Preference 86 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
Children's eating behaviour - Healthy diet - Intervention strategies - Involvement - Vegetable intake
Involvement in vegetable preparation is thought to be an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake, but the evidence from experimental studies is scarce. A between-subject experiment was executed in a restaurant setting to investigate the effect of participation in vegetable preparation on 4–6-year-old children's vegetable intake. After a baseline evening meal, intervention children (N = 50) participated in a vegetable preparation session together with an enthusiastic chef. Control children (N = 51) participated in small groups in a book-reading activity. Subsequently, they ate an evening meal. Follow-up sessions at one month and three months were included to assess possible longer-term effects. Vegetable intake was the main outcome. Secondary outcomes were vegetable choice and involvement in food-related activities at home. For all four sessions, children's vegetable intake ranged between 50 and 60 g in both conditions (p > 0.05). Participation in carrot preparation did not increase children's vegetable intake. Involvement in food-related activities at home remained stable in the intervention group, whereas it decreased slightly in the control group (p = 0.01). A cluster analysis identified four distinct vegetable eating patterns over time, suggesting that there are different segments of children. To conclude, participating once in an out-of-home vegetable preparation session with an enthusiastic chef did not influence children's intake of a familiar vegetable, but it may support their general involvement in food-related activities at home.
REFRESH Interim Results : The REFRESH Project: Resource Efficient Food and dRink for the Entire Supply cHain
Timmermans, A.J.M. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2018
Berlin : REFRESH - 9 p.
Is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable intake? Lessons learned from a Dutch childcare intervention using various vegetable preparations
Zeinstra, Gertrude G. ; Vrijhof, Milou ; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2018
Appetite 121 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 316 - 325.
Daycare setting - Exposure - Variety - Vegetable consumption - Willingness to taste - Young children
Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a childcare setting. Two hundred fifty children (mean age 25 months; 57% boys) participated in a pre-test and a post-test, where they were offered pumpkin, courgette, and white radish. The intervention group (N = 125) participated in a 5-month exposure period, where they were exposed repeatedly (∼12x) to the vegetables: pumpkin blanched and as a cracker spread; courgette blanched and as soup; white radish raw and as a cracker spread. The control group (N = 125) maintained their normal routine. Mixed model analyses were used to analyse intake data and Chi-square analyses for willingness to taste. At pre-test, children ate about 20 g of pumpkin and courgette, whereas white radish intake was approximately 10 g. There was a significant positive effect of the intervention for pumpkin (+15 g; p < 0.001) and white radish (+16 g; p = 0.01). Results for willingness to taste were in the same direction. There was no repeated exposure effect for courgette (p = 0.54); this may have been due to its less distinct taste profile or familiarity with boiled courgette. From our findings, we conclude that repeated exposure to multiple unfamiliar vegetable tastes within the daily routine of a childcare setting is effective in improving children's willingness to taste and intake of some of these vegetables. However, repeated exposure may not be sufficient for more familiar or blander tasting vegetables. This implies that one size does not fit all and that additional strategies are needed to increase children's intake of these vegetables.
Supermarket shopper movements versus sales and the effects of scent, light, and sound
Wijk, René A. de; Maaskant, Anna M. ; Kremer, Stefanie ; Holthuysen, Nancy T.E. ; Stijnen, Daniella A.J.M. - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 70 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 32 - 39.
Light - Scent - Shopper movements/sales - Sound - Supermarket
Common sense assumes that supermarket sales of specific products are driven by the number of visitors and by their behavior during their visit. In addition, certain shopping ambiances probably stimulate a certain shopper behavior, resulting in more sales. Surprisingly, these relationships have rarely been experimentally tested in real-life supermarkets. Number of shoppers, shopper movement patterns, and sales of selections of white wines, coffees, and fruits in a medium-size supermarket were monitored over an 18-week period. Wines were visited for longer (9.5. s) than coffees (4.4. s) and fruits (4.5. s), but visitors to wines were relatively stationary and visits resulted less often in a sale (1 sale per 41.2 visits) than visits to coffees (1 sale per 21.7 visits) and fruits (1 sale per 3.7 visits). Visit frequency correlated positively with higher sales for coffee (Beta = 0.64, p <. 0.001) and for fruit (Beta = 0.33, p = 0.02) but not for wine. Wine, fruit, and coffee sales increased with the number of directional changes during a visit (p <. 0.001). Sales correlated positively with visit duration only for wine (Beta = 0.74, p <. 0.001). Local variations in scent, sound, and light conditions did not affect visit frequency or sales, but did affect speed during coffee (p = 0.04) and wine (p = 0.03) visits.
The effect of date marking terminology of products with a long shelf life on food discarding behaviour of consumers
Holthuysen, Nancy ; Kremer, Stefanie ; Bos-Brouwers, Hilke - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1709) - ISBN 9789463432290 - 26
keeping quality - food - food wastage - nutrition labeling - terminology - consumer behaviour - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedsel - voedselverspilling - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - terminologie - consumentengedrag
Measuring temporal liking simultaneously to Temporal Dominance of Sensations in several intakes. An application to Gouda cheeses in 6 Europeans countries
Thomas, A. ; Chambault, M. ; Dreyfuss, L. ; Gilbert, C.C. ; Hegyi, A. ; Henneberg, S. ; Knippertz, A. ; Kostyra, E. ; Kremer, S. ; Silva, A.P. ; Schlich, P. - \ 2017
Food Research International 99 (2017)1. - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 426 - 434.
Gouda cheese - Liking - Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) - Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL)
The idea of having untrained consumers performing Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and dynamic liking in the same session was recently introduced (Thomas, van der Stelt, Prokop, Lawlor, & Schlich, 2016). In the present study, a variation of the data acquisition protocol was done, aiming to record TDS and liking simultaneously on the same screen in a single session during multiple product intakes. This method, called Simultaneous Temporal Drivers of Liking (S-TDL), was used to describe samples of Gouda cheese in an international experiment.To test this idea, consumers from six European countries (n = 667) assessed 4 Gouda cheeses with different ages and fat contents during one sensory evaluation session. Ten sensory attributes and a 9-point hedonic scale were presented simultaneously on the computer screen. While performing TDS, consumers could reassess their liking score as often as they wanted. This new type of sensory data was coded by individual average liking scores while a given attribute was perceived as dominant (Liking While Dominant; LWD).Although significant differences in preference were observed among countries, there were global preferences for a longer dominance of melting, fatty and tender textures. The cheese flavour attribute was the best positive TDL, whereas bitter was a strong negative TDL. A cluster analysis of the 667 consumers identified three significant liking clusters, each with different most and least preferred samples. For the TDL computation by cluster, significant specific TDL were observed. These results showed the importance of overall liking segmentation before TDL analysis to determine which attributes should have a longer dominance duration in order to please specific consumer targets.
Fresh, frozen, or ambient food equivalents and their impact on food waste generation in Dutch households
Janssen, Anke M. ; Nijenhuis, Mariska ; Boer, Eric P.J. ; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2017
Waste Management 67 (2017). - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 298 - 307.
Food disposal - Food preservation - Freezer - Meal planning - Product-specific - Waste index
In Europe, it is estimated that more than 50% of total food waste - of which most is avoidable - is generated at household level. Little attention has been paid to the impact on food waste generation of consuming food products that differ in their method of food preservation. This exploratory study surveyed product-specific possible impacts of different methods of food preservation on food waste generation in Dutch households. To this end, a food waste index was calculated to enable relative comparisons of the amounts of food waste from the same type of foods with different preservation methods on an annual basis. The results show that, for the majority of frozen food equivalents, smaller amounts were wasted compared to their fresh or ambient equivalents. The waste index (WI) proposed in the current paper confirms the hypothesis that it may be possible to reduce the amount of food waste at household level by encouraging Dutch consumers to use (certain) foods more frequently in a frozen form (instead of fresh or ambient). However, before this approach can be scaled to population level, a more detailed understanding of the underlying behavioural causes with regard to food provisioning and handling and possible interactions is required.
"Welcome on board" : Overall liking and just-about-right ratings of airplane meals in three different consumption contexts-laboratory, re-created airplane, and actual airplane
Holthuysen, Nancy T.E. ; Vrijhof, Milou N. ; Wijk, René A. de; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2017
Journal of Sensory Studies 32 (2017)2. - ISSN 0887-8250
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of contexts on overall liking and just-about-right (JAR) ratings of airplane meals. A rice dish (meal type A) and a pasta dish (meal type B) were assessed. Per meal type, two variants were produced (variant 1 and 2). Two hundred forty-two consumers were randomly allocated to evaluate one of the four meals, first in a laboratory setting and then in a re-created airplane environment. In addition, 222 passengers did the same assessments during an actual flight. Specific meals (A1, B1) were less liked in the laboratory than in the re-created airplane. In general, no differentiation in overall liking occurred per meal type between the two tested variants in the laboratory, whereas these two variants were significantly differentiated in liking in the re-created airplane and the actual airplane. Mean overall liking ratings in the re-created airplane did not significantly differ from the mean overall liking ratings in the actual airplane. The observed JAR ratings did not differ much between the re-created airplane and the actual airplane. In summary, the re-created airplane as a testing location produced more similar test results to the actual airplane than the traditional laboratory. Practical applications: Sensory consumer testing in re-created contexts may produce results with a higher external validity than laboratory testing and therefore offer a cost-efficient alternative to extensive sensory consumer testing in real-life contexts.
Ready-made meal packaging - A survey of needs and wants among Finnish and Dutch 'current' and 'future' seniors
Heiniö, Raija Liisa ; Arvola, Anne ; Rusko, Elina ; Maaskant, Anna ; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2017
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 79 (2017). - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 579 - 585.
Age - Food packaging - Online data collection - Ready-made meal - Senior consumers
For older populations, improved ready-made meal packaging may potentially contribute to adequate nutritional intakes, and in turn facilitate maintenance of independent living. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the features of ready-made meal packages important for older people is a step towards this goal.Features of ready-made meal packaging appreciated by 'current' (aged 65 ≥ years) and 'future' (aged 55-64 years) seniors were studied as an internet survey in Finland (n = 764) and in the Netherlands (n = 457). Only minor significant differences were found between these two senior groups. The four packaging features most valued by both the Finnish and Dutch consumers were: easy readability, easy disposability and recyclability, visibility of the contents, and easy opening. These features were basically the same regardless of age group, gender or country. Older people did not show interest either in multi-packages or in eating meals directly from the package. Future senior men frequently using ready-made meals were identified as a promising target segment for the development and marketing of novel ready-made meals. More generally, special attention should be paid in package design to age-relevant features, such as easy opening and easy-to-read information, and the impact of culture-specific translation of the features into packaging design.
My idol eats carrots, so do I? The delayed effect of a classroom-based intervention on 4–6-year-old children’s intake of a familiar vegetable
Zeinstra, G.G. ; Kooijman, V.M. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 62 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 352 - 359.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of a role modelling intervention on children’s intake of a familiar vegetable. Ninety nine 4–6-year-old children participated at school in a between-subject experiment with three conditions. Two popular Dutch TV idols acted as enthusiastic role models in a video film that was specifically designed for this study. In the convivial eating (CE) condition, children ate raw carrots while they watched the role modelling video for eight sessions (2x/week). Children in the positive restriction and convivial eating (PR + CE) condition were – prior to eight convivial eating sessions – involved in five sessions where they watched the video without eating carrots themselves. The control group ate carrots twice only, and never watched the role modelling video. The main outcome was vegetable intake. Information on demographics and child eating characteristics was collected via a parental questionnaire. A longer-term follow-up was executed at nine months (N = 93). Children’s average carrot intake was 22 ± 24 g per intervention session. There was no increased intake directly after the intervention, but carrot intake in both intervention groups (CE: 45 g; PR + CE: 52 g) was 20–30 g higher at nine months (p < 0.01), whereas intake remained stable for the control group (p = 0.31). About 40% of all children consistently ate (almost) no carrots; higher fussiness and neophobia, and lower vegetable liking typified these non-eaters. So, although the intervention did not immediately increase children’s vegetable intake, it was associated with a higher intake at follow-up. The high numbers of non-eaters points to the need for tailored interventions that encourage non-eaters to consume relatively familiar – but previously rejected – vegetables.
Protein-Enriched Bread and Readymade Meals Increase Community-Dwelling Older Adults' Protein Intake in a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
Ziylan, Canan ; Haveman-Nies, Annemien ; Kremer, Stefanie ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de - \ 2017
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 18 (2017)2. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 145 - 151.
Community-dwelling older adults - Meals-on-wheels - Protein-enriched regular products - Undernutrition
Objectives: Sufficient protein intake can decrease undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to increase community-dwelling older adults' daily protein intake with acceptable and applicable protein-enriched bread and readymade meals at home. Design: Double-blind randomized controlled trial of 2 weeks. Setting: Senior residential center in the Netherlands. Participants: Forty-two community-dwelling elderly residents (≥65 years) participated, with a mean age of 74.0 ± 6.9 years and mean body mass index of 28.5 ± 3.45 kg/m2 Intervention: The intervention group (n = 22) received 5 protein-enriched readymade meals and plentiful protein-enriched bread during 2 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 20) received the regular equivalents during these 2 weeks. Measurements: Food intake was assessed by using dietary food record-assisted 24-hour recalls and by weighing meal leftovers. Acceptability of the enriched products was assessed with product evaluation questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Results: Mean intake of food products (g) and energy (kJ) did not differ significantly between the control and the intervention groups. Total daily protein intake in the intervention group was 14.6 g higher than in the control group (87.7 vs 73.1 g/d, . P = .004). Expressed in g/kg body weight per day, protein intake was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (1.25 vs 0.99 g/kg/d, . P = .003). The enriched products were equally liked, scoring 7.7 of 10.0. The in-depth interviews with participants indicated high acceptability of the enriched products. Conclusion: This study showed that community-dwelling older adults' protein intake can be increased to recommended levels with highly acceptable and applicable protein-enriched products that fit into the normal eating pattern. Future studies should investigate whether this effect is maintained in the long-term among a frailer population.
Applying mealtime functionality to tailor protein-enriched meals to older consumer segments
Uijl, Louise C. den; Jager, Gerry ; Zandstra, Elizabeth H. ; Graaf, Kees de; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 56 (2017)part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 28 - 37.
Congruency - Mealtime functionality - Product tailoring - Protein-enriched meals - Satisfaction - Senior consumer clusters
The older adults group is highly heterogeneous, and its members do not always meet their recommended protein intake. We explored mealtime functionality as a basis for tailoring protein-enriched (PE) meal concepts to two senior consumer segments: 1) cosy socialisers, who eat mainly for cosiness and social interaction, and 2) physical nutritioners, who eat mainly for nutrients and physical needs. We hypothesised an increased ‘product–cluster fit’ when the functional meal associations are congruent to the clusters’ functional mealtime expectations. In a home-use test, participants (N = 91, mean age 68.1 (y) ± 5.3 (SD), 42 cosy socialisers) prepared and consumed three kale mash meal concepts once over three weeks: (1) a basic meal concept (without PE/tailoring), (2) a cosy meal concept (PE/tailored to mealtime expectations of cosy socialisers), and (3) a physical meal concept (PE/tailored to mealtime expectations of physical nutritioners). The participants reported their expectations and experiences with the recipes and dishes (e.g. expected liking; attractiveness recipe; actual liking; taste; smell; satisfaction). The results showed that the cosy meal concept was experienced as ‘traditional’ (p
|Getting Emotional About Food Choice
Wijk, Rene de; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2016
Emotions play a role in our food choice.
Consumption life cycle contributions : Assessment of practical methodologies for in home food waste measurement
Herpen, H.W.I. van; Lans, I.A. van der; Nijenhuis, M.A. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Kremer, S. ; Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Geffen, E.J. van - \ 2016
REFRESH - 131 p.
Best practice measurement of household level food waste : Milestone no. 2
Herpen, Erica van; Lans, I.A. van der; Nijenhuis, M.A. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2016
EU - 26 p.
This report is part of the EU research project REFRESH, which aims to contribute to the goal of reducing food waste across Europe. The current report is output of the work package that focuses on consumer behaviours related to food waste. It aims to consolidate existing and new consumer understandings at the in-home level into a research framework and methodology that allows comparison across countries.
Cosiness or nutrients: Exploring mealtime functionality of vital community-dwelling older adults through consumer segmentation and a means-end chain approach
Uijl, L.C. den; Jager, G. ; Graaf, C. de; Kremer, S. - \ 2016
Appetite 107 (2016). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 693 - 693.
Senior consumers are a rapidly growing and highly heterogeneous part of the world’s population. To date little is known about their motivations to consume meals. In the current study we therefore aim to identify consumer segments within the group of vital community-dwelling older adults on the basis of mealtime functionality (for example ‘I eat because I’m hungry’, or ‘I eat because it is cosy,’). To this end, we identified consumer segments based on the senior’s mealtime functionalities as reported during an online survey. To obtain in-depth insights regarding mealtime functionality, laddering interviews about evening meal functionality were conducted. The online survey showed three consumer clusters based on mealtime functionality: Social eaters, Physical eaters, and Thoughtless eaters. Thoughtless eaters tend to eat without consciously thinking about it, and hence were not further interviewed on their cognitive mealtime motivations. Both the segmentation and the in-depth interviews showed that for the social eaters the cosiness and social function of a meal are important, whereas for the physical eaters the focus is more on the health and nutrient aspects of a meal. These results provide actionable insights for the development of meals, food products and communication strategies tailored to the needs of vital community-dwelling older consumers.
Effect van houdbaarheidsdata van lang houdbare producten op weggooigedrag van consumenten
Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Kremer, S. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research rapport 1709) - ISBN 9789463430852 - 22
houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedsel - voedselverspilling - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - terminologie - consumentengedrag - keeping quality - food - food wastage - nutrition labeling - terminology - consumer behaviour
|Smaaktesten in real-life settings. Levensechte proef vergroot kans op marktsucces
Doets, Esmee ; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2016
Onderzoekers van Wageningen Food & Biobased Research testen producten voor ouderen niet alleen in smaakhokjes, maar ook in real-life settings zoals het Restaurant van de Toekomst.
Exploring the functional mealtime associations of older adults through consumer segmentation and a means-end chain approach
Uijl, Louise C. den; Jager, Gerry ; Graaf, Kees de; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2016
Appetite 107 (2016). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 613 - 622.
Laddering interviews - Mealtime functionality - Means-end chain method - Protein enrichment - Senior consumer segmentation
Senior consumers are a rapidly growing and highly heterogeneous part of the world's population. This group does not always meet its recommended protein intake, which can negatively impact on their physical functioning and quality of life. To date, little is known about their motivations to consume protein-rich meals. In the current study, we therefore aim to identify consumer segments within the group of vital community-dwelling older adults on the basis of mealtime functionality (for example ‘I eat because I'm hungry’, or ‘I eat because it is cosy’). To this end, we first conducted an online survey to identify these functional mealtime expectations of older consumers (study I, n = 398, 158 males, mean age 65.8 (y) ± 5.9 (SD)). To obtain further insights regarding mealtime functionality and proteins/protein enrichment, laddering interviews were conducted with a subgroup of the segmentation study participants (study II, n = 40, 20 males, mean age 66.9 (y) ± 4.8 (SD)). The results of the online survey showed three consumer clusters: cosy socialisers, physical nutritioners, and thoughtless rewarders. Thoughtless rewarders tend to eat without having explicit thoughts about it, they eat for the reward, and score highest on environmental awareness. Both the segmentation and the in-depth interviews showed that, for the cosy socialisers, the cosiness and social function of a meal are important motivators, whereas for the physical nutritioners the focus is more on the health and nutrient aspects of a meal. For cosy socialisers, protein enrichment can best be achieved through addition of protein-rich ingredients, whereas, for physical nutritioners, addition of protein powder is preferred. These results provide practical guidelines for the development of protein-rich meals and communication strategies tailored to the needs of specific vital community-dwelling older subgroups.
Studying Emotions in the Elderly
Kremer, Stefanie ; Uijl, Louise den - \ 2016
In: Emotion Measurement Elsevier Inc. Academic Press - ISBN 9780081005095 - p. 537 - 571.
Aging - Emotional aging - Facial expression - Mental health - Physiological emotion measures - Self-reported emotion measures - Seniors - Well-being
This chapter provides an overview of our current understanding of emotions and their measurement in older people. The first part briefly reviews our current understanding of both "the elderly" in general and various facets of emotional aging, such as emotional experiences, emotion regulation, emotion perception, emotion-related attention, and memory. The multidirectionality of the late-life development in the different emotion-related functional domains is stressed. The second part describes published results on the application of various emotion measurement tools in older populations. For all these methods, their general suitability for emotion measurement in elderly populations is discussed and, where applicable, directions for future research are pointed out.