Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Composition and Diversity of Natural Bacterial Communities in Mabisi, a Traditionally Fermented Milk
    Moonga, Himoonga Bernard ; Schoustra, Sijmen E. ; Heuvel, Joost van den; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Samad, Md Sainur ; Shindano, John ; Smid, Eddy J. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-302X
    barotse - firmicutes - lactic acid bacteria - Lactococcus - microbial communities - selection pressure - tonga - Zambia

    Many traditionally fermented milk products such as mabisi involve spontaneous fermentation, which can result in bacterial community composition variation due to selection pressure. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of bacterial communities in the different types of mabisi produced across Zambia and identify the factors that influence their composition. Samples of mabisi were collected across the country, and analyzed for pH and bacterial communities using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that the bacterial community composition was dominated by members of two phyla, i.e., Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, from which the top 10 most abundant genera were Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Buttiauxella, Aeromonas, and Acinetobacter. The most dominant genus was Lactococcus, which was present in all types of mabisi produced from all regions. The mabisi products from traditional mabisi production regions (TMPRs) were dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas products from non-TMPRs were dominated by non-LAB species. Tonga mabisi, the most popular type of mabisi produced in non-TMPRs, had the most complex and diverse bacterial community composition compared to the other types, which included barotse, backslopping, creamy, and thick-tonga mabisi. Other factors that influenced bacterial community composition were geographical location, fermentation duration and pH while the type of fermentation container and producer did not. This study provides new insights that can be applied in starter culture development as well as microbial functionality studies.

    Screening local feed ingredients of Benin, West Africa, for fish feed formulation
    Adéyèmi, Adékambi Désiré ; Polycarpe Kayodé, Adéchola P. ; Chabi, Ifagbemi Bienvenue ; Odouaro, Oloudé B.O. ; Nout, Martinus J.R. ; Linnemann, Anita R. - \ 2020
    Aquaculture Reports 17 (2020). - ISSN 2352-5134
    Availability - Clarias gariepinus - Cost - Fish feed - Ingredient - Nutritional quality

    The cost of fish feed is a major constraint to fish farming in Sub-Sahara Africa. In the aquaculture value chain, feed is a determining factor and accounts for 60-75% of the total cost of fish production in many African countries. Therefore, 284 actors from all eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed and 28 local feed ingredients were collected as alternative ingredients for new fish feed formulations for, predominantly, Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia niloticus. Three categories of feeds were used, namely imported (84% of farmers), locally produced to complement imported feeds (76%) and natural ingredients (81%). The main imported feeds were from the Netherlands (59% of farmers), Ghana (52%) and France (15%). Natural ingredients were mostly Moringa leaves (52%), cassava leaves (26%) and maggots (43%). The best available ingredients were cereal bran, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, cassava chips, palm kernel cake, soybean and maize. Regarding proteins, the most promising ingredients were trash fish (680 g/kg), poultry viscera (590 g/kg), soybean meal (450 g/kg) and cottonseed meal (410 g/kg). Oyster shell had the highest ash content (960 g/kg), followed by whole garden snail meal (700 g/kg). The highest carbohydrate contents were for tapioca (890 g/kg), lafun (880 g/kg) and cassava chips (810 g/kg). Overall, this study revealed a diversity of local feed ingredients available in Benin to formulate fish feeds with adequate nutritional composition to enable efficient fish farming.

    How processing methods affect the microbial community composition in a cereal-based fermented beverage
    Phiri, Sydney ; Schoustra, Sijmen E. ; Heuvel, Joost van den; Smid, Eddy J. ; Shindano, John ; Linnemann, Anita R. - \ 2020
    Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 128 (2020). - ISSN 0023-6438
    Bacterial community - Fermentation - Munkoyo - Rhynchosia - Zambia

    Traditionally fermented beverages significantly contribute to food security in Africa. The nutritional and sensory quality characteristics of these beverages are closely linked to the different microorganisms they contain. We studied the effect of processing methods on the microbial composition of Munkoyo, a cereal-based fermented beverage, in three Zambian agroecological zones. In Choma, porridge was made from maize grits to which a watery extract from Rhynchosia roots was added as a source of enzymes. In Nyimba, maize meal was used to make porridge, in which Rhynchosia roots were submerged overnight. In Kitwe, porridge from maize meal was cooked until caramelization, followed by submersion of Rhynchosia roots. Irrespective of processing method, final pH was 2.5–3.5, with the lowest value for Nyimba. Presence and abundance of 16S rRNA encoding DNA sequences of the microorganisms showed no clear clustering on basis of the processing method but significantly affected the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) composition (anosim, R3,13 = 0.407, p < 0.05). The average Shannon indices, which indicate ecological diversity, were: Choma 1.14 ± 0.64, Nyimba 1.58 ± 0.23, and Kitwe 1.07 ± 0.95. Consequently, for industrial upscaling and quality standardization, specific combinations of different bacterial species can produce Munkoyo that addresses local consumer preferences.

    Genotype selection influences the quality of gluten-free bread from maize
    Ekpa, Onu ; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia ; Rosales, Aldo ; Renzetti, Stefano ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Linnemann, Anita R. - \ 2020
    Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 125 (2020). - ISSN 0023-6438
    Africa - Gluten-free bread - Hybrids - Landraces - Maize flour

    Making bread from maize is a technological challenge due to the poor viscoelastic properties of the dough. Maize germplasm as well as the thermoalkaline processing technique commonly used in Mexico can be harnessed for bread making purposes. We assessed the bread making performance of two maize hybrids, two landraces, and their thermoalkaline processed flour in addition to their blend with high zinc wheat. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found in physical kernel characteristics such as flotation index, hardness, size and weight. Doughs had a higher consistency, springiness and gumminess than the untreated reference. Landrace L1 (Jala) had a larger specific volume (1.99 mL/g), softer texture (13.10 N) and faster springiness (0.90) but a relatively high staling (1.60), while landrace L2 (Cacahuacintle) and hybrid H1 (CSTH19001) had a lower staling (<0.50). The specific volume and softness of bread reduced in all thermoalkaline processed flours. Genotypes demonstrated significantly different performances during bread making, indicating that the choice of maize genotype significantly affected the final product. Thermoalkaline processed flour did not seem to improve bread quality, hence its application in bread making requires further study.

    Prevailing food safety culture in companies operating in a transition economy - Does product riskiness matter?
    Nyarugwe, Shingai P. ; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2020
    Food Control 107 (2020). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 106803 - 106803.
    Food safety outbreaks are recurrent events, which regularly cost human lives. Food safety goes beyond food safety management systems; an organisation's prevailing food safety culture, and its internal and external environment must also be considered. This study introduces a research framework to analyse crucial food safety culture elements, and characteristics of the internal (i.e. food safety program, product riskiness, and vulnerability of food production system) and the external company environment (i.e. national values and food safety governance characteristics). We hypothesised that companies producing high-risk products are more likely to demonstrate a proactive food safety culture. We used the framework to assess nine companies producing low, medium, and high-risk products in Zimbabwe, as a case of a transition economy. Results showed no direct relationship between product riskiness and food safety culture, which negated our hypothesis. Other variables explored in this study could have moderated the relationship. We found that the vulnerability (i.e. susceptibility to microbial contamination) of the food production system could be associated with an organisation's food safety culture. Moreover, the external environment could have shaped the prevailing food safety culture. In particular, food safety governance and national values seem to be reflected in the way food safety was prioritised, food safety programs were designed and implemented, the prevailing food safety culture, and the observed food safety behaviour. Further research could investigate the role of the external environment in an organisation's food safety culture by evaluating companies in countries operating with different food safety governance approaches and national values.
    An intercontinental analysis of food safety culture in view of food safety governance and national values
    Nyarugwe, Shingai P. ; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Ren, Yingxue ; Bakker, Evert Jan ; Kussaga, Jamal B. ; Watson, Derek ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2020
    Food Control 111 (2020). - ISSN 0956-7135
    Food safety culture assessment - Food safety governance - Food safety performance - Food safety program - National values

    Taking food safety culture into account is a promising way to improve food safety performance in the food industry. Food safety culture (FS-culture) research is expanding from an organisational perspective to include characteristics of the internal and external company environment. In this study, the prevailing food safety culture in 17 food companies from four countries on three continents (Africa, Asia and Europe) was assessed in view of food safety governance and national values. The internal environment characteristics, i.e. food safety vision, food safety program and food production system vulnerability, were also assessed. Statistical analysis revealed little variation in FS-culture scores between the companies within the same country. Overall the FS-culture for Greek and Zambian companies was scored proactive, while for Chinese and Tanzanian companies an active score was achieved. Both the internal and external company environment seemed to influence the prevailing FS-culture. Cluster analysis showed that Tanzanian and Zambian companies exhibited similarities in the implementation of food safety programs, and in their national values and food safety governance as compared to Greece and China. Food safety governance was reflected in the food safety programs and supportiveness of the organisation to food safety and hygiene. All cultural dimensions were correlated with risk perceptions, with masculinity and long-term orientation also significantly correlated with the enabling conditions and attitude. Understanding how national values and food safety governance approaches differently influence food safety culture is expected to enable formulation of best approaches tailored for companies operating in countries with different company environments, to improve food safety performance.

    Effects of plant density and fertilizer formula on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of pasteurized juice from Perolera sugarloaf pineapples grown in the long rainy season
    Sanya, Carole A.K. ; Chadare, Flora Josiane ; Hounhouigan, Menouwesso Harold ; Fassinou Hotegni, Nicodème V. ; Gbaguidi, Mechak A. ; Dekpemadoha, Jean Eudes ; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Hounhouigan, D.J. - \ 2020
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 92 (2020). - ISSN 1573-5214
    Color - Consumers - KO:N ratio - Pasteurized pineapple juice - Quantitative descriptive analysis

    High quality products can be produced only from high quality raw materials. The best agricultural practices that lead to pineapple fruits of desirable quality were investigated in the present study, focusing on the quality of the derived pasteurized juices. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory quality of the juices were determined in relation to planting density and fertilizer formulation, namely the K2O:N ratio. Three planting densities (D1: 54 400 plants/ha, D2: 66 600 plants/ha and D3: 74 000 plants/ha) and three K2O:N ratios (E1: 0.37, E2: 1.0 and E3: 2.0) were applied in nine treatments. Fruits were harvested and processed into juice following a standardized process. Pasteurization was applied after bottling, at 85 °C for 15 min. Juices’ pH, total soluble solids, color and density were determined. Sensory profiles were established by 14 trained panelists using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) method and their acceptability was evaluated. Results showed that the lower the planting density, the less yellow the pasteurized juice. The K2O:N ratio increased the juices’ degrees Brix from 13.1 to 14.4 and the yellow color. Pineapple fruits produced at a density of 54 400 plants/ha with a K2O:N ratio of 1.0 (D1E2) yielded the most sweet, least acid and pasteurized juice most liked by consumers, supported by high values of degree Brix and pH. Juices with the closest similar sensory appreciation were those obtained from treatments D3E2 and D3E1. Pineapple farmers that furnish their products to juice processors should adopt one of the best combinations stated in this study.

    Production of nutrient-enhanced millet-based composite flour using skimmed milk powder and vegetables
    Tumwine, Gerald ; Atukwase, Abel ; Tumuhimbise, Gaston A. ; Tucungwirbe, Francis ; Linnemann, A.R. - \ 2019
    Food Science and Nutrition 7 (2019)1. - ISSN 2048-7177 - p. 22 - 34.
    The aim of this study was to develop a nutrient-enhanced millet-based composite flour incorporating skimmed milk powder and vegetables for children aged 6–59 months. Two processing methods were tested to optimize nutrient content and quality of millet-based composite flour, namely germination for 0, 24 and 48 hr and roasting at 80, 100, and 140°C. The amount of ingredients in the formulation was determined using Nutri-survey software. Germinating millet grains for 48 hr at room temperature significantly (p < 0.05) increased protein content (9.3%–10.6%), protein digestibility (22.3%–65.5%), and total sugars (2.2%–5.5%), while phytate content (3.9–3.7 mg/g) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Roasting millet grains at 140°C significantly (p < 0.05) increased the protein digestibility (22.3%–60.1%) and reduced protein (9.3%–7.8%), phytate (3.9–3.6 mg/g), and total sugar content (2.2%–1.9%). Germinating millet grains at room temperature for 48 hr resulted in millet flour with the best nutritional quality and was adopted for the production of millet-based composite flour. Addition of vegetables and skimmed milk powder to germinated millet flour significantly (p < 0.05) increased the macro-and micronutrient contents and the functional properties of millet-based composite flour. The study demonstrated that the use of skimmed milk powder and vegetables greatly improves the protein quality and micronutrient profile of millet-based complementary foods. The product has the potential to make a significant contribution to the improvement of nutrition of children in developing countries.
    Influence of alkaline salt cooking on solubilisation of phenolic compounds of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in relation to cooking time reduction
    Mubaiwa, J. ; Fogliano, V. ; Chidewe, Cathrine ; Linnemann, A.R. - \ 2019
    Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 107 (2019). - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 49 - 55.
    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an underutilized crop native to sub-Saharan Africa. Its utilisation is limited due to the development of the hard-to-cook (HTC) phenomenon during storage. Various factors have been implicated in the development of the HTC phenomenon. Alkaline rock salts, such as gowa, are known to reduce cooking time. In this research, red bambara groundnuts were cooked in deionised water, 0.5 g/100 mL gowa and 0.5 g/100 mL NaHCO3. The salts caused 20 and 13% reduction in cooking time, respectively. The decrease of hardness and the kinetics of water absorption by the beans are even more influenced by the alkaline cooking. The comparative effect of NaHCO3 and deionised water on polyphenol profile in the beans and in the boiling water during cooking also showed clear differences among the samples. Catechin and epicatechin were the main polyphenols in bambara groundnuts for all treatments investigated and their release in water was faster in alkaline solutions. This study demonstrated that alkaline salts contribute to increased solubilisation of polyphenols in relation to cooking time reduction. Data indicate that the action of the salts favours polyphenol solubilisation thereby altering the structure of the lamellae and reducing hardness.
    Effect of skimmed milk and vegetable powders on shelf stability of millet-based composite flour
    Tumwine, Gerald ; Atukwase, Abel ; Tumuhimbise, Gaston A. ; Tucungwirbe, Francis ; Linnemann, A.R. - \ 2019
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99 (2019)4. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 2030 - 2036.
    BACKGROUND: Millet porridge is a major complementary food used in Uganda but it is limited in protein and micronutrientssuch as zinc and beta-carotene. Addition of milk and vegetable powders are known to greatly improve the nutrient content ofmillet flour. However, there was limited information on the shelf stability of the resultant composite flour. This study aimed atassessing the effect of milk and vegetable powders on the shelf stability ofmillet-based composite flour.RESULTS: There was a general increase in the moisture content, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), thiobaturic acid(TBA) and total plate count (TPC) of both composite and millet flours over the eightweeks storage period. However, highermoisture content, PV, FFA, TBA and TPC values were recorded in the composite flour compared to millet flour (control) at eachsampling interval. Sensory evaluation results revealed that panelists preferred porridges prepared from millet only comparedto those fromcomposite flour. The degree of liking of porridges fromboth composite andmillet flours generally decreased overthe storage period.However,bothporridgesweredeemedas acceptableby the endof the storage period. The TPC also remainedbelow 105 cfu g−1 which is the maximum limit recommended by the Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS).CONCLUSION: The study findings indicated that the addition of milk and vegetable powders negatively affected the stabilityof the composite flour.We recommend further studies to stabilize the product during storage.© 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society ofChemical Industry.
    Fermented cereal-based Munkoyo beverage: Processing practices, microbial diversity and aroma compounds
    Phiri, Sydney ; Schoustra, Sijmen E. ; Heuvel, Joost van den; Smid, Eddy J. ; Shindano, John ; Linnemann, Anita - \ 2019
    PLoS ONE 14 (2019)10. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Fermented cereal-based foods play a crucial role in attaining food and nutrition security for resource-poor populations in sub-Saharan Africa. These products are widely produced by spontaneous fermentation using of cereal grains as raw material. They have a unique taste and flavour, are rich sources of energy and their non-alcoholic nature makes them ideal for consumption by the entire population, including children. Lactic acid bacteria dominate the fermentation process and lead to a low pH of around 4, which suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria, thereby increasing the shelf-life and safety of the food. Knowledge about processing practices, consumption patterns and bacterial communities is essential to regulate processing and design appropriate mixes of micro-organisms to produce starter cultures for commercial production of standard-quality fermented foods that meet desired quality characteristics. In four regions of Zambia, we surveyed processing practices and consumption patterns of a spontaneously fermented cereal-based beverage called Munkoyo, commonly produced in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Variations in processing practices exist in cooking time of the unfermented maize porridge and time allowed for fermentation. Consumption is mainly at household level and the product is considered as an energy drink. Characterisation of the bacterial communities of over 90 samples with 16S amplicon sequencing on DNA extracted from the entire bacterial community revealed six dominant families, namely Streptococcaceae, Leuconostocaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactabacillales, Bacillaceae and Aeromonadaceae, and a Shannon index of up to 1.18 with an effective number of 3.44 bacterial species. Bacterial communities that underlie the fermentation in Munkoyo differ in their composition for the different regions using common processing steps, suggesting that different combinations of bacteria can be used to achieve successful Munkoyo fermentation. Analysis of aroma profiles in 15 different samples from two different Provinces showed that aldehydes, esters, organic acids, alkanes, alkenes and alcohols dominated.

    Conventional and food-to-food fortification: An appraisal of past practices and lessons learned
    Chadare, Flora Josiane ; Idohou, Rodrigue ; Nago, Eunice ; Affonfere, Marius ; Agossadou, Julienne ; Fassinou, Toyi Kévin ; Kénou, Christel ; Honfo, Sewanou ; Azokpota, Paulin ; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho J. - \ 2019
    Food Science and Nutrition 7 (2019)9. - ISSN 2048-7177 - p. 2781 - 2795.
    food fortification - malnutrition - micronutrient deficiencies - outcomes

    Food fortification is an important nutrition intervention to fight micronutrient deficiencies and to reduce their incidence in many low- and middle-income countries. Food fortification approaches experienced a significant rise in the recent years and have generated a lot of criticism. The present review aimed to shed light on the actual effect of food fortification approaches on the reduction of malnutrition. A set of 100 articles and reports, which have dealt with the impact of food fortification on malnutrition, were included in this review. This review identified a broad selection of local raw materials suitable for a food-to-food fortification approach.

    Sub-Saharan African Maize-Based Foods - Processing Practices, Challenges and Opportunities
    Ekpa, Onu ; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia ; Kruseman, Gideon ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Linnemann, Anita R. - \ 2019
    Food Reviews International 35 (2019)7. - ISSN 8755-9129 - p. 609 - 639.
    Maize - maize consumption - maize opportunities - maize processing - maize-based foods - Sub-Saharan Africa

    In vast swathes of Sub-Saharan Africa, maize is the staple food with consumption of up to 450 g/person/day. Additionally, maize is used as a weaning food for infants as well as for special ceremonies, caring for the sick, aged and pregnant women. Malnutrition persists in regions with heavy maize consumption, partly due to compositional maize characteristics, nutrient loss during processing and consumer preferences. This paper reviews the traditional uses and processing of maize, opportunities and necessary improvements to ensure (micro)nutrient security. Better use of maize can enhance its contribution to meeting the dietary needs and livelihood of Africa’s growing populace.

    Development of a low-alcoholic fermented beverage employing cashew apple juice and non-conventional yeasts
    Gamero, Amparo ; Ren, Xiao ; Lamboni, Yendouban ; Jong, Catrienus de; Smid, Eddy J. ; Linnemann, Anita R. - \ 2019
    Fermentation 5 (2019)3. - ISSN 2311-5637
    Alcoholic beverages - Aroma profile - Cashew apple juice - Hanseniaspora guilliermondii - Non‐conventional yeasts - Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Torulaspora microellipsoides

    Cashew apples are by‐products in the production of cashew nuts, which are mostly left to rot in the fields. Cashew apple juice (CAJ), a highly nutritious beverage, can be produced from them. It is rich in sugars and ascorbic acid, but its high polyphenol content makes it bitter and astringent, and therefore difficult to commercialize. The kingdom of fungi contains more than 2000 yeast species, of which only a few species have been studied in relation to their potential to produce aroma compounds. The aim of this research was to develop a new low‐alcoholic fermented beverage to valorize cashew apples. For this purpose, a screening was carried out employing non‐conventional yeast species and some species of the genus Saccharomyces for comparison, followed by a more detailed study with four selected strains cultured at different conditions. The production of volatile aroma compounds as a function of the presence of oxygen, temperature, and yeast species was investigated. The results showed that the more diverse aroma profiles appeared at 25 °C under anaerobic cultivation conditions, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae WUR 102 and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii CBS 2567 excelled in the synthesis of certain aroma compounds, such as β-phenylethanol and its acetate ester (rose aroma). Further studies are needed to test consumer acceptance of these new products.

    The art of mabisi production : A traditional fermented milk
    Moonga, Himoonga Bernard ; Schoustra, Sijmen E. ; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Kuntashula, Elias ; Shindano, John ; Smid, Eddy J. - \ 2019
    PLoS ONE 14 (2019)3. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Fermented dairy products can be rich in beneficial microbes and one such product with potential is mabisi. Mabisi is a traditional fermented milk product from Zambia made through spontaneous fermentation of raw milk at ambient temperature using a calabash (gourd), clay pot, plastic or metal container. The fermentation takes about 48 hours after which the product is stirred and ready for consumption. This study was aimed at determining the types of production methods of mabisi and identifying the critical production process parameters. A survey was conducted using interviews and observations to determine the existing production practices/technologies and to capture indigenous knowledge on mabisi production in nine provinces of Zambia. We found seven different production methods which we coined; Tonga, thick-Tonga, illa, barotse, backslopping, cooked and creamy types. Interestingly, the Tonga-type mabisi was produced throughout the country by different ethnic groups. The main process parameters were found to be fermentation time and temperature, type of containers, presence/absence of backslopping, agitation, heating and cooling, removal of whey and addition of raw milk. And further found that mabisi is a versatile product consumed with a wide variety of foods. This basic information is crucial for production process optimisation and microbial communities dynamics studies.

    Application of apigeninidin-rich red sorghum biocolorant in a fermented food improves product quality
    Akogou, Folachodé U.G. ; Canoy, Tessa S. ; Kayodé, Adéchola P.P. ; Besten, Heidy M.W. den; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2019
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99 (2019)4. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 2014 - 2020.
    antioxidant activity - apigeninidin - fermentation - maize dough - nutritional quality - volatile compounds

    BACKGROUND: The ‘clean label’ trend is pushing the food industry to replace synthetic colorants with plant-based colorants. However, technological efficacy and undesirable side effects restrict the use of plant-based colorants in industrial applications. This research studied the production of fermented maize dough coloured by apigeninidin-rich red sorghum biocolorant, as practised for centuries in West Africa, as a model to assess the impact of the biocolorant on nutritional and sensorial quality of foods. RESULTS: A 3-day fermentation of a dyed maize dough (containing 327 µg g−1 dry matter of apigeninidin) by Pichia kudriavzevii and Lactobacillus fermentum led to a degradation of 69% of the apigeninidin content, causing a clearly visible colour difference (ΔE*00 17.4). The antioxidant activity of fermented dyed dough (DD) increased by 51% compared to fermented non-dyed dough (NDD). However, the phytate dephosphorylation and volatile organic compound concentrations were lower in DD than in NDD. This suggests a lower mineral solubility and change in the sensory quality of fermented DD. CONCLUSION: Apigeninidin extract from sorghum leaf sheaths proved to be a bioactive red biocolorant with potential in fermented foods. The formation of new antioxidant compounds needs further investigation, as does the impact on the development of volatile compounds.

    Monkey orange fruit juice improves the nutritional quality of a maize-based diet
    Ngadze, Ruth T. ; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Verkerk, Ruud - \ 2019
    Food Research International 116 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 870 - 877.
    Bioaccessibility - Glycaemic index - in-vitro solubility - Maize porridge - Minerals - Phenolic compounds - Strychnos cocculoides

    This paper studied the nutritional impact of the use of juice from Strychnos cocculoides (monkey orange) in a maize-based porridge. Monkey orange juice is traditionally used to supplement maize porridge - a staple breakfast cereal especially for vulnerable groups. Monkey orange fruits contain high amounts of micronutrients and phenolic compounds and are widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The valuable components can be efficiently extracted by traditional and pectinase maceration techniques. The bioaccessibility of minerals and main phenolic compounds in maize porridge (5 g maize meal) supplemented by monkey orange juice (100 ml) were assessed after in-vitro digestion together with the kinetics of starch degradation. Caffeic and protocatechuic acids exceeded 100%, and chlorogenic acid 81% bioaccessibility after simulated intestinal digestion. Rutin was undetected after the simulated intestinal phase due to precipitation in the pellet. In-vitro bioaccessibility of minerals ranged from 12 to 62% in monkey orange enriched porridge. A 50–70% decrease of starch hydrolysis was observed at the end of the simulated intestinal digestion of monkey orange maize porridge confirming the known potential of phenolic compounds to decrease the glycaemic index of starch-rich foods. Consequently monkey orange juice appeared a suitable ingredient to enrich staple maize porridge thanks to its micronutrients and health benefit potential. Similar relationships of other fruits and starchy foods warrant study as a means to improve the nutritional quality of the diets of malnourished populations.

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) flour: A functional ingredient to favour the use of an unexploited sustainable protein source
    Mubaiwa, Juliet ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Chidewe, Cathrine ; Linnemann, Anita R. - \ 2018
    PLoS ONE 13 (2018)10. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Variability in dehulling efficiency, colour, chemical composition and selected functional properties of raw and pre-Treated bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) (BG) flour from red and black-eye varieties were studied. Functional properties were water and oil absorption, gelation, pasting, emulsification and foaming capacity. Pre-Treatment of seeds (i.e. soaking, roasting and combined soaking and roasting) improved dehulling efficiency of BG varieties. Protein content of flour ranged from 15.6-19.6%, starch from 47.8-52.0% and sucrose from 1.9-5%. An improvement was observed for protein and ash content of pretreated flour compared to raw flour. Heat treatments increased onset gelatinization temperature of flour. Black-eye BG flours that had higher starch content, also had better gelation capacity than red BG flours. All pre-Treatment methods decreased flour emulsification capacity and stability. Dry-roasting caused a greater decline than other methods, whereas soaking had little effect on emulsion stability. Further, soaking increased foaming capacity, whilst a decline was observed in roasted flour. All pre-Treatment methods increased oil absorption capacity of both BG flour varieties. Overall, soaked and combined soaked and roasted flour is recommended for BG flour to be incorporated in food products.

    Natural colourant from red sorghum: characterization of apigeninidin-rich watery extract
    Akogou, F.U.G. ; Kayode, A.P.P. ; Besten, H.M.W. den; Linnemann, A.R. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2018
    Utilization of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) for sustainable food and nutrition security in semi-arid regions of Zimbabwe
    Mubaiwa, Juliet ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Chidewe, Cathrine ; Bakker, Evert Jan ; Linnemann, Anita R. - \ 2018
    PLoS ONE 13 (2018)10. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous legume crop, cultivated by subsistence farmers throughout sub-Saharan countries. Research findings indicate that the crop has great nutritional and agronomic potential, but it remains scientifically neglected. A baseline study was conducted in seven districts in semi-arid regions of rural Zimbabwe to gather knowledge on current production and utilization of bambara groundnut, assess its role in providing sustainable food and nutrition security for rural populations and determine priorities for follow-up research. Results revealed a variety of bambara groundnut processing techniques, which included boiling, soaking, roasting and milling across the surveyed districts. Reported constraints to processing and consumption included long cooking time, difficulties with milling and high firewood and water requirements. Fifty to eighty percent of respondents in all districts consumed bambara groundnut once or twice weekly from August to December. Preferred consumer attributes were taste, the satiating effect, nutritional benefits or a combination of these. Current, culturally acceptable processing techniques need improvement to support sustainable bambara groundnut processing while optimising nutrient bio-accessibility. Ultimately, community resilience to food and nutrition insecurity can be promoted by exchange of bambara groundnut processing knowledge amongst the production areas, involving the different stakeholders in the food supply chains.

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